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The Risala ; ATreatise on JVIaiiici Fiqh 

'Abdullah ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani (310/922 - 
386/996) 

Translated by Alhaj Bello Mohammad Daura, MA 
(London) 

(Including commentary from ath-Thamr ad-Dani by al-Azhari) 

Abu Muhammad 'Abdullah, a Maliki faqih known as "Shaykh al-Faqih" and "little 
Malik". He was the head of the Maliki school in Oayrawan. He wrote ar-Risala 
and an-Nawadir and several other books. (His biography in the Tartib al- 
Madarik) 



I Prologue 

1. Creeds 

2. What Necessitates Wudu' and Ghusl 

3. Purity of Water, Place and Clothing 

4. Wudu' and Cleaning Oneself after the Lavatory 

5. Ghusl 

6. Tayammum 

7. Wiping over Leather Socks 

8. Times of the Prayer 

9. TheAdhan 

10. How to Perform the Prayer 

11. The Imam 

12. On various aspects of the prayer 

1 3. The sajdas of the Our'an 

14. The Travel Prayer 

15. The Jumu'a Prayer 

16. The Fear Prayer 

17. The'ld Prayers 

18. The Eclipse Prayer 

19. The Rain Prayer 

20. Care and Burial of the Dead 

21. The Funeral Prayer 

22. Burialof aChild 

23. Fasting 

24. I'tikaf 

25. Zakat 

26. Zakat on Livestock 

27. Zakatal-Fitr 

28. Hajj and 'Umra 



29. Sacrifices, Slaughter of Animals, 'Aqiqa, Hunting 

30. Jihad 

31. Oaths and Vows 

32. Marriage & Divorce 

33. 'ldda and Maintenance 

34. Sales 

35. Wills and Setting slaves free 

36. Pre-emption, gifts, alms, endowment, pledge, loan, trust, an article or 
thing found, and compulsion. 

37. Homicide cases and other judgements. 

38. Judgement and Evidence. 

39. Inheritance. 

40. Summarising some aspects of prayer etc. 

41. Good Manners, Circumcision, shaving of hair, dressing and such 
things. 

42. Food and Drink. 

43. Greetings, permission to enter house, confiding in a friend, reciting the 
Our'an, supplication (du'a), remembrance of Allah, and what to do 
when embarking on a journey. 

44. Treatment, a mention of incantation, the evil eye, astrology, castration, 
tattoo, mention of dogs, and leniency to slaves. 

45. Dreams, yawning, sneezing, chess, horse-racing, shooting and other 
such things. 



(The translation here is not intended to be the final version, but it is hoped that it 
will be of some use to those looking for texts on Maliki fiqh.) 



Ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani 

(310/922-386/996) 

The author of ar-Risala 

Abu Muhammad 'Abdullah ibn Abi Zayd was one of the people North Africa. Abu 
Zayd's name was 'Abdu'r-Rahman according to Ibn Makula and Qadi Ibn al- 
Hadhdha'. He was from the tribe of Nifza and lived in Oayrawan. 

His position in knowledge 

He was the Imam of the Malikis in his time and their model. He had a 
comprehensive grasp of the school of Malik and explained his statements. He 
had extensive knowledge and a prodiguous memory and transmission. His books 
are ample testimony of that. His writing was fluent, clarifying and defining what 
he said. He defended the school of Malik and established evidence in its support. 
He knew how to refute the people of sects. In addition to his writing, he was very 
righteous, scrupulousness and chastity. He obtained leadership in the deen and 
this world. and people from all regions travelled to visit him. His companions 
were noble and many people took knowledge from him. He composed a 
summary of the school and undertook to spread it and defend it. His books filled 
the lands and were well-known to most of its people. 

Ash-Shirazi said, "He was known as 'little Malik'. Abu'l-Hasan al-Qabisi 
mentioned him and said that he was a reliable imam in his perception and 
transmission. Abu'l-Hasan 'Ali ibn 'Abdullah al-Qattan said, 'I did not imitate Abu 
Muhammad ibn Abi Zayd until I saw as-Saba'i imitated him.'" 

Abu Bakr ibn at-Tayyib mentioned him in his book, and esteemed his value and 
merit. The same was true among other scholars in the east. Ibn Mujahid al- 
Baghdadi and other Baghadadi companions of him asked him for an ijaza. 

Abu 'Abdullah al-Mayruqi said "He possessed knowledge, scrupulousness, 
excellence and intellect. He is too famous to need to be mentioned." 

Ad-Da'udi said, "He was quick to follow the truth. He studied fiqh with the fuqaha' 
of his land and listened to its shaykhs. He relied on Abu Bakr ibn al-Lubbad and 
Abu'l-Fadl al-Mumsi, and also studied wtih Muhammad ibn Masrur al-'Assal, 
'Abdullah ibn Masrur ibn al-Hajjam, al-Qattan, al-lbyyani, Ziyad ibn Musa, Sa'dun 
al-Khawlani, Abu'l-'Arab. Abu Ahmad ibn Abi Sa'id, Habib, the client of Ibn Abi 
Sulayman, and others. He travelled and went on hajj and listened to Ibn al-A'rabi, 
Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn al-Mundhir, Abu 'Ali ibn Abi Hilal, and Ahmad ibn 
Ibrahim ibn Hammad the Qadi. He also listened to al-Hasan ibn Badr, 
Muhammad ibn al-Fath, al-Hasan ibn Nasr as-Susi, Darras ibn Isma'il, 'Uthman 
ibn Sa'id al-Gharabuli, Habib ibn Abi Habib al-Jazari and others. Ibn Sha'ban, al- 
Aburri and al-Marwazi asked him for an ijaza. Many people listened to him and a 



lot of people learned fiqh\N\th him. His adherents in Oayrawan included Abu Bakr 
ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahman, Abu'l-Qasim al-Baradha'i, al-Lubaydi, the sons of al-Ajdabi, 
Abu 'Abdullah al-Khawwas, and Abu Muhammad al-Makki al-Muqri'. 

The people of Andalusia who followed him include Abu Bakr ibn Mawhab al- 
Maqburi, Abu 'Abdullah ibn al-Hadhdha' and Abu Marwan al-Qanazi'i. The people 
of Ceuta include Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn al-'Ajuz, Abu Muhammad ibn Ghalib, 
and Khalaf ibn Nasr. The people of the Maghrib include Abu 'Ali ibn Amdakatu 
as-Sijilmasi. 

His books 

He has the Kitab an-Nawadir wa'z-Ziyadat 'ala'l-Mudawwana which is famous 
and has more than a hundred sections, and the famous Miy/c/7fasar(Summary) of 
the Mudawwana. Instruction in fiqh in the Maghrib is founded on these two 
books. 

He also wrote a revision of the 'Utibiyya, The Imitation of the People of Madina, 
The Defence of the School of Madina, the famous Risala, the Kitab an-Tanbih on 
the position of the children of apostates, Waqfs for the Children of Notables, 
Explanation of the Times of the Prayer, Trust and Reliance on Allah, The Book of 
Gnosis and Certainty, Insurance of Provision, Kitab al-Manasik, a treatise on 
those who are moved by the recitation of the Qur'an and dhikr, a book on Turning 
Away the Beggar, the Protection of the Reputation of the Believer, Kitab al-Bayan 
on the inimitability of the Qur'an, Kitab al-Wasawis, a treatise on giving relatives 
some of the zakat, a treatise prohibiting argumentation, a treatise refuting the 
Oadariyya and rebuttal to the treatise of al-Baghdadi al-Mu'tazili, the Kitab al- 
Istizhar on the refutation of the conceptualists [fikriya], Removal of Uncertainty on 
the same topic, Book of Admonition and Counsel, Treatise on the Seeker of 
Knowledge, The Excellence of Praying at Night in Ramadan, Excellent Warning 
for the People of Truthfulness, a letter to the people of Sijilmasa on recitation of 
the Qur'an, and a treatise on the fundamentals of tawhid. All of his books are 
beneficial and extraordinary and full of knowledge. 

It is mentioned that one day he went to visit Abu Sa'id, the nephew of Hisham, 
and found his gathering in session. Abu Sa'id said to him, "I have heard that you 
have written books." "Yes," he replied, "may Allah make you prosper!" He said, 
"Listen to a problem." Abu Muhammad told him, "Mention it, may Allah make you 
prosper. If I am correct, you will tell me. If I am wrong, you will teach us." Abu 
Sa'id was silent and did not do that again. 

The rest of his reports 

Abu Muhammad was one of the people of righteousness, scrupulousness and 
excellence. It is reported that he got up one night to do wudu' and poured water 
from the jug into the vessel and spilled it. Then he poured it again and spilled it. 
Then that happened a third time and he had some doubts and remarked, "You 
are recalcitrant towards us." He heard someone he could not see say, "The child 



wet the bed over the jug and we disliked for you to do wudu' from it." 

When he wrote his books about the conceptualists and criticised the book of 
'Abdu'r-Rahman as-Siqilli in al-Kashf and al-lstizhar and refuted a lot of what they 
had transmitted regarding miracles {kharq al-'adaf) according to what was 
affirmed in his book, the false Sufis and a lot of the people of hadith objected to 
that and spread it about that he denied miracles {karamat), which he did not do. 
Indeed, at the beginning of his book, he articulates his aim, which is to refute a 
certain group of people found in in Andalusia and the east. Many well-known 
books have been written on that, including the books of Abu'l-Hasan ibn Jahdam 
al-Hamdani, Abu Bakr al-Baqillani, Abu 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Shaqq al-Layl, Abu 
'Umar at-Talamanki and others. The most correctly guided of them in that and 
had the best knowledge of his aim and its worth was the Imam of his time, Qadi 
Abu Bakr ibn at-Tayyib al-Baqillani. He made his aim clear. 

Al-Ajdabi said, "I was sitting with Abu Muhammad when Abu'l-Qasim 'Abdu'r- 
Rahman ibn 'Abdu'l-Mu'min the mutakallim was with him. A man asked them 
about al-Khidr and whether it could he said that he was still in this world in spite 
of all this time and would die until the Final Hour comes and whether this is 
refuted by the words of the Almghty, 'We did not give any human being before 
you immortality.' (21:34) They both replied to him that that was possible and 
permitted and al-Khidr could live until the Final Trumpet was blown. Immortality is 
connected to remaining as long as the Next World remains, and remaining until 
the Trumpet is blown is not immortality. Do you not see that Iblis - may Allah 
curse him - is not immortal, but he is one of those deferred until the Day of a 
Known Time. 

It is mentioned that Abu Muhammad wrote to Abu Bakr al-Aburri: 

Hearts refuse the hearts of a people 
when they have no portion with them. 

But selves choose selves 
while they have no portion with them. 

That is only because of secrets 
known by the All-Watchful Witness. 

Abu'l-Qasim al-Lubaydi said, "'lsa ibn Thabit al-OAbid met Shaykh Abu 
Muhammad and they wept a lot together and admonished one another. When he 
wanted to leave, 'lsa said to him, 'I want you to write my name on the carpet 
under you. When you see it, you can make supplication for me. Abu Muhammad 
wept and said to him, 'Allah Almighty says, "All good words rise to Him and He 
raises up all righteous deeds." (35:10) Let me make supplication for you, but 
where are the righeous deeds to elevate it?'" 

His death 



Abu Muhammad ibn Abi Zayd died in 386 and was elegised by a lot of the writers 
of Oayrawan who composed a number of moving elegies about him. 

It is mentioned that Abu Muhammad was seen in his assembly reflecting in 
sorrow and he was asked what the reason for that. He replied, "I dreamt that the 
door of my house had fallen down. Al-Kirmani says that it indicates the death of 
the owner of the house." He was asked, "Is al-Kirmani considered to be like Malik 
in his science?" "Yes," he replied, "In his science, he is like Malik is in his 
knowledge." It was not long after that that he died, may Allah have mercy on him. 



In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate. 

May Allah bless our Master Muhammad and his family and Companions and give 
him peace. 

Abu Muhammad 'Abdullah ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani, may Allah be pleased with 
him and make him pleased, says: 

IBN ABI'S ZAYD'S PROLOGUE 

Praise be to Allah who begins the creation of man as a blessing from Him and 
fashions him in the womb by His wisdom and brings him out into His tender care 
and to the provision He eases him to and teaches him what he did not know - 
"Allah's bounty upon him is ever great." 

Allah makes him aware of Himself through the signs in what He has made and 
has left no excuse for him by virtue of what His Messengers, the best of His 
creation, have brought. He guides in His generosity, those whom He has granted 
success and He leads astray, in His justice, those for whom He has decreed 
debasement. He eases the believers to ease in both the worlds and opens their 
hearts to the Reminder. So they believe in Allah, pronouncing this belief with their 
tongues, being sincere about it in their hearts and acting according to what has 
come down to them through His Messengers and His Books. They learn what He 
teaches them and keep within the limits He has prescribed for them. They are 
happy with what He has made halal for them and avoid what He has made 
haram for them. 

May Allah assist both us and you in taking care of what He has entrusted us with 
and in holding to His Shari'a. You have asked me to write a short treatise for you 
about what is obligatory in the din - those things which should be pronounced by 
the tongue and believed by the heart and done by the limbs; and about those 
sunnas which are associated with these obligatory actions - the confirmed 
(mu'akkada), the optional (nafila) and the desirable (raghiba); something about 
the courtesies (adab) associated with them; along with certain of the key 
principles and derived judgements in jurisprudence (fiqh) according to the madh- 
hab and way of Imam Malik ibn Anas, may Allah have mercy on him; and in 
addition to mention what the great men of knowledge and fiqh have said about 
unclear matters in the madh-hab in order to make them easier to understand. 

You have made this request because of your desire to teach these things to 
children in the same way that you teach them how to read the Our'an so that they 
may first of all gain an understanding of the deen of Allah and His Shari'a in their 
hearts, which will hopefully bring them blessing and a good end result. 

I have responded to this out of the same hope of gaining for both myself and you 
something of the reward of those who teach the deen of Allah or call to it. 

Know that the best of hearts is the one which contains the most good and those 



hearts which are most likely to gain good are the ones which no evil has been 
able to get into. The thing that the people of advice are most concerned about 
and which those who desire its reward most want is to put good into the hearts of 
the children of the believers so that it becomes firmly established in them; and to 
make them realise what the bases of the deen and the limits of the ShariOa are 
in order that they may be satisfied with that and to make them realise those 
things in the din which their hearts have to accept and their limbs are required to 
do. 

It is related that teaching the Book of Allah to young children extinguishes the 
anger of Allah and also that teaching something to someone in their childhood is 
like engraving it on stone. 

I have made these things clear and if Allah wills they will get benefit from learning 
them, nobility from knowing them and happiness from believing them and acting 
according to them. 

It has come down to us that children should be ordered to do the prayer at seven 
years old and beaten for not doing it at ten years old and be separated in their 
beds. Similarly, they should be taught before they reach puberty those words and 
actions which Allah has made obligatory for people so that when they reach 
puberty these things are fixed in their hearts and they are at ease with them and 
their limbs are used to doing them. For Allah has made certain beliefs obligatory 
for the heart and certain acts of obedience obligatory for the limbs. 

I will arrange what I have undertaken to talk about in chapters so that it will be 
easier, if Allah wills, for those who are studying it to understand. It is Him we ask 
for guidance and Him we ask for help. And there is no power nor strength except 
by Allah, the High, the Mighty. May Allah bless our Master Muhammad, His 
Prophet, and his family and Companions and grant them much peace. 



CHAPTER 1 : CREEDS 

The obligatory matters of the deen that the tongue should give expression to and 
in which the heart should believe. 

This chapter clarifies what should be expressed in words and what hearts should 
believe. It contains about a hundred items of creed, which can be divided into 
three basic categories: that which must be believed about Allah Almighty, that 
which is impossible in respect of Allah, and that which is permissible in respect of 
Him. 

These are matters which all those who are legally responsible must believe. 

1.1 Beliefs regarding Allah 

l.la Tawhid -His Oneness and Disconnection from creatures (tanzih) 

These obligatory tenets include believing in the heart and expressing with 
the tongue that Allah is One God with no god other than Him, nor any 
likeness to Him, nor any equal to Him. 

[Belief is expressed on the tongue and confirmed by sincerity in the heart and 
action with the limbs. Thus it is composed of all three aspects. Nonetheless, 
simple belief in the Oneness of Allah will save a person from being in the Fire for 
all eternity. 

The belief that Allah is One is the fundamental basis of Islam, and when Divine 
Unity is expressed, the name "Allah" must be used. It is not permissible to say, 
"There is no god but the Almighty" or use any other names except Allah. Nothing 
at all resembles Him or is equal to Him.] 

[Al-Kalbi mentions that the clear evidence for this is found in four ayats: "If there 
had been any gods except Allah in heaven or earth, they would both be 
ruined" (21 :22); "Say: 'lf there had been other gods together with Him as you say, 
they would have sought a way to the Master of the Throne'" (17:42); "Allah has 
no son and there is no other god accompanying Him, for then each god would 
have gone off with what he created and one of them would have been exalted 
above the other" (23:91); and "But they have adopted gods apart from Him which 
do not create anything. They are themselves created." (25:3) 

l.lb. Lack of Associates 

He has had no child. He had no father. He has no wife. He has no partner. 

[See Our'an 112: "Say: He is Allah, One with no other, Allah the Everlasting 
Sustainer of all. He has not given birth and was not born and there is no one is 
equal to Him," and"And say: 'Praise be to Allah Who has had no son and Who 
has no partner in His Kingdom and Who needs no one to protect Him from 



abasement.'" (17:111) 

He is totally unique. If he were to have a wife or partner, that would imply need, 
and He is absolutely beyond need.] 

1 .1 c. Lack of Temporality 

There is no beginning to IHis firstness nor any end to IHis lastness. 

[His existence does not begin with firstness so that there is a point at which He 
could be said to begin nor does He have a point at which He could be said to 
end. He exists eternally, out of time, before time and after time.] 

1.1d. Ineffablity and Indefinablity 

Those who try to describe Him can never adequately do so nor can 
thinkers encompass Him in their thought. Real thinkers may derive lessons 
from His signs but do not try to think about the nature of His Essence. "But 
they do not attain any of His knowledge except what He wills." (2:254) 

[ It is impossible to grasp His true description, let alone His Essence. Thinkers 
must learn through the Signs which indicate the splendour of His Power, but 
must not attempt to reflect on the nature of His Essence because the Prophet 
said, "Reflect on His creation, but do not reflect on His Essence."] 

I.le. His Footstool 

"His Footstool embraces the heavens and the earth, and their preservation 
does not tire Him. He is the Most High, the Magnificent" (2:254) 

[ He has full control and authority over all creation, high and low, and His 
preservation of them is no burden for Him.] 

I.lg. His Attributes 

The All-Knower and the All-Aware, the Arranger and the All-Powerful. The 
All-Hearer and the All-Seeing. The High and the Great. He is over His 
Glorious Throne by His Essence. 

[ He has knowledge of all things, and complete power and authority over all 
things. His hearing and vision is connected to all things in existence.] 

I.lg. His knowledge 

He is everywhere by His knowledge. He created man and He knows what 
his self whispers to him and He is nearer to him than his jugular vein. No 
leaf falls without him knowing of it nor is there any seed in the darkness of 
the earth, nor any fresh thing nor any dry thing, that is not in a clear book. 



[He knows our inner dialogue and tiiougiits. He is closer to man that his jugular 
vein, which is his physical body, and so He is closer to man than his own 
physicality. "We created man and We know what his own self whispers to him, 
and We are nearer to him than his jugular vein." (50:16) In addition to the 
universal scope of His knowledge, He knows the precise details, like each 
individual leaf which falls - and it only falls by His will and in accordance with His 
knowledge. Everything is encompassed by His knowledge, dead or alive, 
growing or dormant. "The keys of the Unseen are in His possession. No one 
knows them except for Him. He knows everything in the land and sea. Not a leaf 
falls without His knowing it. There is no seed in the darkness of the earth, and no 
wet thing or dry thing, but that it is in a Clear Book." (6:59)] 

1.1 h. Mastery over all creation 

He is firmly established on His throne and has absolute control over His 
kingdom. 

[No one knows the true interpretation of this expression. Imam Malik was asked 
about it and said, "'Firmly established' is known but 'how' is not known." Nothing 
is hidden from Him and His control is absolute. "He then established Himself 
firmly on the Throne." (10:3, etc.)] 

1.11. His Names and Attributes 

[He has the most beautiful names and the most sublime attributes and He has 
always had all these names and attributes. He is exalted above any of His 
attributes ever having been created or any of His names having been brought 
into temporal existence. 

He is described by the best and noblest of the meanings of His Names. He has 
attributes like power, will, height, and so forth. He is high exalted over any 
imperfection or lack. These Names have always been His and will remain His. 
Thus neither His names nor His attributes are created. They are simply His. "To 
Allah belong the Most Beautiful Names" (7:180)] 

l.lj. His Speech and Manifestation 

He spoke to Musa with His speech which is an attribute of His essence and 
not something created. He manifested Himself to the mountain and it 
disintegrated through exposure to His majesty. 

[ Allah spoke to Musa with His timeless words and Musa actually heard His 
timeless speech."When Musa came to Our appointed time and his Lord spoke to 
him, he said, 'My Lord, show me Yourself so that I may look at Youl' He said, 
'You will not see Me, but look at the mountain. If it remains firm in its place, then 
you will see Me.' But when His Lord manifested Himself to the mountain, He 
crushed it flat and Musa fell unconscious to the ground." (7:143)] 

1.2 Beilef In the Our'an 



The Our'an is the speech of Allah, not something created which must 
therefore die out, nor the attribute of something created which must 
therefore come to an end. 

[ The Our'an is the speech of Allah which is not created and is timeless, outside 
of temporal time. Hence it will not end as creatures must end, but will abide 
endlessly.] 

1.3 Belief in the Decree (Qadar) 

1.3a. The Prior Decree of Good and Evil 

Also included is belief in the Decree both the good of it and the evil of it, 
the sweet of it and the bitter of it. All of this has been decreed by Allah, our 
Lord. The way things are decided is entirely in His hand and the way they 
happen is according to His decree. He knows all things before they come 
into existence and they take place in the way He has already decided. 

[It is necessary to believe that all things, good and evil, are decreed by Allah and 
nothing escapes His will and thus only what He wills occurs in His kingdom. All 
things and their being brought into existence from the concealment of non- 
existence to the domain of manifestation in their myriad aspects and forms - long 
and short, at one time rather than one, in one place rather than another. All of 
that occurs and issues directly from His Decree according to His knowledge and 
dependant on His will.] 

1.3b. Prior Knowledge 

There is nothing that His servants say or do which He has not decreed and 
does not have knowledge of. "Does not He who creates know, when He is 
the Subtle and the Aware." (67:14) 

[He knows everything which happens before it happens. It only occurs in 
accordance with His knowledge of it.] 

1.3c. The Prior Predisposition of People 

He leads astrays whoever He wills and in His justice debases them and He 
guides whoever He wills and in His generosity grants them success. In that 
way everyone is eased by Him to what He already has knowledge of and 
has previously decreed as to whether they are to be among the fortunate or 
the miserable. 

[ Every man has prior disposition to what Allah already knows about him being 
happy or wretched because Allah only created man according to His knowledge. 
SeeOur'an 14:4, 3:160, etc.] 

1.3d. Exaltedness of Allah's power 



He is exalted above there being anything IHe does not desire in IHis 
l<ingdom, or that there should be anything not dependant on Him, or that 
there should be any creator of anything other than Him, the Lord of all 
people, the Lord of their actions, the One who decrees their movements 
and the time of their death. 

[ The power of Allah is so immense and vast that there is nothing which is not 
directly under his authority and subject to His will. All things - might and 
abasement, wealth and poverty, pious actions and all things are subject to His 
will and power.] 

1.4 Bellef in the Messengers and Muhammad 

1.4a. The sending of Messengers 

He has sent Messengers to them in order that they should have no 
argument against Him. 

[The first of the Prophets was Adam and the last was Muhammad, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace. One must believe and accept that Allah sent the 
Messengers to those who are legally responsible, i.e adult and sane, and they 
conveyed the Message. The wisdom of sending the Messengers is that it 
removes any excuse which creatures might offer about not having heard the 
Message.] 

1. 4b. The Final Messenger 

He sealed this Messengership, warning, and Prophethood with his Prophet 
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, whom He made the 
last of the Messengers - "A bringer of good news and a warner, calling to 
Allah by His permission and an illuminating lamp." 

[Revelation, which is warning and prophethood, which is informing about what 
Allah has said, reaches its end with the Prophet Muhammad. There will be no 
Prophets after him. He brings the good news that whoever follows him will be 
happy and whoever does not will be punished. He calls to Allah, conveying 
tawhid to the legally responsible, and fighting the unbelievers. He is an 
illuminating light because his Shari'a is a light which guides the bewildered - 
whoever follows it and proceeds along the Straight Path will emerge from the 
darkness of disbelief to the light of belief.] 

1.4c. Divine Guidance through the Book 

He sent down on him His Wise Book and by means of him He explained his 
upright deen and guided people to the Straight Path. 

[ One must believe and affirm that Allah revealed to His Prophet Muhammad a 
Book containing judgement and wisdom to which no falsehood at all comes. 
Allah opened and expanded the Straight deen of Islam through His Prophet. 



Thus He manifests its judgements and clarifies it on tiie tongue of His Propiiet. 
Allaii only sent down the revelation to us so that it would be clear to people. The 
guidance of Muhammad is the sun of knowledges, the source of right guidance 
and the fount of certainty which guides people to the Straight Path.] 

1.5. Belief in the Resurrection and Judgement 

1.5a. The Last Hour 

Also part of what must be believed is that the Hour is coming - there is no 
doubt about it . 

[Cf. 40:59.This must be confirmed and believed and the one who denies that the 
Final Hour will come is an unbeliever. However, but only the All-Knower of the 
Unseen knows when it will come. ] 

1.5b. Resurrection of the Dead 

It must be believed that Allah will raise up all who have died: "As He 
brought them into existence the first time so they will be brought back 
again;" 

[ It must be believed that He will bring the dead back to life after they were dead 
and bring them back for the Gathering. There is no disagreement among 
Muslims that it will occur, but there is disagreement about whether He will bring 
them back from absolutely nothing or from dissolution through a reconstituion of 
their parts.] 

1.5c. Divine Reward: Multiplication of Good Actions 

It must be believed that Allah, glory be to Him, multiplies the reward of the 
good actions of His believing servants. 

[ It must be believed that Allah will multiply good actions for the believers 
according to sincerity and degrees of humility, so that multiplication can be from 
ten to 700, in other words, a great deal. Ibn Hanbal transmitted that Allah 
multiplies the good action a thousand thousand times. This means the reward for 
doing them. The "good action" is what is praised in the ShariOa, and what is the 
opposite of that is a "bad action", which is what the ShariOa considers 
reprehensible.] 

1.5d. Pardoning Wrong Actions 

He pardons them for their major wrong actions by virtue of their 
repentance (tawba) and forgives them for their minor wrong actions by 
virtue of their avoidance of the major wrong actions. 

[Part of His bounty to His believing servants is that if anyone does any major 
wrong actions and then repents and makes amends, He will pardon Him by His 



favour and generosity. Small wrong actions are expiated by avoiding major 
ones.] 

1.5e. Those who do not repent are subject to His will 

Those who do not repent of their major wrong actions become subject to 
His will. "He does not forgive anything being associated with Him, but He 
forgives anything other than that to whoever He wills." 

[ Those believers who commit major wrong actions and die without repenting of 
them are subject to the Will of Allah. If He wishes, He will forgive them out of His 
favour. If He wishes, He will punish them out of justice. He may forgive 
everything except for associating others with Him.] 

1.5f. Deliverance from the Fire because of belief 

Those He punishes with His Fire, He will remove from it because of any 
belief they have and by this He will cause them to enter His Garden. 
"Whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it." (99:7) 

[ It must also be accepted that if Allah wills that the rebels among the believers 
be punished in the Abode of Punishment, their punishment will be commensurate 
with what they have brought on themselves by their evil deeds and then mercy 
will envelop them and they will emerge from the Abode of Punishment and enter 
the Abode of Peace. Whoever has the weight of atom of belief in his heart will not 
be in the Fire forever. Thus belief is a reason for not being forever in the 
Punishment and a reason for entering the Garden with Allah's pardon and 
mercy.] 

1.5g. The Intercession of the Prophet 

Any of the community of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace, who have committed major wrong actions and for whom he 
intercedes, will be brought out of the Fire by his intercession. 

[ The intercession of the Prophet and others must be affirmed. He is singled out 
for mention because he is the first intercessor and by the intercession of our 
Prophet the people of major wrong actions of his community of unifiers will 
emerge from the Fire. The Mu'tazilites deny intercession, based on the lack of 
permission to pardon and overlook wrong actions, but we defer to transmitted 
evidence and they hold to merely logical evidence. Transmitted evidence is more 
sublime and radiant.] 

1.6 The Afterlife: the Garden and the Fire 

1.6a. The Garden 

Allah has created the Garden and has made it ready as an everlasting 
abode for His friends (awliya'). He will honour them in it with the vision of 



His Noble Face. This is the same Garden from which IHe sent down Adam, 
IHis Prophet and Khalif, to the earth, which was as it had already been 
decreed in His foreknowledge. 

[ Allah has created the everlasting abode of the Garden for the believers in which 
they will have no toil or fatigue, but will be rejoicing and will be blessed by 
contemplation of His Face. See 75:23.] 

1.6b. TheFire 

He has created the Fire and has made it ready as an everlasting abode for 
those who disbelieve in him and deny His signs and Books and 
Messengers and He keeps them veiled from seeing Him. 

[ He created the Fire as an eternal abode of punishment for those who deny and 
reject Him and ignored the evidence which indicates the existence and oneness 
of the Creator and denied His revealed Books and Messengers. They will abide 
in the hatred resulting from disbelief and will be veiled from seeing their Lord on 
that day.] 

1.7 Details of the Resurrection 

1.7a The Coming of Allah and the Angels 

Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, will come on the Day of Rising 
together with the angels, rank upon rank. 

[It is confirmed by transmission that on the Day of Resurrection Allah will come 
with angels in ranks. That must be believed, and its knowledge comes from the 
Lawgiver. Malik and others say about this ayat (89:22) and others that they are 
read as they have come without qualification. We take what they say literally but 
do not compare it to any creature.] 

1.7b. Presentation of Peoples 

All the different peoples are confronted with their accounts and their 
punishment or reward. 

[All the different peoples will come to present themselves so that their states was 
be investigated and reckoning taken for their actions. The actions of those who 
present themselves for the Reckoning will have their good and bad actions 
ennumerated.The believer will be called to account with graciousness and favour 
and the hypocrite and unbeliever with evidence and justice. So Allah Almighty will 
say to the believer, "I veiled it for you in the world and I forgive it for you on the 
Day of Rising." The unbelievers will be reckoned in front of of witnesses and 
those who they denied will be summoned to their Lord, "The curse of Allah on 
wrongdoers."] 

1.7c. The Balance 



The balances will be set up to weigh people's actions - "Whoever's actions 
are heavy in the balance - they are the successful." 

[ See 21 :47; 1 01 :6. The balances will be set up to manifest justice so that no one 
will be wronged even the weight of a mustard grain. Allah will bring all the 
person's actions, even to an atom's weight, on the Day of Resurrection. Whoever 
has his balance heavy will be successful and achieve a happiness after which 
there will be no misery. Whoever has his balance light will be wretched and will 
have no happiness after his wretchedness.] 

1.7d. The Books of Actions 

People will be given pages on which their actions are recorded - "Whoever 
is given his book in his right hand will be given an easy accounting and 
whoever is given his book behind his back - they will burn in a Fire." (84:7- 
13) 

[ Nations will be given their pages which contain their actions. When they are 
given them, Allah will create knowledge in them and they will understand what 
they contain. If someone is given his book in his right hand, that indicates that he 
is one of the people of the right hand and happiness. If someone is given his 
book in his left hand, that is an indication that he is one of the people of misery." 
The receiving of the books should actually be put before the balance and 
weighing of acting because the weighing is after the Reckoning and the 
Reckoning is after receiving the Books.] 

1.7e. The Sirat 

The Bridge (sirat) is true and people will cross it according to their actions. 
Those who cross it, and achieve safety from the Fire, do so at different 
speeds, while the actions of others cast them to their destruction in the 
Fire. 

[ There is a great deal of description of the Sirat and it is said that it is finer than a 
hair and sharper than a sword. Al-Qarafi, on the other hand, says that it is wide 
with two paths on it, one to the right and one to the left. The people of happiness 
travel on the right and the people of wretchedness on the left. 

There are ropes on it and each rope leads to one of the levels of Jahannam and 
Jahannam lies between the creatures and the Garden. The Sirat is set up over 
Jahannam, and none of the people of the Garden enters the Garden until he has 
crossed over the Sirat. 

People will cross over the Sirat according to the disparity in their actions and 
avoidance of the things forbidden by Allah. Some will pass over like lightning. 
Some will escape the hooks, some will be scratched but released, and some will 
be caught by the hooks and tipped into the Fire of Jahnnam.] 

1.7fTheBasin 



Also included is belief in the Basin (hawd) of the Messenger of Allah, may 
Allah bless him and grant him peace, which his community will come down 
to drink from after which they will never feel thirst again. But those who 
make any changes or alterations in the din will be driven from it. 

[ It is necessary to believe in the Basin of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace. He will drive away from it those who alter things, 
like the apostates and those of his followers who follow him with the best will 
drink from it when they leave their graves thirsty. Whoever drinks from it will 
never feel thirst again.] 

1.8Belief 

1.8a. Definition of Belief 

Belief consists of what you say with the tongue, what you believe sincerely 
in the heart, and what you do with the limbs. 

[ Belief is articulation of the shahada, belief in the truthfulness of the Messenger 
and what he brought in the heart and then acting according to the judgements of 
the Shari'a, like praying and fasting. Someone with all of these three is a believer. 
If someone believes that belief does not consist of these three and imagines that 
what the author said was due to his inclination to what belief obliges because 
there is consensus that someone who believes with his heart, speaks with his 
tongue and acts with his limbs is a believer. If he does not believe that belief 
consists of these three, he takes it as a preface to the words which follow:] 

1.8b Increase and Decrease of Belief 

It increases when your actions increase and decreases when they 
decrease. So it is through actions or the lack of them that increase and 
decrease in belief occurs. 

[ It increases according to actions and decreases according to actions. This 
increase and decrease is in relation to its fruits. This is the school of the early 
and laster people of the community, and this is the final position taken in the 
matter by Malik. He first had said that it increases and does not decrease. 
Applying the name"belief" to action is agreed upon. The Almighty says, "Allah 
would not let your belief go to waste," which referred to the prayers they did 
facing Jerusalem.] 

1.8c. The intention and following the Sunna 

The statement of belief is not complete without action. Neither the 
statement nor action are complete without intention. And neither the 
statement nor intention are complete unless they are in accordance with 
the sunna. 

[ Actions and words are according to intentions. The intention is the fulcrum upon 



which actions are based, and so a man should only base his actions on the pure 
Sunna and Straight Shari'a and follow the Rightly-guided khalifs.] 

1.8d. Islam and Wrong actions 

No Muslim becomes an unbeliever (kafir) through wrong actions. 

[It must be believed that no Muslim who commits a wrong action becomes an 
unbeliever as long as he believes. The same applies to someone who commits 
acts of disobedience while he nevertheless believes that the Shari'a forbids them. 
If someone does something such shows that he lacks belief, like throwing a copy 
of the Our'an into the rubbish, then he is an apostate. We are not discusssing 
him. The Prophet said, "Whover faces our qibla and eats our sacrifices is truly a 
believer." The Kharijites were heretics when they said that every sin is a major 
wrong action and every major wrong action removes actions and the one who 
does that is an unbeliever. The Mu'tazilites said that every major wrong action 
renders actions void and the one who commits it is between two stations, and he 
is not called a believer or an unbeliever. He is called a deviant {fasiq).] 

1.8e. Martyrs 

Martyrs (shuhada') are alive, receiving their provision in the presence of 
their Lord. 

[It is obligatory to believe that the marytrs, those who fought the unbelievers and 
were killed in the way of Allah to elevate the word of Allah, are alive and 
delighting in the Presence of their Lord because of the privileges they have been 
granted, one of which is that they will be secure from the Greatest Terror on the 
Day of Rising. See Our'an 3:169.] 

1.8f. In the grave: the spirits of the fortunate 

The spirits of the fortunate remain in bliss until the day they are raised 
again. 

[The souls of the fortunate will remain in bliss until the Day of Rising seeing their 
place in the Garden. When one of them dies, he is shown his place in the Garden 
morning and evening.] 

1.8g. In the grave: the spirits of the miserable 

The spirits of the miserable are tormented until the Day of Judgement. 

[The souls of the wretched are punished by seeing their place in the Fire and 
other punishments.] 

1.8h. The questioning in the grave 

The believers are tried and questioned in their graves. "Allah makes those 



who believe firm by giving them firm words in the life of this world and the 
next world." 

[ This refers to the questioning by the two angels in the grave. The dead person 
will be placed in his grave and people will leave him and then two angels come 
and sit with him and ask him, "Who is your Lord? What is your deen? Who is 
your Prophet?" The believer will reply, "My Lord is Allah. My deen is Islam, My 
Prophet is Muhammad," and his grave will be wide for him. When the unbeliever 
is in the grave and is asked these questions, he will reply, "I do not know," and so 
he will be dealt a blow from an iron hammer and will scream so that all creatures 
except men and jinn will hear him. Also reported is the constriction of the grave, 
which is the pressing on the sides of the body of the dead person and none is 
safe from that except the one whom Allah grants an exception - they include 
Fatima bint Asad, the mother of 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, because of the blessing of the 
Prophet going into her grave, and whoever recites Surat al-lkhlas in his final 
illness."] 

1.9 The Angels 

1.9a.The Recording Angels 

People have recording angels over them who write down their actions. 
Nothing people do escapes the knowledge of their Lord. 

[Men and jinn, believers and unbelievers, free and slave, have recording angels 
who write down their actions, even the permissible ones and the groan in illness, 
and even the actions of the heart, like all the thoughts which occur to it. Allah has 
given the heart a token by which it can distinguish between the good and bad 
action. The source for the knowledge of that is the words of the Almighty, 
"Standing over you are guardians, noble, recording. They know everything you 
do," (82:10-12) and the words of the Prophet, "The angels of the day and night 
succeed one another." There is consensus on that. None of the actions are 
hidden from Allah. That is part of the subtlety of Allah regarding His slaves since 
they know that Allah has recording angels who record their actions and that will 
prevent them from acts of disobedience and the proof will be established against 
them when they reject and deny.] 

1.9b. The Angel of Death 

The angel of death seizes people's spirits by the permission of his Lord. 

[Allah has delegated an angel called 'Azra'il to take the spirits of creatures, men, 
jinn and other birds and all animals who have a spirit. The Almighty says, "Allah 
takes back all selves at the time of their death," (39:42) and He says, "Then 
when death comes to one of you, Our messengers take him," (6:61) however the 
outward appearance differs from this. The action is ascribed to Allah because He 
is the one who does it in reality, and the attribution of taking the spirits is to the 
Angel of Death because he does it directly by the permission of Allah. Taking is 



ascribed to the angels who are messengers because they assist the Angel of 
Death in taking the spirits.] 

1.10 Authorities 

1.1 Oa The Best generation 

The best generation are those who saw the l\/lessenger of Allah, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace, and believed in him. Then those who 
followed them and then those who followed them. 

[ The best generation is those who were alive in the time of the Prophet 
Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and believed in him, 
respected and helped and followed the Light which was sent down with him and 
the suns of his prophethood shone on them and they won and chose the virtue of 
being a Companion. Their generation is the best generation. This is in 
accordance with his words, "The best of you is my generation and those who 
follow them and then those who follow them.] 

1.1 Ob. The best Companions 

The best of the Companions (Sahaba) are the rightly-guided khalifs. Firstly, 
Abu Bakr, then 'Umar, then 'Uthman, then 'Ali, may Allah be pleased with all 
of them. 

[ Not all the Companions had the same degree, but they varied in their degrees 
of excellence. The Rightly-guided Khalifs are the best and in order of excellence 
they were Abu Bakr, then 'Umar, then 'Uthman, then 'Ali, may Allah be pleased 
with all of them.] 

1.1 Oc. Respect for all the Companions 

None of the Companions of the Messenger should be mentioned except in 
the best way and silence should be maintained concerning any 
disagreements that broke out between them. They are the people who are 
most worthy of being considered in the best light possible and the people 
whose opinions should be most respected. 

[ One should avoid getting embroiled in the quarrels between them and one must 
always take the best interpretation in holding an opinion regarding them. They 
must always be thought about in the best possible light.] 

1.1 Od. Those in authority 

Obedience to the leaders of the Muslims, both their rulers and their men of 
knowledge, is obligatory. 

[It is obligatory to obey the Imams of the Muslims who are in authority who are 
responsible for the best interests of the Muslims. If they command what is 



correct, it is obligatory to obey, and if tiiey forbid tiie repreiiensible, it is obligatory 
to refrain. It is only obligatory to obey the scholars who act by their knowledge 
and command the correct and forbid the reprehensible and preserve the limits of 
Allah. The evidence for the obligation is the words of the Almighty, "Obey Allah 
and obey the Messenger and those in command among you." (4:58) The one 
who transgresses is not obeyed because the Prophet said, "There is no 
obedience due to a creature which involves disobedience to the Creator." (Ibn 
Hanbal & al-Hakim)] 

1.10e. The Salaf 

It is also obligatory to follow the Right-acting Companions, to tread in their 
footsteps and ask forgiveness for them. 

[ It is obliged to follow the righteous Salaf who are the Companions, in their 
words and actions, whether it is learned from them or by derivation and ijtihad. 
Similarly one must pray for forgiveness for them.] 

1.1 Of. Avoiding Disputation 

It is also obligatory to avoid wrangling and argumentation regarding the 
deen ... 

[It is necessary to avoid wrangling and arguments about the deen. Wrangling is 
to deny the truth after it is clear. Argumentation is to quarrel with the people of 
innovations. That is forbidden because it could lead to attacking the Companions 
and cause doubt in the heart. If the aim of the argument is to set forth the truth 
without obduracy, then it is permitted.] 

I.IOg. Avoiding Innovations 

...and to avoid every new thing which people have introduced into it. 

[Avoid innovations because the Prophet said, "If anyone innovates something in 
this business of ours which is not part of it, it is rejected." This is applied to 
innovations which did not occur in his time and which the Shari'a indicates are 
unlawful, according to some. Some believe that innovation is what did not occur 
in this time, whether the Shari'a indicates that it is unlawful, obligatory, 
recommended, disliked or permitted. Innovations are found in all five categories. 
This is what is stated by Ibn OAbdu's-Salam, al-Qarafi and others.] 

May Allah bless and give much peace to our Master Muhammad, His 
Prophet, and his family and his wives and his descendants. 



Chapter Two: What Necessitates Wudu' and Ghusl 

[This chapter deals with those things which render necessary wudu' and ghusl. 

Wudu' designates the action and wadu' designates the water. Lingusistically it 
means cleaniness and excellence, and in the Shari'a it means to purify certain 
parts of the body with water to make them clean and to remove the judgement of 
'minor impurity" (hadath) from them to permit acts of worship which are forbidden 
by lack of purity. 

Qadi Ibn al-'Arabi says that there is known dispute about whether ghasl means 
the action and ghusl the water. However, in adh-Dhakira, ghusl designates the 
action and ghasl the water. This is the most common position. 

The obligation of Wudu' and Ghusl 

[Evidence for the obligatory nature of wudu' and ghusl is found in the Our'an and 
Sunna and consensus. The Almighty says, "O you who believe! When you you 
get up intending to do the prayer, wash your facesE " (5:6) and "Do not approach 
the prayer when you are drunk until you know what you are saying, nor in a state 
of major impurity - unless you are travelling - until you have washed yourselves 
completely." (4:43) The Messenger of Allah said, "Allah does not accept the 
prayer of anyone in a state of impurity until he does wudu'." There is no 
disagreement between the Imams that it is obligatory.] 

2.1 Wudu' 

2.1 a. Preconditions for wudu': 

[There are certain preconditions for the validity of wudu': 

1. Islam 

2. Adulthood 

3. Sanity 

4. Absence of menstrual blood or bleeding after childbirth 

5. The arrival of the time of the prayer, 

6. That the legally responsible person is not forgetful, asleep or 
insensible 

7. The existence of adequate water to perform it 

8. The possibility of doing it with due care to achieve what is desired, 
which may preclude the sick and the person who is compelled. 



2.1 b. What makes wudu' necessary 

[Two things oblige wudu': ritual impurity and certain causes. [Khalil says three 
things: ritual impurities, causes; and apostasy and doubt.] 

Ritual impurity is what breaks wudu' in itself, like urine, and causes are things 
which do not break wudu' in themselves but leads to ritual impurity, like loss of 
sanity, touching someone with desire and touching the penis. [Ibn Juzayy states 
that apostasy also breaks wudu'.]] 

2.1 c. The nature of the obligation 

[The duty of wudu' is a one of an obligatory nature, not merely an obligation 
inasmuch as it is sunna and thus strongly recommended.] 

2.1 d Urination and defecation in a normal manner 

[Wudu' must be done when something emerges from one of the two normal 
passages, the urethra and the anus, in a normal manner. It is limited to what is 
normal which excludes anything which emerges abnormally, like pebbles and 
worms. They do not break wudu', even if he passes some urine and faeces. 
Urine and faeces must emerge in a normal manner. So if it emerges for a specific 
reason, like incontinence in most cases, which is when he does it constantly, 
most of the time or half of the time, then it does not break wudu'. In the first case, 
wudu' is neither obligatory or recommended. In the last two cases it is 
recommended unless that is difficult for him. 

The 'passages' are limited to what emerges normally, which precludes what 
emerges other than urine and faeces, like blood as a result of leeches and 
cupping, vomit which is changed from food, and impurity which emerges from a 
split under the intenstines which is not due to the passages being blocked. When 
the two passages are blocked and the split is located under the intestines, then it 
is considered as a normal orifice.] 

2.2 Things which break wudu' 

2.2a. Excreta which oblige wudu' 

You have to do wudu' after urinating or defecating or passing wind. 

[This clarifies what excreta which make wudu' necessary: urine from the front 
orifice and faeces from the rear orifice and passing wind, which designates wind 
which emerges from the anus, whether or not with a sound. As for wind which 
emerges from the penis or vagina, it does not require wudu' since it is not 
considered as one of things which break wudu'.] 

2.2b Other fluids which require wudu': Madhy 

You have to do wudu' when the liquid known as madhy comes out of the 



penis, in which case it is necessary to wash to the whole penis as well. 
Madhy is a thin, white liquid which comes out at times of sexual excitement 
when the penis is erect, either during sexual foreplay or when thinking 
about it. 

[ Wudu' is obliged wiien madiiy emerges from tiie penis. It is also obligatory to 
wash the entire penis with an intention before doing wudu'. Wudu' is specified 
and using stones in not enough.] 

2.2c.Wady 

Wady is a thick white liquid which comes out usually after urinating and 
carries the same judgement regarding cleaning the penis as urine. 

[ Wady is dense and usually comes out after urination. It may come out on its 
own or during urination. It makes wudu' necessary and it must be completely 
removed. He should lightly squeeze the place and wash only its place.] 

2.2d. Sperm (maniyy) 

Sperm - maniy - is the white liquid ejaculated at orgasm during sexual 
intercourse which smells similar to the pollen of the date-palm. 

[The emission of sperm is one of things which obliges ghusl, not wudu'. The 
author mentioned it here among the things which oblige wudu' as a digression 
since it does oblige wudu' in certain cases. It is what issues with pleasure which 
is not usual, although it is mentioned among the things which oblige ghusl. Here 
he mentioned the fluids which flow from the front orifice, and maniy is one of 
them. It is ejaculated in spurts and has a particular odour.] 

2. 2e. Women's discharge and menstruation 

The liquid which comes from a woman is a thin yellow fluid and 
necessitates purification, that is purification of the whole body as is the 
case after menstruation. 

[ A woman's liquid which she discharges, which is her maniy, is described as 
being thin and yellowish when it normally emerges and in health, not on account 
of illness or incontinence. Ghusl is obliged on account of it. It is not a 
precondition that it emerge outside. It is based on the sensation, and so the mere 
sensation obliges her to purify herself, as she is obliged to do when menstruation 
ends.] 

2.2f. False menstruation 

In the case of bleeding which continues beyond the normal period of 
menstruation (istihada), only wudu' is necessary, although in such 
circumstances it is recommended for a woman to repeat wudu' for every 
prayer. 



[The blood of false menstruation is blood which flows outside the days of 
menstruation and lochia, issuing from a vein which is in the lower part of the 
uterus. The judgement in such a case is that wudu' is obligatory when it stops 
more than it comes. When it comes more than it stops or the two are equal, then 
she is not obliged to do wudu'.] 

[ Menstruation according to Khalil. The normal age of menstruation is considered 
from the age of adolescence to the age of 50. The individual is consulted from 
the age of 9 to puberty and from 50 to 70. It can be red, yellow or brown. The 
minimum is one gush and its maximum is fifteen days. The minimum of purity is 
fifteen days and it has no maximum. And the maximum length of menstruation for 
someone with normal periods (even if she has only had one period) is fifteen 
days. There are three days of using precaution (i.e. above and beyond) her 
normal maximum. (i.e. if she normally menstruates five days and then 
menstruates after that and it does not stop after the full five days, she adds three 
days to it. If it does not stop after that, it is false menstruation. 

But if her normal period is 15 days, she does not use precaution at all.) This is as 
long as it does not exceed half a month. (If it is 14, she uses one, and if 13, she 
uses 2.) Then she is pure (to fast, prayer and have intercourse even if the blood 
is flowing, because it is false menstruation and not menstruation.) 

The maximum length of menstruation of a pregnant woman after three months 
(up until five months) is half a month and five days (i.e. twenty days). When she 
starts the sixth month, it is twenty days and the like (i.e. ten with the twenty and 
so the maximum is thirty days). Is the judgement of the woman whose has a 
period before three months the same as the judgement of a woman whose 
period comes after it ( after three months), or is she like the one with a regular 
period? There are two statements. If purity is stopped by blood before it is 
completely finished, even by a hour, she adds only the days of bleeding (i.e. 
rather than the days it stopped, and it cancels it when it is less than half a month. 
There must be 15 twenty-four days of continuous purity free of blood by 
agreement. 

Then, after patches and continuous blood, it is false menstruation, not 
menstruation. So she does ghusl for the end of menstruation. The one who has 
bleeding patches does the ghusl whenever the blood stops in the patched days 
unless she thinks that the blood will return before the time she is in finishes. In 
such a case she is not commanded to do ghusl. She fasts (if it stops at Fajr or 
before) and prays and has intercourse after ghusl according to the known 
position as opposed to the author of the Irshad who says that intercourse is not 
permitted. She can pray in all the days of menstruation when the period comes to 
her at night and then stops before Fajr. So she might not miss a prayer or a fast. 

Blood which is distinct (from false menstrual blood by the change of smell, colour 
or fineness or thickness) after (the full 15 days of ) purity is menstruation (and 
prevents prayer and the like). If it is not distinct from false menstruation in any 
way, it is false menstruation, even if it goes on a long time. It is like that for what 



is distinct before tiie end of purity. One does not pay attention to tiie distinction. If 
tiie blood is distinct from the blood of false menstruation by anything above and 
is judged to be menstruation and it continues until her normal time is complete 
and more, is changes from the quality of the blood of menstruation to that of false 
menstuation. So she does not use caution beyond her normal days, but does 
ghusl by the simple completion of her normal days according to the soundest 
version (from Malik and Ibn al-Majishun.) 

Purity from menstruation is known by the dryness (of the private parts) from 
blood, yellowness and brownness when she inserts a bit of cotton, for instance, 
and brings it out without seeing anything on it. Or it is by a white liquid which 
issues from the private parts after the end of menstruation. This liquid is more 
conclusive of the end of menstruation than dryness for the one who usually has 
it. If she sees the liquid before dryness, it is recommended that she do ghusl at 
the end of the preferred time [for the prayer]. There is some discussion about the 
sign of purity of the one whose has her first period. [Al-Baji says that she is only 
pure by dryness which she sees, even if the time for the prayer goes by. ] 

The woman with a period does not have to look for her purity before Fajr. 
(Indeed, it is disliked because it is not something which the Salaf did.) She 
should look when she goes to sleep to see whether she can catch Maghrib and 
Olsha' and fast. She should look at the beginning of Subh and the other five 
prayers (allowing time for ghusl). 

Menstruation prevents the validity of prayer and fasting and their obligation and 
divorce (which is prohibited, but is binding if it takes place.) It prevents the start of 
Oidda, which begins with purity. It prevents intercourse or touching under the 
waist-wrapper (from the waist to knees), even after the end of the period before 
the ghusl. Tayammum makes the prayer permitted, but does not remove the 
impurity. It prevents entering the mosque, so there is no iOtikaf or tawaf. It 
prevents touching a copy of the Our'an (except for a teacher or student who has 
a dispensation) and recitation] 

2.2g. Incontinence of Urine 

This is also the case for incontinence (salas) of urine. 

[It is recommended for someone with incontinence to do wudu' for every prayer 
and for his wudu' to be directly before the prayer. There is no special judgement 
for incontinence of urine. It is a general judgement for everyone with some form 
of incontinence, be it urine, wind, or maniyy. All are the same in that they do do 
not break wudu' by what emerges from them and it constant, even if it is only half 
the time when he is unable to remove it by medical treatment or marriage. If 
someone is able to stop it, then it breaks his wudu', he is excused for the period 
of treatment in that it does not break it.] 

2.2h. Loss of Consciousness: deep sleep 

You have to do wudu' after loss of consciousness caused by either deep 



sleep, 

[Loss of consciousness is one of tiie reasons wiiicii lead to ritual impurity and 
obliges wudu' after it passes. The loss of intellect is when it is completely absent. 
When it departs completely, as in sleep or fainting, and then is restored to him, 
the judgement is that wudu' is obligatory. A deep sleep, whether long or short, 
breaks wudu' absolutely. A deep sleep that in which the sleeper is not aware of 
what he or someone else does. What is understood from the word "deep" is that 
the dozing in which the person is aware of the slightest thing definitely does not 
break wudu', be that short or long based on what is in Muslim, "The Companions 
of the Messenger of Allah used to sleep and then pray without doing wudu'." 
Nonetheless, it is recommended to do wudu' after a long light sleep. ] 

2.2i. Fainting 

or fainting, 

[Malik said that someone who faints has to do wudu'. Fainting is is an illness in 
the head. ] 

2.2j. Drunl<enness 

or intoxication 

[The one who loses his senses through drunkenness must do wudu'. It makes no 
difference whether he becomes intoxicated by something lawful or unlawful, as 
when he drinks milk thinking that it is not intoxicating and it intoxicates him.] 

2.2I<. Insanity 

or a bout of madness. 

[This even more clearly breaks wudu' because it removes the senses. It is not in 
itself a reason for it. Wudu' is obliged on account of insanity, intoxication and 
fainting because it is is obliged by sleep which is less severe than it because it 
removes a little awareness, and these cause that loss of intellect even more so 
and so it is more likely that it be obligatory on account of them. That is why there 
is no difference between long or short, deep or light. They judge that legal 
responsibility is removed with them which is not the case with sleep. The sleeper 
is responsible, even if he incurs no wrong action. This discussion concerns a 
bout of madness which ends. The one for whom insanity is complete and without 
end owes nothing.] 

2.21. Wudu' on account touching a person 

Wudu' is also necessary when you touch someone to gain sexual pleasure 
or have bodily contact with them for the same reason 

[ One of the causes which results in ritual impurity is touching which is less than 



intercourse as the Companions, TabiOun, IVIalik and his companions have 
explained it.The Almighty says, "Or if you have touched women." (4:43) 'Ali and 
Ibn 'Abbas, however, explain this 'touching' as referring to intercourse, and say 
that His words "Or you have touched women" means to have intercourse with 
them. 

Specifying 'pleasure' tells us is that if the toucher intends pleasure, he must do 
wudu' simply by touching whether or not there is pleasure. So that is even more 
so if he touches and experiences it. If he did not intend pleasure, but intended to 
touch to find out whether the body was hard or not, and then experiences 
pleasure, he must do wudu' because of the existence of pleasure, even though it 
did not come from intention. So the obligation of wudu' hinges on intention, even 
if there was no feeling while touching. If the feeling occurs after touching, then it 
is like pleasure arising from thinking for which nothing is obliged. If he does not 
intend pleasure and does not feel it, he does not have to do anything. This is the 
the judgement for touching. 

As for anyone who is touched, if they are adult and experience pleasure, they 
must do wudu'. Otherwise, they do not have to do anything if they did not intend 
pleasure. Otherwise the judgement regarding the person who is touched is the 
same as the one who touches.] 

2.2m. Wudu' on account of kissing 

or for l<issing them for sexual pleasure. 

[It is clear from his words that kissing is general, whether on the mouth or 
elsewhere with the intention or arousal. That is not the case. The accepted 
position is that the kiss on the mouth generally breaks wudu' whether or not there 
is intention and arousal because it is a probable cause of pleasure unless other 
places give rise to pleasure. [Khalil says that if it is to bid farewell or out of mercy, 
as when there is some misfortune, it does not break wudu'. Looking at someone, 
even with pleasure, does not break wudu'.]] 

2.2n. Touching the IHuman genitals 

A man must do wudu' if he touches his penis. 

[One of the things which lead to ritual impurity is touching the penis because it 
says in the Muwatta' and elsewhere that the Prophet said, "When one of you 
touches his penis, he should do wudu'." The touching referred to is with the palm 
or the inside or sides of the fingers. He only mentioned touching one's own penis. 
As for the penis of someone else, it follows the judgement regarding touching 
with respect to intention or arousal. The penis must be connected to the body. As 
for that which is separate from the body, it does not break wudu' when it is 
touched. 

When dealing with the eunuch, one considers the shape or lack it. If there is a 
shape, then touching it breaks wudu. If it does not have a shape, then one takes 



into consideration tiie judgement given to it. If masculinity is adjudged for him, it 
breaks wudu' and otherwise it does not. 

There are different considerations regarding touching it through a barrier. If it is 
thick, that does not break wudu' in one position, If it is light, then the most 
accepted position is that it does break it. Touching the anus or the testicles does 
not break wudu' in the accepted position.] 

2.2o. A woman touching her vagina 

But there is difference of opinion about whether a woman has to do wudu' 
if she touches her vagina. 

[The position of the Mudawwana is that it does not break wudu' based on what is 
on the hadith, "When one of you touches his penis, he should do wudu'." The 
position is based on the fact that that is what is understood by the word and 
when something is understood, a concealed meaning is not considered. The one 
who says that it does break wudu' bases it on the hadith which says, "If 
someone's hand touches his private parts he should do wudu'" because 'private 
parts' and can be applied to the penis or the vagina. Some of them say that 
wudu' is not broken it if she touches the outside of it, but it is broken if she 
presses it or puts her hand inside the labia.] 

2.2p. Further Note 

[Ibn Juzayy: Things that break wudu' in other schools, but not in the Maliki school 
are: vomiting, belching, nosebleeds or other bleeding, cupping, the emission of 
pus, laughing in the prayer (Abu Hanifa), eating camel meat, eating cooked food, 
carrying the dead person, slaughtering animals. None of these break wudu'.] 

[Khalil: It is recommended to wash out the mouth after eating meat or drinking 
milk.] 

2.3 Ghusl (Full Ablution) 

2.3a. Ghusl because of emission of sperm 

You have to do ghusl when, as has already been mentioned, sperm (maniy) 
is ejaculated accompanied by sexual pleasure either during sleep or when 
awake whether from a man or woman. 

[ One of the things which oblige ghusl is the emission of sperm with normal 
pleasure, whether while asleep or awake, or man or woman. It is not a 
precondition for the obligation of ghusl that it emerge with pleasure when it 
actually takes place. Ghusl is obliged simply by its emerging after pleasure has 
departed, as when he has pleasure without intercourse and then sperm emerges 
from him after the pleasure is over.] 

2.3b. At the end of menstruation and lochia 



Ghusl is also necessary at the end of bleeding from menstruation. 

[It is more precise to say 'tiie blood of menstruation' because it is more general 
than simply saying 'menstrual period' since that specifically designates that which 
is preceded by purity and followed by purity. The beginning or end of the blood 
which emerges is not called 'a menstrual period'. In the Shari'a, the blood of 
menstruation is that which emerges on its own from the vagina which normally 
does not exceed 15 days and it emerges without being caused by illness or 
childbirth. Blood which emerges not by some cause, or which emerges from the 
anus, or emerges from a child of seven or a woman of 70, or which exceeds 15 
days, or which emerges because of illness, or because of childbirth is not 
menstruation so that its judgements apply to it.] 

2.3c. False menstruation or menorrhagia 

Ghusl is necessary when abnormal bleeding (istihada) stops 

[Then the censation of the blood of false menstruation was made a cause which 
obliges ghusl. Malik's final position was that ghusl was recommended. He first 
said that she does not have a ghusl. None of the people of the school say that it 
is obligatory except for al-Baji if one takes his transmission literally.] 

2.3d. Lochia 

Ghusl is necessary at the end of the period of bleeding which follows 
childbirth (nifas). 

[Lochia is one of the causes which makes ghusl obligatory. Lochia (nifas) 
linguistically means childbirth, whether there is blood with it or not. It designates 
the blood itself which emerges from the vagina because of childbirth. In the 
usage of the people of Shari'a it designates the blood which emerges from the 
vagina because of childbirth in a healthy and normal way. The blood which 
emerges from other than the vagina is not nifas. That which emerges not on 
account of of childbirth is not considered nifas. That which does not emerge in a 
healthy manner is not nifas. That would normally be bleeding which occurs is 
after the period of nifas, which is 60 days.] 

2.3e. Penetration of the vagina 

Ghusl must also be done if the head of the penis penetrates the vagina 
even if no ejaculation takes place. 

[One of the things which obliges ghusl is the penetration of the penis of the adult 
into the vagina, even if there is no ejaculation, whether it is human or animal, or 
into the anus, wherther female or male, whether or not there is emission, and 
whether or not there is a covering over it, but that is provided that the barrier is 
light so that pleasure can be felt with it. As for the thick barrier, ghusl is not 
obliged with it unless there is ejaculation. Then there is ghusl because of 
ejaculation, not because of the disappearance of the penis. The basis for that is 



what is in tiie Muwatta' and IVIuslim from the words of the Prophet , "When he sits 
between her arms and legs and then presses her, he is obliged to do ghusl. This 
hadith is abrogated by what Muslim related from the words of the Prophet, "When 
you are too quick or there is no ejaculation, there is no ghusl,"and by what was 
related from his words, "Water is needed on account of water [semen]." ] 

2.4 Legal Consequences of vaginal penetration 

2.4a. Ghusl is obligatory 

This penetration of the vagina by the head of the penis necessitates ghusl . 

2.4b. Legal conseguences in case of fornication 

It necessitates the hadd punishment (for zina) and the payment of the 
dowry and gives the married couples the status of being muhsan and 
makes a woman who has gone through a triple divorce halal for her original 
husband and invalidates hajj and fasting. 

[ It obliges the hadd punishment for fornication and obliges the payment of the 
dower in full because the contract on its own demands half of the dower. It 
accords the married couple the states of being muhsan provided that they are 
free, Muslim, sane and adult. 

It makes a woman lawful for her prior husband, if he is a free man. As for the 
woman divorced by a slave, it makes her lawful when he has divorced her twice. 
However making the divorced woman who has been trebly divorced lawful for her 
prior husband must involve full penetration. Thus full penetration is not a 
precondition for requiring ghusl, the hadd punishment and payment of the dowry, 
but full penetration and lack of barrier are preconditions for making the couple 
muhsan and making the divorced woman lawful. ] 

2.4.C. Invalidation of hajj and fasting 

It invalidates hajj and fasting. 

[It absolutely invalidates hajj, be it obligatory or voluntary, intentional or by 
forgetfulness, when it occurs before standing at 'Arafa or after it before the Tawaf 
al-lfada and stoning the Jamra al-OAqaba on the Day of Sacrifice. He continues 
with his hajj and makes it up the following year. It invalidates fasting, even 
without full penetration it, be it obligatory or voluntary, intentional or by 
forgetfulness. He must make it up and owes kaffara for the obligatory if it is done 
it deliberately. Otherwise there is only making up, as is the case with doing it 
deliberately in a voluntary fast.] 

2.5. Ghusl and menstruation 

2.5a. When ghusl is done after menstruation 



A woman does ghusl immediately she sees the white liquid (qassa) which 
comes at the end of menstruation, or when she notices dryness, even if 
she notices this after a day or two days or only an hour. 

[As the blood of menstruation is mentioned as one of tiie causes wliicli oblige 
ghusl, he goes on to clarify the sign which indicates that it has ended and that the 
womb is free of it. He mentioned that it has two signs: a white liquid and dryness. 
When the menstruating women sees one of the two signs, then her purity is clear 
and she is adjudged to be pure from that moment and does not wait for the 
second sign. There is no minimum length of menstruation. Its minimum amount is 
one spurt. There is no maximum amount of it, but has a maximum in time, which 
is fifteen days.] 

[Khalil: Its maximum for someone who is having a first period is half a month (i.e. 
15 days. If it stops before that and then she remains pure for half a month and 
then blood comes, it is a new menstruation.) as half a month is the minimum of 
purity (which is fifteen days and there is no limit to its maximum). 

[And the maximum length of menstruation for someone with normal periods 
(even if she has only had one period) is fifteen days. There are three days of 
using precaution (i.e. above and beyond) her normal maximum. (i.e. if she 
normally menstruates five days and then menstruates after that and it does not 
stop after the full five days, she adds three days to it. If it does not stop after that, 
it is false menstruation. But if her normal period is 15 days, she does not use 
precaution at all.) This is as long as it does not exceed half a month. (If it is 14, 
she uses one, and if 13, she uses 2.) Then she is pure (to fast, prayer and have 
intercourse even if the blood is flowing, because it is false menstruation and not 
menstruation.)] 

2.5b. Resumed Bleeding 

If bleeding starts again or if she sees any yellowish discharge, she must 
stop doing the prayer and then when the bleeding stops again she should 
do ghusl and start the prayer once more. 

[ If she sees the sign of purity and the judgement is that she is pure immediately, 
from the moment she sees purity, and then the blood resumes again or there is a 
yellowish discharge which does not have the colour of blood, she stops praying 
and reckons that she is still menstruating that day and considers all of it to be the 
same period. It is one period since it has come before complete purity. Or it may 
stop before the end of her normal period or extend after its normal length and 
before looking for purity or before it was complete. When the bleeding comes 
after complete purity or when it ended after her normal peiod and the days of 
looking for the end, then it is not menstruation, but abnormal bleeding, When it 
stops again, then she again does a ghusl and prays, and does not wait to see 
whether more blood comes again. This question is involves the woman whose 
purity is interpersed with bleeding to add the days together.] 



[Khalil: The one who has bleeding patches has a ghusl whenever the blood stops 
in the patched days unless she thinks that the blood will return before the time 
she is in finishes. In such a case she is not commanded to do ghusl. She fasts (if 
it stops at fajr or before) and prays and has intercourse after ghusl according to 
the known position as opposed to the author of the Irshad who says that 
intercourse is not permitted. She can pray in all the days of menstruation when 
the period comes to her at night and then stops before Fajr. So she might not 
miss a prayer or a fast.] 

2.5c. Legal Consideration of Such Gaps 

When this situation occurs, it is considered as one menstrual period when 
reckoning the period of 'idda (after divorce or being widowed) or the period 
of istibra (after the death of a husband). 

[The intermittent blood is considered as the same period of bleeding in repsect of 
'idda and istibra' and so the days of blood are added together until they reach 
that at which its judgement normally ends or other than. If it exceeds that it is 
abnormal bleeding.] 

2.5d. Consideration of a Long gap 

If there is a considerable interval between the two periods of bleeding, 
such as eight or ten days, then the second one is considered a new 
menstrual period. 

] If there is not a long gap between the two periods of bleeding, it is considered 
as one menstrual period for the purposes of 'idda and istibra', but if there is a 
long interval between them but less than the time of purity, which is eight or ten, 
even though the accepted interval is 15 days, then the second is a new 
menstruation, i.e. the beginning of a new one which is counted for purposes of 
'idda and istibra'.] 

2.5e. Abnormal Bleeding 

If menstrual bleeding continues longer than fifteen days, it is considered as 
istihada and the woman should perform a ghusl, fast, pray and her 
husband can have sexual intercourse with her. 

[ This means if the bleeding continues for her, then she waits for fifteen days 
from its beginning because the maximum of menstruation in respect of her is 
fifteen days. Then she is judged to have abnormal bleeding whether the two 
periods of bleeding are distinct or not. She has a ghusl and prays and fasts. Her 
husband can come to her. We mentions that which has a beginning to distinguish 
it from that which has no beginning because there are certain points regarding 
that because it is either what is normal for her varies or it does not. If it is not 
different and the blood continues more for her than it normally does, she looks for 
purity for three days as long as they do not exceed fifteen days. If it varies, she 
then looks for purity when it is longer than its norm.] 



2.6. Lochia 

2.6a. Minimum of Lochia 

If the bleeding after childbirth (nifas) stops soon after the birth, a woman 
should do ghusl straightaway and start doing the prayer. 

[ If shortly after childbirth a woman sees the sign which indicates that it is ended 
with white discharge and dryness, then she washes and prays. "Soon after birth" 
has no minimum limit in relation to time and it has a minimum in relation to what 
emerges, which is one gush.] 

2.6b. Maximum of Lochia 

However, if bleeding continues longer than sixty days, then she does ghusl 
anyway, the bleeding is considered as istihada, and she does the prayer 
and fasts and her husband can have sexual intercourse with her. 

[ If the bleeding continues, she waits for sixty days, which it the maximum of its 
extent. If it stops after sixty, the matter is clear. If she continues to bleed after 
sixty, it is abnormal bleeding and she has a ghusl, prays and fasts and her 
husband can come to her.] 



Chapter Three: On the Purity of Water, Clothing and 
the Place of Prayer and What Can Be Worn When 
Doing the Prayer 

This chapter clarifies the condition of purity of water, the precondition of purity of 
clothing, the precondition of the purity of the place and what clothes are 
permitted in the prayer. 

3.1 Purity of Water 

3.1 a. Obligation of purity 

When you do the prayer you are tall<ing to your Lord. You must therefore 
prepare yourself for this by doing wudu' or ghusl if a ghusl is necessary. 

[Purity in the Shari'a is a legal state which becomes obligatory in order to make 
the prayer permissible. The one who prays speaks intimately with his Lord. 
According to the hadith which Malik relates in the Muwatta, he must prepare for 
the pratyer. The text of the Muwatta' is that the Messenger of Allah came out to 
his Companions while they were praying and their voices were raised in the 
recitation. He said, "When you pray, you are speaking confidentially to your Lord. 
So look to what you confide to Him, and do not say the Our'an outloud so that 
others hear it." He must prepare for that conversation by having an attentive 
heart and humility, and must stand with respect before Him, seeking His 
protection. When he lacks that, he does not speak to Him and the term 
"conversation" is not valid for him. Nonetheless, it is true that he prays and must 
adopt the means for that by being pure of minor and major impurities.] 

3.1 b. Pure Unchanged Water 

This must be done using pure water which is uncontaminated by any 
impurity. 

[Purification from impurities is achieved by pure water, i.e that which is not mixed 
with what changes any of its three qualities: colour, taste or smell, whether that 
change in its attributes is due to something either pure or impure. Thus if it is 
changed by rose water, it is not valid to use it for things like wudu' and ghusl.] 

3.1 c. Change in Colour of Water by contact with earth 

You cannot use water whose colour has been changed by something 
mixed in with it whether that thing is pure or impure unless the change of 
colour has been caused by something in the earth where the water is from 
such as salt deposits or mud or similar things. 

[ It is a precondition that the water used for things like wudu' and ghusl has not 
been changed in its attributes by what is usually separate from it, except for earth 



with which it is in direct contact and to which it clings as when it lies in salty earth, 
sulphurous earth orfetid mud.] 

3.1 d. Rain Water 

Any water coming from the sWy or from springs or wells or the sea is all 
good, pure and purifies impurities. 

[These waters which originate from the sky are all pure in themselves and good 
for any use whatsoever, whether drinking or such things or acts of worship, like 
wudu', ghusl and removing impurities as long as the water remains in its original 
state and is unchanged any anything which is is normally separate from it.] 

3. 1e. Change in Colour of Water 

If the colour of the water has been changed by something pure which has 
got into it, it remains pure but cannot be used for purification either in 
wudu' or ghusl or for removing impurities. 

[ Meaning that water whose colour has been changed with something pure, like 
water from pasta, is pure in itself but does not purify something else, and so it is 
not used for wudu' or other things like ghusl.] 

3.1 f. Change of Water through Impurity 

Water that has been changed by something impure getting into it is not 
pure and cannot be used for purification purposes. 

[Water which has been changed through impurity, whether in colour, taste or 
smell, and whether the water is little or a lot, it has substance or not, is no longer 
pure or purifying. It is not used either for normal things or for acts of worship.] 

3.1.g A Small Amount of Impurity 

A small amount of impurity makes a small amount of water impure even if 
there is no change in the water. 

[If an impurity falls into small amount of water, like the water prepared for wudu' 
or ghusl, even if it is something small and the impurity does not change it, it is not 
permitted to use it. The most famous position is that is pure, but it is disliked to 
use it when other water exists, provided that it has not been altered. If it has been 
been changed, its purity absolutely no longer exists. ] 

[Ibn Juzayy states that if there is a lot of water and it is not changed, then it 
remains pure. There is no specific definition of "a lot" in the Maliki School.] 

3.2 Amount of Water Used 

3.2a. Using a Small Amount of Water 



It is sunna to use a small amount of water when washing provided you do it 
thoroughly. Using an excessive amount is extremism and innovation. 

[ A small amount of water should be used as long as washing is done properly. 
Pouring while rubbing is recommended, i.e. an desirable aspect in the deen. 
Using a lot of it, pouring it while using it is excess, i.e. increase in the deen and 
innovation, i.e. something innovated which is contrary to the Sunna and the Path 
of the Salaf.] 

3.2b. The amount used by the Prophet 

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did 
wudu' with one mudd of water which is equivalent to (1 1/3 ratls) and he did 
ghusl with one sa'a which is four mudds measuring by his mudd, may Allah 
bless him and grant him peace. 

[ He points out that it is established in the sunna that the Messenger of Allah did 
wudu' using a mudd, which is 1 1/3 ratls and he did ghusl with a sa' which is four 
mudds. So altogether it is 5 1/3 ratls. His aim is to inform us of the the excellence 
of economy and abandoning profigality and the amount which was enough for 
the Prophet .] 

3.3 Purity of the Place and Clothing 

3.3a Purity of Place 

It is obligatory for the place where you are going to do the prayer to be 
pure. 

[The purity of the place where the limbs of the one praying will touch is obligatory 
for the sake of the prayer, i.e. its purity for the sake of the prayer. Purity for other 
things, like dhikr is recommended.] 

3.3b. Purity of Clothing 

Your clothing must also be pure. It is said by some that the nature of the 
obligation referred to here is that of an absolute obligation (fard) and by 
others that it has the obligation of a confirmed sunna (sunna ma'akkada). 

[ The purity of the garment of the one praying is obligatory provided it is 
remembered and he has the ability to achieve that. If someone intentionally prays 
in an impure garment when he is able to remove it, he must always repeat that 
prayer. If he prays in such a state out of forgetfulness or is unable is remove it, 
he repeats it if it is still within the time of the prayer. The time of Dhuhr extends 
until the yellowing of the sky, and Maghrib and 'lsha' extend through the entire 
night. It is said that it is sunna to remove the impurity, and both positions are 
known and acceptable. Based on the position that it is sunna, it is repeated at the 
time absolutely, whether that was intentional, or he was able to remove it, or out 
of forgetfulness or ignorance.] 



3.3c. Places where it is forbidden to pray: 

You should not do the prayer in the following places: 

3.3c1. Camel places 

in places where camels congregrate, 

[It is disliked to pray in places where camels are kept when they come from 
water, even if it is safe from impurity and even if something pure is spread out 
and is prayed on it because the Prophet did not say that the reason was impurity 
so that it would be negated if it was negated.] 

3.3c2. The Middle of the Road 

or in the middle of the road, 

[It is disliked to pray in the middle of the road where you are unsure whether the 
ordure of animals and urine will get on you. If you do pray there, it is 
recommended that you repeat it within the time. When someone prays there 
because the mosque is too crowded or he spreads something pure and prays on 
it or he is certain that it is pure, then there is no dislike.] 

3.3c3. On top of the Ka'ba 

or on top of the Ka'ba, 

[It is prohibited to pray on top on the Ka'ba, based on the fact that it is necessary 
to face its building. The one who is above it cannot face the building. So if he 
prays an obligatory prayer on top of it, he must always repeat it because what is 
important is to face it.] 

3.3c4. Public Baths 

or in public baths, a place which you are not certain whether it is pure or 
not, 

[It is disliked to pray in the baths. The reason for the dislike is the likelihood of 
impurity. If he is certain of its purity, then the dislike is negated and the prayer is 
permitted.] 

3.3c5. Rubbish Dumps 

or on a rubbish heap 

[It is disliked to pray at a place where rubbish is thrown since one is not safe from 
impurity. If he is safe from impurity, then it is not disliked.] 

3.3c6. Slaughterhouses 



or in a slaughter house, 

[It is disliked to pray in a place where animals are slaughtered if he is not safe 
from impurity. Otherwise, it is not disliked.] 

3.3c7. Graveyards 

or in the graveyards 

[When the graveyard is a Muslim one, and there are no distinterred parts of the 
dead in the place of prayer, then it is permitted to pray there. If there are any 
parts of those buried in the place of prayer, then the judgement of the prayer 
there depends on the disagreement about and whether the human being 
becomes impure by death or not. If the dead person is not impure, and the 
person prays there deliberately, then it is disliked to pray there since there is 
uncertainty or certainty that there are parts of the dead person which would 
involve humiliation or walking on the grave. As for the prayer, it is not disliked in 
itself. 

Ibn Habib disliked praying in the graveyards of the unbelievers because they are 
pits of the Fire, but if someone prays in them and is safe from impurity, his prayer 
is not invalid, even if he is not actually safe from praying on impurity.] 

3.3c8. Non-l\/luslim places of worship 

and places of worship of non-Muslims. 

[This designates churches, synagogues and fire temples of the Magians. Imam 
Malik disliked praying in them because of impurity from their feet, i.e. that is the 
custom in them. The dislike is inasmuch as he prays in it by choice, not when is 
compelled to that. Otherwise there is no dislike. There is no difference between 
the ruined or inhabited place.] 

3.3d. Minimum Clothing in the Prayer for a man 

The least clothing a man can do the prayer in is something which covers 
his 'awra (everything between his navel and his knees) such as a long shirt 
or a piece of cloth he can wrap round him. 

[ This minimum of what does not involve sin and is adequate for what is desired 
of the one who prays is a garment is that which covers the private parts, be it a 
long shirt, cloak or trousers. A precondition for the cloak is that it is thick and not 
thin or transparent, i.e the private parts should not be outlined or encompassed. 
If it is like that, it is disliked as long as the definition is not due to wind. Otherwise 
not. If it is transparent, then sometimes the private parts might appear through it 
without thinking about and then the prayer would be invalid. Sometimes it only 
appears by thinking about it, and it is judgement is like the person whose is doing 
something disliked and the prayer is valid.] 



3.3e. Uncovered shoulders 

However, it is dislil<ed to do the prayer wearing something that does not 
cover the shoulders, but if this does happen the prayer need not be 
repeated. 

[ It is disliked for a man to pray in a garment which leaves his shoulders 
completely uncovered when something else is available. If he prays and his 
shoulder-blades show when he is able to cover them, he does not have to repeat 
the prayer either in the time or after it.] 

3.4. Women's Dress and Prostration 

3.4a. A Woman's minimum dress 

The least clothing a woman can do the prayer in is a thick full-length 
garment covering her whole body including the top of the feet and 
something covering her head. 

[The minimum of adequate clothing for a free adult women in the prayer consists 
of two things: one is a thick or ample full-length garment which does not define 
the figure nor is transparent. This is either hasif, which means thick, or khasif, 
which a full complete covering which covers the top of the feet. It also means 
what does not define figure nor is transparent because what he means by the 
minimum is that the prayer is that with which the prayer does not have to 
repeated in the time or outside of it. 

The second item is a head-covering which covers her hair and her neck. Part of 
its precondition is that it is thick. In short, the fiqh is it is obliged for a woman to 
cover all her body in the prayer, even the soles of her feet based on the 
statement of Malik, "It is not permitted for a woman to show anything in the pryer 
except her face and palms."] 

3.4b. A woman's prostration 

A woman should touch the ground with the palms of her hands in sujud 
just as a man does. 

[The woman touches the earth with her palms in prostration. It is mentioned here 
here because it might be imagined from his words about covering the top and 
soles of her feet that she covers her palms because each of them are part of the 
person who prays who is obliged to cover the entire body. Therefore this idea 
which is mentioned here must be eliminated.] 



Chapter 4: On How to do Wudu' and what is Fard 
and Sunna in it - IHow to Clean Yourself after Going 
to the Lavatory with Water {Istinja) or with Stones 
and Other Things {Istijmar) 

4.1 Istinja' (Cleansing with water in the lavatory) 

[Istinja' is to wash the place of filth with water, derived from naja, to rescue, 
meaning to cut. It is as if the one who does istinja' removes something offensive 
from himself. Istijmar is to use small stones to remove offensive matter on the 
place. 

4.1 a. Not part of wudu' 

Cleaning yourself with water after going to the lavatory should not be 
considered a part of wudu', being neither one of its sunna nor its fard 
aspects. 

[ It is neither obligatory, sunna or recommended to connect wudu' to istinja'. It is 
a separate form of worship which is distinct from wudu' in time and place. It is not 
considered one of the sunan nor one of the obligations nor one of the merits of 
wudu'. Its aim is to clean the place in particular. It is recommended that it 
precede wudu'. If he delays it, then he must be careful about touching his penis 
which would break his wudu'. ] 

4.1 b. Its Purpose 

However, you have to do it in order that all impurities are removed before 
doing the prayer. You do not have to make a special intention before doing 
it. 

[ Istinja' is to remove impurity and so it is obligatory that it be done with water, as 
istijmar is done with stones so that he does not pray with impurity on the body. 
Part of what indicates that it is part of removing impurity is that it is enough that 
he remove it without intention.] 

4.1 c. Impurity on Clothes 

The same thing applies when washing impurities off clothes. 

[Cleaning impurity from clothes does not require an intention.] 

4.1 d. Description of Istinja' 

The way you wash yourself after going to the lavatory (istinja') is first of all 
to wash your hand and then the end of the penis where the urine comes 
out. You then wipe any impurity from your anus using hard earth or other 



things or your left hand, which you should then wipe on the ground and 
wash. 

[The full description of istinja' is that after he has removed anything by lightly 
using his fingers, he takes his penis in his left hand with his index finger and 
thumb and then lightly pulls it from the bottom to the glans. Then he wipes any 
impurity from his anus with clods or anything which can be used for istijmar. Then 
he washes his left hand fearing that any unpleasant smell will remain on it. Then 
he does istinja' with water, but he first washes the place of urine before the place 
of faeces so that his hand will not be impure. Combining istijmar and istinja' with 
water is better since the Prophet did that.] 

4.1e. Further Cleaning 

After this you wash your anus by pouring water over it which you continue 
to do while at the same time relaxing it a little, rubbing the area thoroughly 
with the left hand until it is clean. 

[ You continue to pour water without letting up because it is more helpful in 
removing filth. You relax the anus a little because there are folds in it. When 
water touches it, it contracts. When it is relaxed, it can be washed. The place is 
rubbed with the hand while the water is being poured until it is cleaned of 
noxiousness. It is enough that he thinks it probable if he is able to do that. If he is 
not able to do it because his hand is cut off or short, he delegates someone who 
is able to touch that place, be it wife or slavegirl. He does not do wudu' when he 
leaves that without washing it.] 

4.1 f. What is unnecessary 

You do not have to wash the inside of either of the two openings. 

[It is not recommended or sunna to wash inside the openings. For a man, there is 
only one opening, because the uretha has no opening.] 

4.1 g. In case of breaking wind 

You should not do istinja' on account having broken wind. 

[It is forbidden to do this cleansing on account of wind. The basis for that is the 
words of the Prophet,"The one who does istinja' on account of wind is not one of 
us." There is no text which clarifies whether the prohibition is one of prohibition or 
one of dislike. The hadith can imply either.] 

4.2 Istijmar (Cleansing with stones) 

4.2a. Number of stones 

When doing istijmar it is sufficient to use only three stones provided that 
the last one comes out clean, 



[Istijmar is done witii tiiree stones. Wiien tiie last one comes out clear of 
noxiousness, then that is adequate, even if water is available. One might 
conclude from his words that istijmar using less than three stones is not 
permissible. But the well-known position is that it is based on cleanness, even if it 
that is achieved with only one stone.] 

[Ibn Juzayy points out that it should be an odd number.] 

4.2b. Water is better 

but using water is more purifying, pleasanter and preferred by the men of 
i^nowledge ('ulama'). 

[It is understood from his words that the stones are enough, even if water exists, 
out of the fear that someone might imagine that that is the same as using water 
and that they are equally excellent. That possibility is eliminated by his words that 
water is "more purifying" because neither substance nor trace remains when it is 
used while the stone only removes the actual thing, and water is better because 
it removes doubt. It is preferred by scholars, with the exception of Ibn al- 
Musayyab who said that using water is the action of women and implies that it is 
part of their obligation, i.e. specific to them and they are not allowed to use 
stones, as it is specifically necessary in menstruation, lochia and sperm, i.e. in 
respect of the one obliged to do tayammum because of illness or when he does 
not have enough water for ghusl, but does have enough water to remove the 
impurity. Water is also specifically necessary when a lot spreads out from the 
orifice when it is more than is customary.] 

4.3 Washlng the hands before wudu' 

If someone has neither urinated nor defecated but is doing wudu' because 
he has broken it in some other way or has been asleep or done something 
else which makes it necessary for him to do wudu' he should wash his 
hands before he puts them into whatever water container he is using. 

[ If someone has not urinated nor defecated or anything else which would require 
istinja', like madhy and wadiy, and wants to do wudu' because he has broken 
wind or done something else which obliges wudu', like apostasy, uncertainty 
about impurity, becoming a Rafidite [extreme Shi'ite], and other reasons like 
sleep, intoxication and unconsciousness, in following the sunna, he must wash 
his hands first even if there is nothing on them which demands washing them as 
when they are both clean. Washing the hands to must absolutely be done 
whether he does istinja' or anything else] 

4.4 Sunnas and obligations of Wudu' 

4.4a.Washing the hands to the Wrists 

The sunnas of wudu' include: washing the hands before putting them into 



the water container, 

[One of the sunnas of wudu' is to wash the hands to the wrists before putting 
them in the vessel. The sunna of washing the hands before putting them into the 
vessel is when there is little water and it is possible that it might be used up. 
Otherwise it is not sunna to wash them before putting them in the vessel.] 

4.4b. Rinsing the mouth 

rinsing the mouth, 

[Rinsing the mouth is a sunna: it is to move water about in the mouth and spit it 
out. If he swallows it, it is not the sunna. Also if he opens his mouth so the water 
runs into it, it is not the sunna. The water must be moved about in the mouth and 
then spat out.] 

4.4c. Sniffing up water 

sniffing up water into the nose and blowing it out again, 

[One of the sunnas is to to put water in the nostril by inhaling and if water water is 
put up the nose without sniffing, that is not the sunna. To blow it out, he puts his 
forefinger and thumb of his left on his nose and blows out the water from the 
nostrils using his breath.] 

4.4d. Wiping the ears 

and wiping the ears. These are all sunna actions, 

[It is a sunna of wudu' to wipe the outside and inside of the ears. The outside is 
what is next to the head and the inside is what is beside the face.] 



4.5 Obilgatory Elements of Wudu' 

the rest being obligatory (fard). 



[The rest of wudu' is obligatory. This sentence is unclear since the rest of wudu' 
includes aspects which are sunna, like repeating the wiping of the head, 
renewing the water for the ears, and the correct sequence, and that which is 
recommended, like saying the basmala at the beginning. The answer to that is 
that his words, 'the rest being obligatory' means the rest of the limbs which are 
washed and wiped independently since it is obligatory to wipe the head, and 
repeating it is dependent on it. The rest of the limbs designates independent 
obligations. Renewing the water and the correct sequence are not limbs. They 
are not connected to limbs, but to other than limbs because renewal is connected 
to water and proper sequence is connected to washing.] 

4.6 Howto do wudu' 



4.6a. Basmala 

Some of the men of knowledge ('ulama') say that when you go to do wudu' 
because you have been asleep or for any other reason you should begin by 
saying "bismillah" (in the name of Allah), whereas others say that this is 
not part of doing wudu' correctly. 

[ When you go to do wudu' for some reason which obliges it, like sleep or 
something else, some scholars says that one begins with the basmala. It is said 
that he says, "In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate," and it is 
said that he simply says, "Bismillah." Some scholars do not think that beginning 
with the basmala was part of the known business of the Salaf, and indeed think 
that it is reprehensible, i.e. disliked. 

It is evident from the words of the author when he ascribes each position to 
'some' that Malik did not take any stand regarding the basmala. There are three 
transmissions from Malik about the basmala. One is that it is recommended, and 
that is what was stated by Ibn Habib, and is well-known because of the words of 
the Prophet, "There is no wudu' for the one who does not mention Allah." The 
hadith appears to imply the obligation, and that is what was said by Imam Ahmad 
and lshaq ibn Rahawayh, who was a mujtahid. The second is that it is 
reprehensible, saying, "Is he slaughtering so that he needs to say the basmala?" 
The third is that there is a choice and then the judgement is that it is permitted.] 

4.6b. Where to place the water vessel 

It is easier to get at the water if the container is on your right hand side. 

[It is recommended for the person doing wudu' to put the vessel from which he 
does wudu' to his right because it is easier to take water. If the vessel is open, he 
can scoop from it. If the opening is narrow, it is better to have it on his left 
because that is easier.] 

4.6c. Washing the hands three times 

You begin by washing your hands three times before putting them into the 
water container, 

[After putting the open vessel to the right and the narrow one to the left, to follow 
the sunna, he begins by washing his hands to the wrists three times before 
putting them into the vessel with a separate intention.] 

4.6d. If you have gone to the lavatory 

except if you have just urinated or defecated in which case you wash off 
any traces of impurity before starting to do wudu'. 

[ What precedes is about the one who has not urinated or defecated. If he has 
urinated or defecated, then that person washes off the urine or faeces from 



himself before doing wudu'. Tiien iie does wudu', meaning tiie linguistic washing 
of the hands. Thus his first words about washing the hands before putting them 
in the vessel is about the one who has not urinated or defecated. If he has 
urinated or defecated, then he washes the place of urine or other filth and then 
does wudu', i.e, washes his hands, which is the first of the sunnas of wudu'.] 

4.6f. Rinsing the l\/louth 

You put your hand into the container, tal<e some water, and rinse your 
mouth out three times, using either one handful or three as you wish. 

[ You put your hand in the vessel if it is possible. Otherwise you pour the water 
and take enough water without being extravagant. You can rinse the mouth three 
times using one handful of water. The first handful is sunna and each of the 
remaining two is recommended. If he wishes, he rinses the mouth three times 
with three handfuls, and the second form is better than the first form.] 

4.6g. Rubbing the Teeth 

It is also good to rub your teeth with your finger. 

[It is recommended to clean the teeth with the finger before doing wudu'.] 

4.6h. Sniffing Water up the Nose 

You then sniff up water into your nose 

[For the correct sequence only, so after he has rinsed the mouth, he sniffs water 
up his nose. Note that he says, "into the nose" because there might be sniffing 
without in going into the nose. Perhaps he mentioned that to seek the blessing of 
the actual words of the hadith. Muslim says, "He snuffs water up his nose."] 

4.61. Blowing water out the nose 

and blow it out again three times, holding your nose as you do when you 
blow it. 

[What is accepted is that it is sunna on its own, and the description of blowing out 
is to put the finger and thumb of the left hand on the nose and to bring the water 
with the air of the nose as he does when he blows the nose. Malik disliked 
blowing it like a donkey because of the prohibition against that in the hadith.] 

4.6j. Number of Times 

It is all right if you do this rinsing and sniffing less than three times. It is 
also all right to do all of this with only one handful of water but three 
handfuls is preferable. 

[ Less than three is adequate for rinsing and sniffing. The minimum is achieved 



by one or two times. The evidence for wiiat iie mentioned is tiiat tiie Propiiet did 
wudu' doing eacii action once and eacii action twice. Tiie person doing wudu' 
can also combine rinsing and sniffing in tiie same iiandful. It has two forms. One 
is that he only moves to sniffing after he finishes rinsing and the second is that he 
rinses and sniffs and then rinses and sniffs and then rinses and sniffs. The first is 
better because it is free of any reversal of order in worship.] 

4.6k. Washing the Face: Wetting the Face 

Then you tal<e water, either with both hands together or with the right hand 
bringing the hands together afterwards, and using both hands pour the 
water unto the face. 

[ After finishing rinsing the mouth and sniffing, then he takes water with both 
hands if he wishes, or with the right hand and then puts it onto both hands and 
brings the water to his face. It appears that moving the water to the face is a 
precondition. This is according to Ibn Habib, Ibn Majishun and Sahnun. The well- 
known position is that it is not a precondition to move it. What is desired is to 
bring water to the surface of the face however that happens, even by a water- 
spout.] 

4.61. Actual Washing of the Face 

Then using both hands you wash the face 

[He applies water to the face without splashing the face with water as women 
and most men do it. He washes it with the hands. This means that washing 
connected to moving the water to the washed limb is a precondition of the 
recommendation in wudu'. He also does that himself, even if he entrusts 
someone else to do the wudu' when that is not necessary. It does not satisfy the 
requirement because that is one of the actions of the arrogant. Rubbing is also 
obligatory, and the well-known position is that rubbing is obligatory in itself, not 
simply bringing the water to the face.] 

4.6m. Area covered: Top of forehead 

from the top of the forehead - which is marl<ed by the hairline - 

[The sunna in washing is to begin to wash the limbs from their top. If he begins 
from the bottom, it is allowed, but what he has done is disliked. He explains that 
what is meant by forehead is what touches the earth in prostration and the right 
and left sides of the brow, which is next to the normal roots of the hair. One does 
not take into consideration thick hair or baldness. He includes the thick hair in 
washing but not the place of baldness. From 'hairline' it is understood that part of 
the head must be washed to achieve the obligation.] 

4.6n. End of the chin 

to the end of the chin. 



[The face has both length and width. The beginning of its length is the normal 
roots of the hair and the end is to the end of the chin, which is point of the beard, 
and the hairs on the bottom lip. There is no dispute about it being included in the 
washing. Its width is from ear to ear.] 

4.60. Covering the entire face 

covering the whole area of the face from the jawbones to where the ears 
start, mal<ing sure you include the eye sockets, any wrinkles on the 
forehead and the bottom of the nose. 

[ He must wash the entire face, rubbing around it, including the temples between 
the ears and the eyes. The well-known position is that it is included in washing. 
You run your hand over what is hidden inside the sockets and inside the eyes. 
That must be washed. Also the hand must pass over the wrinkles on the brow, 
which is the place of prostration The hand must be passed over the bottom of the 
nostrils. This refers to the outside out and not the inside. He must wash the 
outside of his lips if they are not covered while washing the face.] 

4.6p. Doing it three times 

You wash your face in this way three times taking water to it. 

[The face is washed in this manner three times from the beginning of the limb to 
the end and rubbing it.] 

4.6q. The Beard 

When washing your face you rub the beard with both palms to make sure 
that water gets into it since hair has a natural tendency to repel water. You 
do not have to put your fingers through your beard when doing wudu' 
according to Malik. You merely rub your hands over your beard down to 
theend. 

[ When the beard is thick, when washing the face, rub the hair of the thick beard 
with the palms in order to make the water enter it. If he does not do this, he will 
not do all of the outside of the hair because the hair repels water which gets on it 
unless it is moved by the hands. The well-known position from Malik is that one 
does not have to put your fingers through the hair of a thick beard in when doing 
wudu'. Indeed the apparent text of the Mudawwana is that it is disliked in the 
case of a thick beard. As for the sparse beard through which the skin shows, he 
must put his fingers through it when doing wudu'. It is obligatory to absolutely to 
make water penetrate the hair of the thin or thick beard in washing. The hands 
must move the water to the end of the beard.] 

4.6r. The Second Obligation: the Hands 

You then wash your right hand and forearm three times, or twice, pouring 
water over it and rubbing it with the left hand, making the fingers of one 



hand go between the fingers of the other. Then you wash the left hand and 
forearm in the same way. 

[ Then first after finishing washing the face, which is the first obligation, he moves 
on to the second obligation, which is the hands. He washes the right hand first 
because it is recommended without dispute to begin with the right in things 
before the left since it is sound that the Prophet said, "When you do wudu' begin 
with the right." It is done three or two times. There there is a choice in the number 
times the hands are washed, but there is no choice in washing the face and feet. 
The reason for that is that it is established that the Prophet washed his face three 
times and his hands twice each. 

He pours water on the right hand and rubs it with the left hand. The rubbing must 
be connected to pouring the water. He puts the fingers of one hand between 
those of the other hand. He inserts them through the gaps from the top and not 
the bottom because otherwise that would entrail entwining which is disliked. His 
words can imply either obligation or recommedation, but the first is the well- 
known position. The basis for that is the words of the Prophet, "When you do 
wudu', put water between your fingers and your toes." However, the command is 
obligatory for the hands and recommended for the feet. Then he washes the left 
hand in the same manner.] 

4.6s. Extent of Washing the IHands and Arms 

When washing the arms you go right up to the elbow, including it in what 
you wash. It has also been said that you only wash up to the elbows and 
that it is not necessary to include them but it is better to include them in 
order to remain on the safe side. 

[ When doing wudu' you wash up to the elbows and include the elbows in the 
washing. It is possible to include them or not in the washing. The most famous 
position is that it is obligatory to include them. He clearly stated that here. This is 
taking the ayat ["and your hands to the elbows,"] to mean "with". Those who say 
that it that the washing ends at the elbows take the ayat to actually mean " up to". 
The third position is that it is recommended to include them in the washing to 
remove the difficulty of definition because it is difficult to define the end which the 
washing reaches. 

4.6t. The Third Obligation: Wiping the Head 

Then you take water with your right hand, pour it onto the left hand and 
using both hands you wipe over your head, beginning at the hairline at the 
front of the head. You place fingertips together with the thumbs at the 
temples then wipe over your head with both hands as far as the hairline at 
the back of the neck. Then you bring them back to the place you started, 
bringing your thumbs up behind your ears back to the temples. Whatever 
way you wipe your head is acceptable as long as the whole head is covered 
but the way mentioned is better. If you were to put both hands into the 



container, then lift them out wet, and wipe over your head with them this is 
also acceptable. 

[ After finishing tiie second obligation, iie moves to tiie tliird obligation, and takes 
the water with the right hand and pours it onto the left palm and wipes his entire 
head with his hands. It is recommended to start at the front of the head or the 
normal hairline whether the hair is thick or he is bald. The fingers are put together 
except for the thumbs which are put at each of the temples. Then the head is 
wiped to the back of the neck, which is the bottom of the skull and then it is 
brought back to the place from where you started. It is recommended to bring the 
thumbs behind the ears and back to the temples which must be wiped along with 
the rest of the face including the hair. This manner of wiping is not obligatory, but 
the basis is to acheive a comprehensive washing and to completely wipe the 
head and hair. 

If he put his hands in the vessel, that is another way of taking water for wiping the 
head. So if he brings his hands out wet after putting them in the water, whether it 
is in a vessel or not and then wipes his head, that is enough according to Malik 
without dislike and it is recommended according to Ibn al-Qasim.] 

4.6u. The Ears 

Then you pour water over your index fingers and thumbs or if you like you 
dip them into the water and with them you wipe the outside and inside of 
both ears. 

[After wiping the head, then the ears are wiped by taking water in the right hand 
and pouring it over the index finger and thumb of the left hand and the adjoining 
part of the left palm and he pours it on the same of the right hand. Then he wipes 
the outside and inside of both ears. If he wishes, he can dip the index fingers and 
thumbs in the water and then wipe with them. The first manner comes from from 
Ibn al-Qasim and the second from Malik.] 

4.6v. Women's Action in Wiping 

Women wipe their heads and ears in the same way but they have to wipe 
over any hair that is hanging loose and cannot wipe over any head 
covering. 

[The woman wipes her head and ears like the man in amount and description by 
the words of the Almighty, "Wipe your heads," and women are the sisters of men. 
She wipes over any hair hanging loose. What is well-known is the obligation to 
wipe over any of man's hair which is handing on the two sides since it will fall on 
the place of the obligation or on the face. As for that which actually extends over 
the place of the obligation, it is agreed that it is obligatory to wipe it. 

The 'head covering' is a cloth by which a woman binds her hair to protect it from 
the dust. She also does not wipe over other similar hair coverings when they are 
put next to the head because all of that is a barrier since it does not let her wipe 



what must be wiped. Otherwise it is permitted as IVIalik said that the Prophet 
wiped over his turban, which is by necessity. Imam Ahmad disagreed and said 
that there is choice in that. It is affimed that the Prophet wiped the forelock at the 
front of the head first and finished by wiping over the turban.] 

Wiping under plaits 

They should put their hands under their plaits when bringing their hands 
back to the front. 

[After the woman begins the wiping from the front of her head and reaches the 
back where the hair hangs down, she must put her hands under the plaits of hair 
to complete it, and it is sunna to bring the hands back if there is any moisture left 
on them. It is clear from his words that she does not have to undo her plaits 
because of the difficulty involved. Some people limit that to what is tied with a 
thread or two. When there are a lot of threads, it must be undone.] 

4.6w. Fourth Obligation: the Feet 

[After he finishes wiping the ears, he begins the fourth obligation, i.e. washing the 
feet. It is said that its obligation is wiping. The reason for the disagreement as to 
do with how the words of the Almighty are read and whether "your feet" is in the 
genitive or accusative. If it is accusative, then the feet are added to "face and 
hands" and there is no doubt that its obligation is washing, and so this judgement 
is given by the conjunction. If it is genitive, then it is joined to "head" and it has 
the judgement of what it is joined to, which is wiping, and so they are wiped. 
They are wiped if he is wearing leather socks. This is deduced from what the 
Prophet did since it is confirmed that he only wiped his feet when he was wearing 
leather socks. The multiple transmissions from him is that he always washed 
them when he was not wearing leather socks.] 

4.6x The Manner of Washing the Feet 

You then wash both feet pouring water onto your right foot with your right 
hand and rubbing it with your left hand little by little. You do this 
thoroughly three times. 

[ The description of washing the feet is that water is poured with the right hand 
onto the right foot which is rubbed with the left hand. Rubbing one foot with the 
other is not enough. This is the position of Ibn al-Qasim. 

Its washing is recommended to be completed by water and rubbing three times 
and should not be more than that. The washing of the feet is limited to three 
times, which is one of two well-known positions about whether the fourth is 
disliked or forbidden. The other statement is that washing the feet has no 
limitation. What is desired is to cleanse, even that is more than three. It is also 
well-known.] 

4.6y The Toes and Heels 



If you want you can put your fingers between your toes. If you do not do 
this it does not matter, but doing it makes you feel more satisfied. You then 
rub your heels and ankles and any part which water does not get to easily 
due to hardening or cracking of the skin. You should make sure you do this 
well, pouring water on the area with your hand because there is a hadith 
which says, "Woe to the heels from the Fire." The "heel" of a thing is its 
extremity or end. You then do the same thing with the left foot. 

[If he wishes, he puts water between his toes while washing them, and if he 
wishes, he leaves that, but it is better to put them between the toes and no doubt 
remains when it is done. 

Rubbing the heels can mean either the obligation or recommendation. What is 
meant is the first. He must rub all those places where the water does not 
immediately reach due to hardness or cracks as well as wrinkles in loose skin. 
The threat regarding "Woe to the heels from the Fire" does not only apply to 
heels, but to every part of the limbs of wudu'. The Prophet said that about when 
he saw that the heels had no water on them and had not been wiped with water. 
The whole process is repeated with the left foot. He did not state the limit of 
washing, and it extends to the ankles. The best known position is to include them 
in the washing.] 

4.6z Three Times 

Washing each of the limbs three times is not an actual command. You can 
do it less but three is the most you should do. If you can do it thoroughly 
with less than that it is acceptable as long as you do not leave anything 
out. Not everyone is the same in the amount of water they require to do 
wudu' thoroughly. 

[ There is no actual definition that it is not adequate if the limbs are not washed in 
wudu' three times each. Three is the limit of what can be done, and no more than 
three. Ibn Bashir transmits the consensus that the fourth time is forbidden. The 
story of the consensus of its prohibition is not established because of the 
existence of the statement that it is disliked. However prohibition can include 
what is disliked. The basis in this is that it is related that a bedouin asked the 
Messenger of Allah about wudu' and he showed him three times each. It is clear 
that he did wudu' in his presence and then said, "This is how wudu' is." Therefore 
anyone who does more than this has acted badly, transgressed and done wrong. 
If it is done throroughly with less than that, it is allowed. The maximum is 
specified, but not the mininum since it is contained in one and two and so its 
state is known and there is no need to define it. 

Not all people are the same in doing that washing thoroughly. If someone does 
not do it thoroughly with one time, then it is not allowed and specified in respect 
of him that which will achieve it. If that is only complete with two, then he intends 
the obligation by them, and the third is excellence. If it is only thorough with 
three, then the obligation is intended by it and the recommendation removes 



what is more. It is clear that the description of wudu' contains obligations, sunnas 
and virtues and the person is encouraged to peform them in the manner by which 
none of them is lacking.] 

4.7 The reward for performing wudu' 

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 
"Anyone who does wudu' and does it well and then raises his eyes to the 
sky and says, 'I bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone, without 
any partner and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and 
Messenger,' will have the eight gates of the Garden opened for him and he 
can enter by any of them he chooses." 

47a. What to say afterwards 

Some of the 'ulama' recommend saying when you finish wudu', "O Allah, 
make me one of those who turn back to You and make me one of those 
who purify themselves." 

ALLAHUMMA IJA'ALNI MINA'T-TAWWABIN WA'JA'ALNI MINA'L- 
MUTATAHHIRIN) 

[Ibn Habib says that it is recommended to say this. The 'tawwabin' are those who 
have committed wrong actions and then repented and purified themselves of the 
wrong actions. ] 

4.8 Purpose of Wudu' 

4.8a. Aim 

You must do wudu' realising that you are doing it for Allah as He has 
ordered you to do, hoping that it will be accepted and that you will get the 
reward for it and that it will purify you of your wrong actions. 

[ Scholars say that the shaykh did not speak about the intention {niyya) for wudu' 
because he did not say that he makes the intention to perform wudu' which is an 
obligation by agreement with Ibn Rushd because he did not recall any 
disagreement about its being obligatory for wudu'. That is why the agreement is 
related about its being obligatory and in the soundest position with Ibn al-Hajib. 
Opposite it there is a text on wudu' from Malik about it not being obligatory. Then 
they disagree about whether it can be deduced from his words or not. Some say 
that he does not speak about intention in the Risala at all and some of that say 
that it is deduced from his words "he must", meaning the person doing wudu' 
must be doing wudu' sincerely for Allah, not for showing off or reputation. That is 
because sincerity is commanded in the words of the Almighty, "They were only 
commanded to worship Allah making the deen sincerely His." Sincerity is that a 
person intend the Worshipped by the act of worship without actual articulation. 
The focus of the intention is the heart. Part of its precondition is that it 



accompany the first obligation in wudu', wiiicii is wasiiing tiie face. If it precedes 
it by a lot, then it is agreed that it is not permissible. There are two accepted 
positions about it preceding by a little. The best known is that it is allowed. They 
agreed that if he makes the intention after washing the face, then it is not 
adequate. The basis for the intention is that it accompany it. If it happens that he 
overlooks it, he is forgiven. 

When wudu' is done sincerely with the intention of obeying Allah's command and 
secure in himself that the action is done freely, he should hope that it will be 
accepted and he will be purified of wrong actions absed on what is in Muslim 
where the Prophet said, "When a Muslim (or a believer) does wudu' and washes 
his face, then every wrong action at which his eye looked leaves from his face 
with the water - or with the last drop of waterE" 

4.8b. Wudu' as preparation 

You should feel in yourself that it is a preparation and a cleansing for 
speaking to your Lord and standing in front of Him to carry out the acts He 
has made obligatory on you with humility in your bowing and prostration. 

[ He should know that wudu' is a preparation and a cleansing from wrong actions 
and dirt. When the legally responsible person wants to perform wudu', he does it 
sincerely for Allah Almighty desiring that Allah will accept it because he is 
purifying himself and this is in order to prepare to converse with his Lord. 
Conversing with the Lord demands sincerity of heart and devotion of inner 
consciousness to His remembrance. It is also in order to perform the obligation 
Allah has imposed on him. Bowing and prostration are specifically mentioned as 
well as humility in other actions because total humility is meant and because the 
closest a slave is to his Lord is when he is in prostration.] 

4.8c. Having Certainty 

You should do wudu' with a certainty of this, taking good care to do it 
properly for no action is complete without the right intention behind it. 

[ You should be aware that wudu' is preparation for intimate conversation with 
your Lord to order to make reverence and esteem firm in your heart. That will 
result in doing wudu' with due humility to your Master. This reverence and 
esteem will result in doing wudu' in a manner which is mindful of avoiding 
imperfections and whisperings. Actions are only according to intentions. It is 
enough that the Prophet said, "Every man has what he intends."] 



Chapter Five: Ghusl 

Evidence for it and its preconditions were already mentioned in tiie ciiapter on 
wudu'. Tiie description of giiusl contains obligations, sunnas and meritorious 
elements. The author did not clarify which are the obligations and so we will 
make that clear. There are five obligations: 

1 . Covering the entire body with water; 

2. the intention; 

3. lack of interruption; 

4. rubbing; and 

5. making water penetrate the hair, whether it is thick or there are thick plaits. 

There are five sunnas of ghusl: 

1 . washing the hands to the wrists first: 

2. rinsing the mouth; 

3. sniffing water up the nose; 

4. blowing water out the nose; 

5. and wiping the earholes. He wipes whatever he can wash of them. The 
description of the washing is to take water in the hands and tilting his head 
so the water can reach the inside of his ears. He does not pour water into 
his ears because that would entail harm. 

Its meritorious parts are seven: 

1 . the basmala; 

2. beginning by removing filth from the body; 

3. washing all the limbs of wudu' before the bath; 

4. beginning with the upper body before the lower; 

5. beginning with the right side before the left; 

6. doing the head three times; and 

7. using a small amount of water while doing ghusl completely. 

There are five disliked things: 

1 . reversing the order of the actions; 

2. pouring a lot of water; 

3. repeating the washing after having done it fully; 

4. doing ghusl in the lavatory or in a filthy place; and 

5. to purify oneself while showing the private parts. 

Ghusl is washing which covers the entire surface of the body accompanied with 
rubbing because the reality of ghusl consists of both. 

5.1. Things which make ghusl obligatory 
5.1 a. Janaba 



You must do ghusl because of janaba 

[Janaba results from two things: ejaculation and the disappearance of the end of 
the penis in the vagina.] 

5.1 b. End of menstruation or lochia 

or at the end of menstruation and the bleeding after childbirth. 

[At the cessation of the bleeding of both states, in both attribute and judgement. 
Some of them say that it is attribute rather than judgement which was already 
discussed. You are aware of the similarity in the attribute, but not in the 
judgement. The attribute is not specific to the obligation.] 

5.2 Ghusl with or without wudu' 

5.2a. Ghusl without wudu' 

If, when doing ghusl, you do not include wudu' it is acceptable 

[If the person who is purifying himself orherself from janaba, menstruation and 
lochia confines himself to ghusl without wudu', the ghusl satisfies wudu' and so 
he can pray with that ghusl without doing wudu' if he has not touched his penis 
since the minor impurity is included in the major impurity. This is when ghusl is 
obligatory, like the ghusl for janaba. As for the ghusl which is sunna or 
recommended, it goes not satisfy wudu'.] 

5.2b.What to do first 

but it is better to do wudu', having begun by washing off any impurity from 
the private parts or the rest of the body. 

[ It is better for the one who is purifying himself from janaba and the like to 
perform two meritorious actions, one of which is to begin by washing the private 
parts or any filth on his body. If he washes it with the intention of janaba and 
removes the filth, that is enough for him in the well-known position. He does not 
have to repeat his ghusl a second time. If he washes with the intention of 
removing the impurity and then does not wash it afterwards, it is not enough by 
agreement. The second meritorious action is wudu' before washing his body to 
honour the limbs of wudu'.] 

5.2c. Doing Wudu' First 

After this you do wudu' as you would for the prayer. 

[Based on his previous statement that it is better for him to do wudu', which 
linguistically is washing the hands to the wrists. So he completes the wudu' which 
he would do for the prayer. This would necessitate that he washes off any filth on 
the body or private parts before washing his hands. That is not the case since 



washing the hands is put first. So it is better to say that he speaks first about the 
judgement, and secondly about the actual description. 

Another matter remains. It is whether he repeats washing the hands a second 
time after washing his penis without the intention of janaba or not. The hadith of 
Maymuna demands that after the filth is removed, the hands are not washed 
again. That is the definite position of some people, but most of the commentators 
of Khalil say that he washes them again.] 

5.2d. The question of the feet 

If you want to, you can include your feet, or if you want, you can leave them 
to the end. 

[His words show that he can choose between washing his feet before washing 
his body or delay that. Some of them therefore say that he can choose between 
washing his feet before or later. The well-known statement is that he washes his 
feet before absolutely whether the place where he washing is clean of filth or not. 
The evidence for the accepted position is in the Muwatta' that "whenever the 
Messenger of Allah performed ghusl for janaba, he would begin by washing his 
hands, and then did wudu' as for the prayer. "So it is clear that he did a full 
wudu', which is the school of Malik and ash-Shafi'i. Al-Fakhani said that it is the 
well-known position. It is said that he can absolutely delay washing them whether 
the place is clean or not. The position about delaying them is more evident than 
the well-known position based on what is in the two Sahih collections that the 
Prophet used to delay washing his feet to the end of his washing and then he 
would wash them.] 

5.3. Description of Wudu' 

5.3a. Putting the hands in the vessel 

Then you immerse your hands completely in the water container, take them 
out without holding any water in them, and rub the roots of your hair with 
your fingertips. 

[After he has finished wudu', he puts his hands in the vessel if it is open. If it is 
closed, he pours the water on them. He takes them out uncupped without any 
actual water other than the traces of the water and he rubs the roots of the head, 
beginning from the back of the skull. There are two benefits in rubbing in fiqh: the 
speed of making water reach the skin, and medicinal, which is that it prepares 
the head for the water so that it will not be harmed when the water is poured on it 
afterwards since the pores of the skin will be closed.] 

5.3b.Three handfuls of water 

You then take out three handfuls of water washing your head throughly 
with each one. 



[After finishing rubbing tiie roots of liead, water is scooped on tiie iiead tiiree 
times wiiile rubbing iiis iiead witii tiiem. Tiie entire iiead must be covered witii 
eacii of tiie tiiree iiandfuls and there must not be less than three, even if it is all 
covered with one and does his separate parts with it. If three is not enough, he 
does more until it is covered.] 

5.3c. Women's hair 

Women do the same as this. They gather up their hair and do not have to 
undo their plaits. 

[The woman washes filth off and does wudu' first and wets the roots of the hair 
as a man does. She gathers up and holds her hair and it is neither obligatory or 
recommended in the ghusl for janaba or menstruation for her to undo her plaits. 
The evidence for what he said is in Muslim where Umm Salama said, 
"Messenger of Allah, I am a woman who keeps her hair closely plaited. Do I have 
to undo it for ghusl after sexual defilement?" He replied, "It is enough for you to 
throw three handfuls over your head and then pour the water over yourself. Then 
you will be purified." It is an argument for the one who says that rubbing is not a 
precondition because the pouring washes away. As the woman is not obliged to 
undo her plaits, she is not obliged to remove her ring, even if it is tight, or her 
bracelets, nor is it obligatory for a man to remove a permissible ring, even if it is 
tight.] 

5.3d. Pouring water on right side 

You then pour water over your right side, then over the left, rubbing the 
body with both hands immediately the water has been poured so that the 
whole body is covered. 

[ After washing his head, he begins to wash his body by washing the entire right 
side beginning from the top and then does the same with the left side. It is 
obligatory to rub it in the well-known position. From what he says it appears that 
he does not rub after pouring water on the right side until water is poured on the 
left side. When water is poured on the left side, he rubs both sides. Something 
similar is stated in Tahqiq al-Mabani. It is clear that he rubs the right side before 
pouring on the left side. That is how you find it elsewhere. He rubs with both 
hands if that is possible. It is not possible, he delegates someone else to do to do 
the rubbing. The area between the navel and knees can only be rubbed by 
someone who can touch that directly - a wife or slavegirl. If he does not find 
anyone to do that, it is enough to pour the water over his body without rubbing. If 
he delegates someone when it is not necessary, that is not allowed in the well- 
known position. The rubbing should be done after the water has been poured, 
and that is evident.] 

5.3e. Covering the entire body 

If you have any doubt about water reaching any part of your body you pour 
water over it again. 



[The water must cover all the body to discharge the responsibility and it is only 
satisfied when he is certain. If there is any doubt about whether or not the water 
has reached the limbs of person performing the bathing, then he is obliged to 
pour water over himself again, and it is not enough to wash it with water still on 
his body.] 

5.3f. Rubbing 

rubbing with your hand until you are certain every part of your body has 
been covered. 

[There must be rubbing or whatever takes its place if that is impossible. It is like 
that when he is unsure about whether or not he has rubbed a place on his body. 
He takes water again and rubs it until he is certain of that. It is enough that he 
thinks it probable, differing from those who say that it is not enough. If it is 
enough to make the water reach the skin, which is agreed upon, it is better to 
carry out the rubbing which is disputed. He must repeat until he is sure that his 
entire body has been covered.] 

5.3g. Inaccessible areas 

You must make sure that you include the inside of the navel, under your 
chin, that you put your fingers right through your beard, that you rub under 
your armpits, between your buttocks and thighs, behind your knees, not 
forgetting the heels and the soles of your feet. You also make sure you rub 
between each finger. 

[The water and rubbing must include all these areas, the throat and that which is 
under the beard, putting the fingers through the hair of the beard. The hair of the 
head is not mentioned because it was already dealt with, and other hair must be 
washed as well, like the eyebrows, eyelashes, moustache, armpits and pubic 
region. Inside the navel must be washed, which a place where dirt gathers, 
between the buttocks which must be relaxed so that water reaches the folds of 
the anus, but not inside the anus. Also inside the thighs, which is between the 
anus and penis, behind the knees, and the soles of the feet. It is obligatory to put 
water between the fingers which would have been covered a prior wudu'. 
Otherwise it is done in ghusl. He does not mention things which are far from 
water, like the lines of the brow and hollows of the outside eyelids and under the 
nostrils and other places since that was covered in wudu'.] 

5.3h.The feet 

If you have delayed washing your feet, you wash them last, thereby 
completing both your ghusl and your wudu'. 

[If they were not washed first, then they are washed, completing the obligatory 
ghusl and recommended wudu'. If he delayed washing the feet in wudu', he 
washes them with the intention of wudu' and ghusl. ] 



5.4. Avoiding touching tlie penis: 

5.4a. After the ghusl 

You should be careful not to touch your penis with the inside of your hand 
when rubbing your body but if you do, having already completed your 
ghusl, you have to do wudu' again. 

[When he does wudu' on account of janaba after washing the uncleanness from 
his private parts with the intention of removing janaba, he should be careful about 
touching the penis. It is mentioned because it is the most common of several 
things which break wudu'. Wudu' is only obliged by touching the penis with the 
inside of the hand. It appears from this that wudu' is not obliged for touching the 
penis unless it is done with the inside of the hand. That is the position of Imam 
Ashhab. The school of Ibn al-Qasim is that wudu' is obliged for touching the 
penis with the inside of the hand or the fingers. In the Mukhtasar of Shaykh 
Khalil, he adds "or by the sides of the fingers". If you touch the penis deliberately 
or forgetfully and you have finished wudu', then wudu' must be repeated if you 
want to pray. Otherwise it is not necessary to repeat it until you wish to pray. as 
is the case with other ritual impurities. It is necessary to have an intention to 
repeat wudu' if he wants to pray, because his major impurity has been removed 
and so some say that the intention for wudu' must be renewed which is agreed 
upon.] 

5.4b. touching the penis before ghusl is completed 

But if you touch it at the beginning of your ghusl, after having washed the 
areas included in wudu', you should then go over them again with water in 
the right order and with the intention of doing wudu'. 

[ All or part, as is transmitted from Abu 'lmran. It makes no difference whether he 
washes them first and then touches or whether he has washed some of them. 
Following the correct order is recommended. We consider that the correct 
sequence in wudu' is sunna. It is evident that he means that it is not obligatory in 
the sunna. It is said that it is referring to the obligations of wudu', its sunnas and 
its meritorious actions. It is said that it refers to making water flow on the limbs 
and rubbing. On this basis and on the basis of what is before it it must mean that 
it is obligatory. 

There is disagreement about the renewing the intention of wudu'. The author 
says that it is obliged to renew the intention of wudu'. If he intends to remove the 
major impurity, that is not enough. He is in the position of someone doing wudu' 
who is not in janaba who intends to remove major impurity. Al-Qabisi says that 
he is not obliged to renew it. The basis of the disagreement is whether each limb 
which is purifies first or its own is purified without the full completion. If we said 
the first, then it is obliged to renew it because its purity has gone with the ritual 
impurity and so it is obliged to make an intention to wash it again. If we state the 
second, then it is not obliged to renew it because it remains and so we include it 



in the intention for tiie greater purity. 



Chapter Six: Tayammum and Its Description 

6.1 When it is done 

[If you cannot find water, then you must do tayyamum, which is recommended. 
Linguistically tayammum means aiming for something. The Almighty says, "Do 
not have recourse to bad things," (2:267) i.e. aim for them. In the Shari'a it is a 
legal act of worship by which the prayer becomes allowed. This means that the 
Shari'a has judged it. This exists in wudu' and ghusl. By it the prayer is permitted 
when wudu' and ghusl are excluded because tayammum is only to make lawful. 
Wudu' and ghusl are done in order to remove impurity. It is obligatory by the 
Book, Sunna and consensus. The Almighty says, "If you cannot find any water, 
then do tayammum with pure earth," (4:43) and in Muslim the Prophet said, "We 
were preferred over people by three things: our rows were made like the rows of 
the angels, the entire earth was made a mosque for us and its earth is 
purification if we do not find water." The consensus is that tayammum is 
obligatory when water is lacking or the ability to use it lacking it. There are 
preconditions for the obligation: Islam, adulthood, sanity, absence of the blood of 
menstruation or lochia, the arrival of the time, lack of water or lack of ability to 
use it, and that there is no barrier over the limbs and nothing which precludes it.] 

6.1 a. On a journey 

If you are on a journey and you cannot find water, you have to do 
tayammum, provided that you do not expect to find any water before the 
time for the prayer has finished. 

[The situation is that either that there is no water to be found at all or a judgement 
that he will not find enough water for wudu' or ghusl in a journey (or while 
resident), whether short or not, whether the traveller is healthy or not, and 
whether the journey is permissible or not, because the allowance for doing it on a 
journey or while resident does not have the precondition that the journey be for 
something permissible. If the allowance is only in the journey, like breaking the 
fast in Ramadan, then the journey must be permissible and it must be a distance 
of at least four postal stages, like that for shortening the prayer. 

Thus the mere absence of water is only a reason for the obligation of tayammum 
when he despairs of finding water or he thinks it probable that there is no water. 
It is not the case if he is unsure or hopes for water or is certain of finding water 
within the time. 

What is meant by the obligation is the widest period of obligation. The one who 
has despaired is someone who has searched for it in a manner which is not 
arduous for someone like him. He is only obliged to seek if he hopes to find it or 
suspects its presence. If he is certain that he does not exist, then he does not 
look for it in the time. By 'time', the preferred time is meant.] 

6.1 b. Lacl< of ability 



You also have to do tayammum even when there is water, whether on a 
journey or staying in one place, if you are unable to touch water on account 
of illness or are disabled by illness to such an extent that although you 
could use it, you are unable to get to it and cannot find anyone else to 
bring it to you. 

[ This is wiien tiiere is water and you are unable to use it, on a journey or at 
iiome, because of illness which prevents using it since you fear that using it will 
cause death, loss of use of a faculty or limb, increased illness, delayed recovery, 
or will actually cause a illness. If he does not fear any of that, but is only pained 
by it, he must continue to do wudu' or ghusl. So tayammum is obliged for 
someone who is healthy when water exists because he cannot use it because 
illness would occur, or for a sick person who is able to use it, but does not find 
anyone to bring it to him, even for a payment equal to the price which the seller 
would oblige or it or he does not find a vessel or he only finds a forbidden vessel 
or cannot pay for using it.] 

6.1 c. Danger 

The same applies to someone travelling who is near water but prevented 
from reaching it because of the fear of thieves or wild animals. 

[ This is also true about the traveller who is near water but cannot reach it out of 
fear of thieves as he must preserve his property and the property of others. The 
property must be more than what he would have to pay to buy water. It must be 
ascertained that they exist or he thinks that it is probable that they exist. 
Uncertainty is not taken into consideration. The same applies if he fears for 
himself from wild animals when he is certain about that or thinks that it is 
probable.] 

6.1 d. Certainty about reaching water 

If a traveller feels certain that he will get to water within the time of the 
prayer, he avoids doing tayammum until the end of the time. 

[Whether he is in a journey where he shortens the prayer or not and he is certain 
that he will find enough water for wudu' or ghusl, it is recommended that that he 
delay tayammum. The upshot of the fiqh in the matter is that one of the 
preconditions of the obligation of tayammum is the arrival of the time. The 
judgement in it varies according to the state of the person doing tayammum 
because either he is certain that water will exist in the time or he will reach it or 
he despairs of finding it or reaching it, or he is unsure about finding it or reaching 
it in time or hopes to find it or reach it in time. The author clarifies these 
circumstances and indicates it when he says, "If a traveller feels certain." In fact, 
it is not particular to the traveller, but applies to all who are permitted to do 
tayammum due to the absence of water. When he is certain that water exists or 
that he will reach it within the time or thinks that it is probable that it exists or that 
he will reach it in time, then it is recommended to delay tayammum to the end of 



the time.] 

6.1 e. Certainty about not reaching water 

If he feels certain he will not get to water he should do tayammum at the 
beginning of the time. 

[This is about the absence of water or the failure to reach it in time after seeking 
for it. If there is what obliges seeking, then it is recommended that he do 
tayammum at the beginning of the time to obtain the excellence of the time 
because the excellence of water is despaired of. That is how it is judged by the 
one who thinks it probable that it will not exist within the time or will not be found 
in it.] 

6.1 f. Uncertainty about reaching water 

If he does not know whether he will get to water or not, he should do 
tayammum in the middle of the time. This also applies to someone who is 
afraid that he will not be able to get to water but nevertheless hopes that he 
will. 

[ If he is unsure about finding it, it is recommended to do it in the middle of the 
time. It is affirmed by Shaykh Ahmad Zarruq that what is meant is uncertainty 
about reaching it. He said that there is no difference between it and what before it 
according to the Maliki School. Although it is sound from the aspect of the 
judgement, the author's words imply a difference when based on what is meant 
by the one who hopes. He said that the words of the author contain something 
different from the position of the School. That is because his literal words say that 
the one who hopes does not delay, but does tayammum in the middle of the 
time. It is not as he said. His judgement is that of the one who is certain and the 
one who is certain delays to the end of the time. Ibn Harun said, "I do not know of 
anyone who transmitted that the one who hopes does tayammum in the middle 
of the time except Ibn Abi Zayd. Ibn Naji said that it is possible that it refutes his 
words. According to the words of Ibn Naji by "fears" the author means 
'suspects".] 

6.2 Finding Water after doing Tayammum 

If, under any of these circumstances, you do tayammum and do the prayer 
and then come across water within the time of the prayer the following 
judgements apply. 

[ These seven who can do taymmum are: the sick person who cannot touch 
water, the sick person who cannot find anyone to bring him water, the traveller 
who is near water but is prevented from reaching it by fear of thieves or animals, 
the traveller who is certain that water will exist within the time, the one who 
despairs of finding it within the time, the one who has no knowledge, and the 
fearful one who hopes to find it. This is what happens if such a person (except for 



the sick person who cannot use water then find water or the sick person who 
can, but does not find anyone to bring him the water) finds water. Finding water 
means having the ability to use it, its existence, or the existence of a vessel to 
bring it.] 

6.2.a A sick person 

A sick person who could not find anybody to bring water to him should do 
the prayer again. 

[It is recommended that he does the prayer again within the time. The rule for the 
sick person who does not find anyone to bring him water or any vessel with 
which to bring the water is to delay tayammum to the middle of the time. If he 
does the necessary tayammum in the middle of the time and prays and then 
before the end of the time of the prayer then that which stops him from using the 
water is removed, as when he finds what will enable him to obtain it, then it is 
recommended for him to repeat the prayer within the time if he is restricted in that 
people do not come in to him often. If people come in to him often, then he has 
no restriction, then he does not have to repeat it.] 

6.2b. A Fearful person 

This also applies to someone who was afraid of wild animals or other 
dangers of that sort, and to a traveller who was afraid he would not get to 
water but hoped that he would. If you have done tayammum for any other 
reason, you should not repeat the prayer. 

[ The one who fears for himself from wild animals or for his property from thieves 
is like the sick person who does not find anyone to bring him water in the time. It 
is recommended that he repeat the prayer when he gets water within the time. 
The result is that when the person who is afraid of animals does tayammum in 
the middle if the time, it is recommended that he repeat it in the time with four 
provisos. That is that he is certain that water exists or that he will find it were it 
not for his fear. His fear must be definite or likely and he ascertains the absence 
of what he fears and the existence of water itself. If he is not certain that it exists 
or that he will reach it, or what he fears is clear, or none of it is certain and 
someone else finds it, he does not repeat if. If his fear is a simple doubt, then he 
always repeats it. ] 

6.2c. A traveller 

and to a traveller who was afraid he would not get to water but hoped that 
he would. 

[When he finds water within the time, it is recommended that he repeat the 
prayer he has prayed in the time allotted for it, which is the middle. Part of the 
subject is that it is better if it is advanced. What is meant by 'fear' in the words of 
the author is uncertainty about reaching it. It is recommended for the one who 
prayed in the time allotted to it to repeat it within the time. That is even more the 



case if he has advanced it. As for the one who is unsure about whether it exists, 
if he does it before the middle of the time allotted for it, then he repeats it. If he 
prayed in the middle of the time allotted for it, he does not have to repeat it. The 
difference between them is that the one who is unsure about reaching it, has a 
sort of falling short and so he is asked to repeat it. As for the one who is unsure 
about whether it exists, he relies on the basis, which is its non-existence.] 

6.2d. Other reasons 

If you have done tayammum for any other reason than these three, you 
should not repeat the prayer. 

[It appears from his words that the one who despairs does not repeat the prayer 
when he finds water absolutely. It is not like that, and it must be explained. If he 
finds the water which he despaired of, he repeats it. If he finds other water, he 
does not repeat it. It also seems from his words that someone who finds water in 
his bag or saddle or forgets it is there and then remembers it, does not have to 
repeat it. The one who acts deliberately in the three cases has to repeat it, which 
differs from the literal words of the author.] 

6.3 Frequency 

6.3a. Number of fard prayers with one tayammum 

You should not pray two fard prayers with one tayammum except if you are 
ill and cannot touch water because of some harm to your body which will 
last at least until the time of the next prayer. 

[ None of those seven categories should pray two obligatory or sunna prayers at 
home or on a journey. whether they share in the time or not, with the same 
tayyamum except for the person with a constant illness which will continue to the 
time of the second prayer. It may happen that he does not do the first prayer in 
its time, either intentionally or by forgetfulness or ignorance. In that case he can 
pray them both together with one tayammum. This is a general judgement for 
prayers at home and on a journey.] 

6.3b. For each prayer 

Although there are some who say that even in this situation you should do 
tayammum again for each prayer. 

[For each obligatory prayer, whether he is healthy or ill, travelling or at home.] 

6.3c. A number of missed prayers 

It has been related from Malik that someone who remembers not having 
done a number of prayers can do them with one tayammum. 

[ This is a number of fard prayers which he missed by forgetfulness or by 



sleeping through them or deliberately not praying them and then repenting and 
wanting to make them up: he can pray them with one tayammum, whether 
healthy or ill, travelling or at home. 

The first statement is by Ibn Sha'ban and the second is by Ibn al-Qasim and is 
the famous one. This is why it was rejected by the shaykh when he was ill at 
midday when someone else suggested it to him. According to the well-known 
position, if he disagrees and prays two prayers with one tayammum, whether 
they are shared or not, he does not ever have to make up the second. 

According to his words at the beginning of the chapter about the time, one does 
tayammum for the obligatory prayer absolutely, even for Jumu'a. That is not the 
case, since the healthy person who is resident does not do tayammum for 
Jumu'a since it is a substitute for Dhuhr. He prays Dhuhr with tayammum, even 
at the beginning of the time. If he prays Jumu'a with tayammum, that is not 
acceptable. The sick person and the traveller can do tayammum for it. It That is 
also the case with the funeral prayer. The healthy resident does not do 
tayammum for it unless it becomes a specific obligation for him since no one else 
is found who can pray it nor is it possible to delay it until he can obtain water.] 

6.3d. Voluntary prayers 

[As for the sunnas and the voluntary prayers, the traveller but not the heathy 
resident person does tayammum for them, i.e the one who is obliged to do 
tayammum because of lack of water. The judgement of the healthy resident for 
whom tayammum is obliged out of fear of illness is like that of the sick person 
and he does tayammum for Jumu'a and the funeral, even if it is not a specific 
obligation, and for the sunna and voluntary prayers. If he intends an obligatory 
prayer by his tayammum, he is permitted to pray the voluntary prayer with it 
afterwards with the precondition that it is connected to the obligation, even if he 
did not intend the voluntary prayer after the obligatory. It is limited to prayers 
which are after the obligatory, although if he prays a voluntary prayer before it, it 
is valid by his statement, 'provided that it is connected to the obligatory.' 

If there is a long separation or he leaves the mosque, he must repeat his 
taymmum if he wants to pray the voluntary prayers. A short separation is 
overlooked. That is defined as about the length it takes to recite Ayat al-Kursi. It 
is also a precondition that he does not do more than the voluntary. What is 
"more" is defined by custom. 

6.3e. What can be used for tayammum 

Tayammum is done using pure surface earth, that is any substance on the 
earth's surface such as soil, sand, stones, or salt deposits. 

["Pure" is how the people of firm knowledge and those who know fiqh explain 
"tayyib" where Allah says,"do tayammum with clean earth," Tayyib means pure 
earth in Arabic and that is what Malik said. Malik said that sa'id means what is on 
the surface of the earth in accordance with Arab usage. Others believe that the 



sa'id in the ayat designates pure eartii found on tiie surface of tiie eartii or 
brougiit out from inside of it. Tiiis includes salt desposits, and secretions. 
Tayammum is not done deliberately on wood, plants and grass and groups. The 
literal meaning of his words is that tayammum can be done on stones, even hard 
ones, if there is no soil as long as it has not been baked. It is not permitted to do 
tayammum on lime nor baked bricks, which are red bricks. Tayammum can be 
done on soil, whether it has been moved or not, although it is better when it is not 
moved by agreement. The first is based on the well-known position. 

One does not do tayammum on other things than earth. Things like salt, alum, 
sulphur, copper and iron are not used for tayammum except in their original place 
or moved from one place to another. But it is cannot be in a form which is firm in 
people's hands, like medicines. As for what can be held in people's hands like 
medicines, it is not valid to use them for tayammum.] 

6.4 How to do it 

6.4a. Beginning tayammum 

To do tayammum you hit both hands on the ground - if anything clings to 
them it should be lightly shaken off - 

[This clariifies how tayammum is done. He strikes both hands on the ground. If 
he is missing a hand, he does tayammun with the other. If he is unable to do it, 
someone does it for him. If he cannot delgate someone, he rubs his face in the 
dust. What is meant by 'striking' is not actual striking. What is meant is to place 
his hands on the surface used for tayammum, soil or whatever. This 'striking' is 
an obligation. It is not a precondition that anything clings to his hands. If 
something clings to them, he shakes them lightly so that some people consider 
this shaking as one of the meritorious parts of tayammum so that it does not 
harm his face.] 

6.4b. The Intention 

[Before beginning, the one doing tayammum must intend earth and nothing else 
with which tayammum is not valid. He must intend to make the prayer lawful or 
intend the obligation of tayammum in the first striking. If he is in minor impurity, 
he intends to make the prayer permissible from the lesser impurity. If he is in 
greater impurity, he intends to make the prayer lawful from the greater impurity. If 
he does not call the major impurity to mind and thus omits the intention regarding 
the greater impurity intentionally or by forgetfulness, and prays with that 
tayammum, then he must always repeat the prayer. If he intends the greater 
impurity, believing that he has it and then the opposite is clear, then it allows the 
lesser. When he intends the obligations of tayammum, it is enough for him, even 
if the intention of the greater does not occur to him, If he intends to remove the 
impurity, it is enough enough for him in the well-known position. Tayammum 
does not remove lesser impurity. It only makes the prayer permissible.] 



6.4c. Wiping the face 

then using both of them you wipe over your whole face. 

[After shaking his hands, then he wipes his face and does not omit any of it. He 
does not miss the cartilage of the upper ear and other things. If he leaves any of 
the wiping of all of the face, even a little, then it is not allowed. He begins from 
the top, as in wudu' and runs his hands over the length of it to his beard. He 
passes over the lines of the face, because the basis of wiping is doing it lightly.] 

6.4d. Stril<ing the ground a second time 

Then you hit both hands on the ground again 

[The second blow is for wiping the hands by way of sunna. It is not said how the 
obligation is done in a sunna manner because we say after the obligation that the 
second comes after the first so if he fails to strike the earth the second time and 
then wipes his face and hands with the first, it is adequate.] 

6.4e. Wiping the hands 

and then wipe your right hand and arm with your left hand. To do this you 
put the fingers of your left hand on the tips of the fingers of your right. 
Then you slide your fingers down the back of your right hand and arm, as 
far as the elbow, folding your fingers round it as you do so. thoroughly. 

[ The recommended manner of wiping is to first wipe the right with the left, putting 
the fingers on the right on the left except for the thumbs. The palm is passed over 
the top of the hand and arm to the elbow. It appears from the words of the author 
that the elbow is not wiped because it is the end. It is said that he meant 
including the elbows as is done with wudu' since tayammum replaces it. 

Wiping to the elbows is sunna, and to the wrists is obligatory according to what is 
in al-Mukhtasar. Al-Bisami adds to it by saying that the well-known position of the 
school is that wiping is to the elbows is obligatory. The dispute is when it is 
confined to the wrists and he prays. The well-known position is that he repeats 
the prayer if still within the time. An opposite position is that he must always 
repeat it. This consequence is rejected. Al-Muqaddamat (\bn Rushd) prefers that 
which is followed in al-Mukhtasar, and Qadi 'lyad summarised it in his Oawa'id, 
and it is preferred. 

The well-position of the school is that the fingers go between each other, and that 
is by the flat sides of the fingers, not the sides because they have not touched 
earth. The well-known position is also that a ring is removed and moving it from 
its place can be done instead of actually removing it. The difference between 
tayammum and wudu' is said to lie in the fact that the ring is removed in 
tayammum but not in wudu' because of the force of the water flowing in wudu' 
which is not the case with earth. 



6.4f. Wiping the inside of the right hand 

Then you put your palm on the inside of your arm and, gripping your arm, 
slide your hand from your elbow just back as far as your wrist 

[After wiping tiie outside of tiie rigiit liand, using tiie palm, because tiie fingers 
because tiie fingers were already use on the outside of the hand except for the 
thumb. ] 

6.4g. The thumb 

and then run the inside of the left thumb over the outside of your right 
thumb. 

[This is because it was not wiped before. What he mentioned about wiping the 
thumbs was also mentioned by Ibn at-Talla' who is Muhammad ibn Farah, the 
shaykh of the fugaha' in his time. The literal of the transmission, which is relied 
upon, it wiping the outside of the right thumb with the outside of the fingers. Al- 
Fakhani said, "I do not know of anyone of the people of language who transmit 
that the thumb is the largest "finger"]. 

6.4h. The Left hand 

You then wipe over the left hand and arm in the same way and after 
reaching the wrist you wipe your right palm with the left down to the tips of 
the fingers. 

[After finishing the right, then do the left to the wrist. The tips of the fingers 
designates the inside of the palm and fingers. Observe how he is silent about the 
left palm unless he says that each of them wipes and is wiped. This is the 
description which the shaykh mentioned and it was also mentioned by Shaykh 
Khalid. He begins with the outside of the right hand with the left and moves to the 
left before completing the right. This was transmitted by Ibn Habib from Malik. Ibn 
al-Qasim said, "He only moves to the left after finishing the right." Al-Lakhmi and 
'Abdu'l-Haqq preferred that. The position of Ibn al-Qasim is preferred. The basis 
of the preference is that moving to the second before completing the first misses 
out the excellence of proper order between right and left. Some of the shaykhs 
recommend the transmission of Ibn Habib so that he does not wipe the dust on 
the palm, but the one with the reliable position says that the remaining of the dust 
is not sought aso that its judgement should be observed.] 

6.41. Other methods of wiping 

If you wipe the right with the left or the left with the right in some other way 
that you find easy, that is acceptable as long as it is done fully. 

[ If you differ from the recommended manner, your tayammum is still allowed. It 
only differs from the best manner. One can deduce from his words, "done fully" 
that if he does not wipe his forearms, it is not allowed because the arms are 



mentioned in wiping. Tiie well-known position is that if he confines hismelf to the 
wrists and then prays, then he repeats it within the time.] 

6.5 Judgements about someone in a major state of impurity 

6.5a. Tayammum for janaba or end of menstruation 

If someone is in a state of janaba, or has been menstruating, and cannot 
find any water to do ghusl with, they should do tayammum and do the 
prayer and then when they find water they should do ghusl. 

[ Even if someone like this finds enough water for wudu', they still do tayammum 
following the previous information regarding the possibility of finding water which 
is not repeated here. Tayammum is obliged when there is no water. He mentions 
it here to refute those who say that someone in a state of janaba and or a woman 
who has been menstruating do not do tayammum.] 

6.5b. Not repeating prayers done with tayammum 

They do not have to repeat any prayers they have done. 

[Because their prayer occurs in manner which is commanded. The literal import 
of his words is that that is the case in the time or after it. It is explained that it is 
repeated within the time in the instances which were already mentioned. Its literal 
meaning is that is the case or not whether there is impurity on their bodies. It is 
the text of the Mudawwana and it restricted by there not being any impurity on 
the body. If there is impurity in his body and he prays with it by forgetfulness and 
they remember after they have finished, then they repeat it within the time. The 
statement of the author about not repeating it is informing about when water is 
found after they have prayed with tayammum. If there is water before the prayer, 
and there is enough time for ghusl and the prayer, even a rak'at, within the time, 
then tayyamum is invalid. If they find it after the time has begun and before it 
finished, even if the time is ample, or the time has begun, but there is not enough 
time for a ghusl and still catching a rak'at, they pray with tayammum.] 

6.6 Further judgements about tayammum 

6.6a. Taymmum does not make intercourse permissible 

A man cannot have sexual intercourse with his wife if she has just finished 
menstruating or the bleeding after childbirth if she has only purified herself 
by tayammum until there is enough water for her to do ghusl first and both 
of them to do ghusl afterwards. 

[ This is whether she is a Muslim or a kitabi or a slave girl. According to the well- 
known position, it is forbidden for him to have intercourse with her. This does not 
only imply to actual intercourse, but enjoying her between the navel and knee, 
even through a barrier, is unlawful. Finding water can either be his responsibility 
or the responsibility of both.] 



6.6b. Water for ghusl after intercourse 

[There must be enough water for ghusl on account of bleeding and then for ghusl 
on account of janaba. This explains the words at the end of the book about not 
approaching a woman bleeding from menstruation or lochia because the literal 
meaning is would be that when the bleeding stops, he is permitted to have 
intercourse, and so here he explains that even if menstruation has stopped, 
intercourse is not permitted, even with tayammum. Intercourse is forbidden in the 
well-known position beause tayammum does not remove impurity. It only makes 
the prayer permitted. The words of author show that tayammum is called 
'purification,' and that is indeed the case since the Prophet said, "Its earth is 
pure." It is also called wudu' by since the Prophet said, "Tayammum is the wudu' 
of the Muslim.] 

6.6c. Avoiding janaba if there is no water 

[It is also deduced from this that he if he does not find water, he should not 
voluntarily bring about a state of janaba in himself. That is the position of Malik in 
al-Mudawwana, i.e. that it is disliked. if he does tayammum for the lesser 
impurity, he should not bring about janaba in himself so that he has to do 
tayammum for the greater impurity. This does not negate what was already 
stated about the unlawfulness in the statement of the author about having 
intercourse, because the unlawfulness comes from his going to have intercourse 
with her when she has purified herself from menstruation by tayammum. This is 
is when he does not fear any harm to his body or fear fornication. If he is 
physically harmed by the length of time or fears fornication, then he has 
intercourse and does tayammum. 

Other matters relating to tayammum will be mentioned in the general 
chapter on the prayer. 



Chapter Seven: on Wiping Over Leather Socks 

This chapter is about the judgement regarding wiping over leather socks, the lack 
of a defined period of time in for doing that, what invalidates it, some of its 
preconditions, its description and what makes wiping forbidden. 

7.1. Its Judgement 

You can wipe over leather socks 

[It is an allowance to wipe which is understood from the context or from wiping 
because there must be a wiper, man or women. 

It is permitted to wipe over leather socks. It is a dispensation, but washing is 
better than it. The permission applies to what is understood by leather socks. 
They resemble galouches, which are thick socks with no legs, and they resemble 
socks which have the form of leather socks, but are made from cotton and 
covered with leather. The basis for its legality is that the Prophet did it.] 

7.1 a. Location 

either when travelling or otherwise permitted, 

[Wiping over socks is an allowance and so it is not particular to the traveller and it 
is permitted to do at home and on a journey. In the well-known position, it is not a 
precondition for the wiping that the journey be for something permissible.] 

7.1 b. As long as the socks have not been removed 

provided you have not taken them off. 

[Wiping over socks is not limited by a known period of time. It is related from 
Malik that its maximun length when someone is resident is a day and a night, and 
three days in a journey. This allowance continues, and it is permitted to wipe over 
them without limit within that period until he removes them. If he removes them, it 
is agreed that it is invalid to wipe over them and he should hasten to wash his 
feet again. 

If he delays washing them deliberately for as long as it takes the limbs of wudu' 
to dry, he does wudu'. He is like the one who is unable and the one who forgets 
and builds on his wudu', whether it is long or not. If he removes one sock he must 
remove the other as well, and wash both feet. It is not permitted to wipe over one 
of them while washing the other. 

7.1 c. Preconditions of Wiping 

[Wiping has ten preconditions, five of which concern what is wiped and five which 
concern the person who wipes. 



The preconditions in wiiat is wiped are: 

1 . Tiiat tiiey are made of leatiier and are not tiiings like cotton socks 

2. They are pure and not impure, like the skin of carrion, even if it is tanned 

3. They are not polluted and pierced except something like glue; 

4. They must cover the place of the obligation (to the ankles) without missing 
any of it 

5. and he must be able to walk in them without them being overly loose-fitting 
or narrow. Otherwise, it is not permitted to wipe over them. 

The preconditions of the wiper are: 

1 . That he is not a rebelling against Allah by wearing them, and so the man in 
ihram does not wipe over the socks or affluent by wearing them. This is 
when the affluent person wears them to avoid the bother of washing the feet 
or other things which have the sense of indulgent affluence. Such a person 
is not permitted to wipe over them and must always repeat it. If he ears to 
them to protect himself from heat or cold or to imitate the Prophet, then he 
can wipe over them. 

2. He must put them on while pure. The one who puts them on does not wipe 
over impurity, even they are washed. 

3. The one who puts them on in state of purity by tayammum cannot wipe. 

4. He must fully wash the limbs of wudu' before putting them on. 

5. He does not just wash his feet and put them on then finish doing wudu', or 
wash one foot and then put it on before washing the other. If he removes 
them at the beginning and then puts them on after full purity or removes the 
one he is wearing and then and puts it on after washing the second, then he 
can wipe. The meaning is that the prayer is permitted by it to when he is 
afraid of going wudu' on account of the cold.] 

7.1 d. When the socks were put on 

This is if you put them on after you have washed them as part of wudu' for 
doing the prayer. It is in this situation that, if you then breal< wudu', you are 
entitled to wipe over your leather socks when doing wudu'. 

[This contains some of the preconditions which permit wiping. His words, "after 
you have washed them" means that they were put on while in a state of purity 
which is achieved by water. His words, "for doing the prayer" means that it is 
complete in the senses and meaning. So the one who puts on the socks after 
wudu' and having fulfilled all the preconditions is allowed to wipe when he breaks 
wudu' by lesser impurity. It is limited to lesser impurity because major impurity 
invalidates wiping because it obliges that they be washed.] 

7.1 e. When it is not permitted 

In any other case it is not permitted. 

[If it is not like that since he was not pure when he put them or or he had purified 



himself with earth or put them on before his purification with water was 
complete,then it is not permitted.] 

7.2. Description 

7.2a. Right Foot and removing impurity 

The way you do the wiping is to put your right hand on the top of your foot 
beginning at the toes and your left hand underneath. Then you pass your 
hands over your foot as far as the anl<le. 

[This is the recommended manner of wiping. The ankles are included in the 
wiping as in wudu' because that is indicated. It is disliked to follow the creases in 
it because the basis for wiping is lightening. It is disliked to repeat the wiping or to 
wash it. If he does that, it is still allowable. It is recommended for him to wipe 
when he is going to pray to wash them with the intention of wudu' only or to add 
the intention of removing mud or impurity, even it if is overlooked. If he washes 
with the intention of removing the mud or impurity, or he does not intend 
anything, it is not enough.] 

7.2b. Left foot 

You do the same thing with the left foot except that you put the left hand on 
top and the right hand underneath. 

[The hands are reversed here. Ibn Shiblun said that the left is like the right 
according to the literal meaning of the Mudawwana. What is mentioned about 
wiping on the top and bottom of the leather socks at the same time is agreed 
upon. The disagreement is about the amount which must be wiped. Ashhab 
believes that if he confines himself to wiping the top or bottom of the socks to the 
upper or the lower, it is enough and he does not repeat his prayer. Ibn Nafi' 
believed that it is not adequate. 

But the well-known position is that it is obligatory to wipe the top and 
recommended to wipe the bottom. If he confines himself to wiping the upper and 
prays, it is recommended that he repeat it in the preferred time. It is 
recommended that he repeat wudu' and the prayer when he abandons wiping the 
bottom out of ignorance, intentionally or inability if it has been a long time. If it 
has not been a long time, he wipes the bottom only. It is like that if he only wipes 
the bottom out of oversight, if it has been a long time or not. If he omits wiping on 
the bottom, he always repeats it, intentionally or by ignorance or forgetfulness. 
He builds on the intention absolutely if he forgets and if he is unable, if it is not 
long. Some of the shaykhs believe that the sides of the feet are part of the top.] 

7.2c. Mud 

If there is any mud or dung or your leather socks you cannot wipe over 
them until you have wiped or washed it off. 



[ The dung refers to that of mules, horses and asses. Impure dung must be 
wiped. It is best to wash off pure mud or dung. 'Abdu'l-Wahhab said that that is 
because wiping is done over the socks and this constitutes a barrier over the 
socks, and so it is obliged to remove it. Al-Fakihi sees it as strong 
recommendation rather than obligation because if he fails to wipe the bottom of 
the socks altogether, he does not have to repeat it either in the time or otherwise 
according to the position of Ibn al-Qasim. According to the position of Ashhab, he 
only has to repeat it within the time, not any time else.] 

7.2d. Another form of wiping 

Some people say you should start at the ankles and wipe to the tip of the 
toes so that any dust on the socks which might get wet does not end up at 
the ankle end of your socks. 

[ This is another description of wiping over the socks, i.e. putting the right on the 
right and the left on the left, and beginning at the ankles to avoid moving the dust 
on the top of the socks in particular because moving impurity from one place to 
another must happen in any case, whether he begins from the heels or the toes, 
i.e. impurity is moved to the top of the sock more than it is moved to the bottom, 
since if he were not to wipe the tops, the wiping would be invalid, which is not the 
case with the bottoms. His words must be examined. When he is asked to wipe 
the mud and wash the impure dung before wiping, how can it be understood that 
it is moving an impurity from one place to another, top or otherwise, whether he 
begins to wipe from the heals or the toes?] 

7.2e. Actual mud 

But if there is any actual mud on the bottom of your socks you should not 
wipe over it until it has been removed in any case. 

[ i.e. it is obliged to remove it according to the position that it is obligatory to wipe 
the bottom and recommended according to the other statement.] 



Chapter Eight: On the Times of the Prayers and 

Their Names 

[This chapter deals with the recognition of the times of prayer. It is an individual 
obligaiton for every legally responsible person to know their times if he can do 
that. If he cannot do that, as when someone is blind, he follows someone else. 
The "time" designates the amount of time allotted for an act of worship in the 
Shari'a. It is either the time of performing it or the time of making it up. The time 
of performing is either the optional (ikhtiyari) time, meaning the time in which a 
legally responsible person can choose when to perform the prayer at any part of 
it, or it imperative {daruri) time. 

The optional can be either the time of excellence or the time of leeway. As 
regards the prayer, what is meant by it in the usage of the people of the Shari'a it 
a body of rak'ats and prostrations, which are transmitted from the supplication 
(which is the linguistic meaning) since it contains the Fatitia which contains the 
supplication, which is "Guide usE" other suras than the Fatitia, and it is that 
whose obligation is known from the Deen as necessity. The one who denies it is 
an apostate and is asked to repent. If he repents, he is alright. Otherwise he is 
killed. It is like that with the one who denies the rest of the pillars of Islam which 
are: the shahada, zakat, fasting and hajj.] 

Its preconditions 

There are five preconditions for its being obligatory: are: 

1. Islam, 

2. Adulthood 

3. Sanity 

4. Lack of bleeding from menstruation and lochia, and 

5. The arrival of the time of the prayer. 

[ 'lyad adds hearing the call to prayer.] 

It is one of the greatest acts of worship because it was prescribed in Heaven 
during the Night Journey. That was in Makka a year before the Hijra as opposed 
to the rest of the laws. They were prescribed on earth. There is disagreement 
about how it was obliged. 'A'isha said that they were prescribed as two rak'ats at 
home and in the journey and then it was confirmed in the journey and increased 
to four when someone is resident. It is said that four rak'ats were obliged except 
for Maghrib, which was three and Subh, which was two. Then in the journey they 
were shortened to two rak'ats. As for knowing the names of the prayers, that is 
also obligatory because it is by their names that there is distinction and 
specification because if the prayer is not specified, then the prayer is invalid.] 

8.1. Subh 

8.1a. Its name 



According to the people of Madina the middle prayer is the early morning 
prayer, namely the dawn prayer. 

[It is evident tiiat a multiplicity names is indicative of the honour of the named. 
There are four names given to this prayer: as-Subh, al-Wusta (the middle), al- 
Fajr and al-Ghada. Subh is derived from sabah, which is whiteness since it 
becomes obligatory at this time. Fajr is derived from />?//yar (bursting forth) since it 
is obliged when dawn breaks from the darkness of the night.] 

8.1 b. The Beginning of its time 

The beginning of the time for this prayer is when dawn breaks and the light 
spreads out in the extreme east, going from the qibla to behind the qibla, 
[1] until it rises up and fills the whole horizon. 

[ The beginning of its ikhtiyari time is when dawn breaks and the light of dawn 
which comes from the light of the sun spreads out. It is It sometimes rises from 
the extreme east and sometimes elsewhere and follows it. The place of its 
breaking is the place where the sun rises. This excludes the false dawn which is 
the whiteness like the tail of a wolf, which thins and does not spread. It has no 
jurisdiction. 

The light of dawn continues until it fills up the entire horizon. Ibn 'Umar thought 
this was unclear and said that the author said that the light is in the extreme east 
and so it is clear that it rises in the extreme east. "Going from the qibla to behind 
the qibla" means that it rises from the qibla. It might give rise to the idea that the 
qibla has a behind, but it is not like that. Al-Ujhuri replies that the qibla and the 
east are the same. It is what is opposite the west. "Behind" means the middle. 
When the qibla is hidden from him, he faces the east and puts the west behind 
him. Then he is facing it because his deviation from the qibla is slight. 

[1. This must necessarily refer to North Africa, where the author lived. The 
commentators are not sure of the exact meaning of this phrase.] 

8.1 c. The end of the time 

The end of the time is when the light has got very bright so that someone 
ending the prayer says the salam just as the edge of the sun appears over 
the horizon. 

[ The end of the time of Subh. This is derived from that fact the end of the 
ikhtiyari time for Subh is sunrise, and it is the well-known position of Malik. Ibn 
'Abdu'l-Barr said that it is that on which the people act. 'lyad attributes it to all the 
scholars and Imams of fatwa. On that basis there is no daruri time for Subh. In 
the Mudawwana, which is approved, and on whose basis the author of the 
Mukhtasar proceeds, the ikhtiyari time is from the rising of true dawn until the 
upper brightening, and the end is when the upper brightening leaves and it is that 
time in which faces can be seen in a place without a roof or covering by someone 
with average sight. Then the daruri time of Subh is from the beginning of the 



upper brightening to tiie first part of sunrise.] 

8.1 d. Its scope 

Any time between these two points is acceptable but the beginning of the 
time is the best. 

[It is establislied that the time of the Subh prayer is the breaking of dawn and the 
end ot the time is the clear brightening. The prayer can occur in any of that time if 
he is not excessive because the beginning and end of time subject to choice are 
equal unless it is negated by a constriction. However if he thinks that he will die 
before he does it if he does not occupy himself with it, then there is agreement 
that he rebels by leaving it because the wide time then becomes constricted in 
respect of him, i.e. whoever thinks that he will die during the time must pray early 
in that time. If he does not pray in that time in which he must pray, he sins 
whether he dies or not. In this respect, other impediments to prayer which occur 
are the same as death, like menstruation. If a woman delays and the impediment 
occurs, she does not make it because the lack of making up does not negate the 
wrong action. 

Then it is affirmed that the ikhtiyari time is all the same unless it is negated by a 
constriction, but you should know that they vary in excellence. The early part is 
absolutely better, whether in summer or winter, individually or in a group. It is like 
that according to Malik and most of the schools in order to obtain the virtue of the 
time. The basis in this is that it is sound that the Prophet used to pray Subh when 
it was still dark as did the Rashidun khalifs.] 

8.2 Dhuhr 

8.2a The time of dhuhr 

The time of dhuhr is from when the sun has passed the zenith, and that is 
when the shadows start to get longer. 

[The beginning of the time where there is choice is when the sun begins to 
decline and has passed the zenith. Then the shadows begin to increase as the 
sun moves. It is known was "zawal": that comes from the fact that when a stick it 
set upright, it is that point between the increase and decrease of the shadow. and 
so it not simply the shadow cast, but has to do with its increase.] 

8.2b. Delaying Dhuhr 

It is recommended to delay the prayer in summer until the shadow of an 
object reaches a quarter of the length of that object added to the length of 
its shadow at noon. 

[ Al-Fakhani says that it is delayed in the summer rather than the winter, in a 
group or individually. Ibn Naji said, "His words 'in the summer' are not understoof. 
It can be like that in the winter." Delay is recommended until the time mentioned 



about the shadow. The shadow is not measured from its root, but from the 
shadow after noon. However that is an unusual linguistic usage. The well-known 
usage is that the shadow {dhill) is until midday comes and the shadow is after it 
is called fay'.] 

8.2c. In Mosques 

It is also said that this practice is only recommended as far as mosques are 
concerned so that more people can catch the prayer, and that it is better for 
a man praying by himself to do the prayer at the beginning of the time. 

[ This delaying is said to be only about mosque, so that people can join in the 
prayer. As for someone on his own, it is better to pray at the beginning of the 
time because there is no benefit in delaying it.] 

8.2d. In intense heat 

It is also said that it is better to delay the prayer until it is a little cooler 
when the heat is fierce even if you are praying by yourself since the 
Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Delay the prayer 
until it gets a little cooler because the fierceness of the heat is from the 
flames of Jahannam." 

[ This is when the intensity of heat abates. So there are three positions about 
waiting for the cooling in the case of Dhuhr. Either it is absolutely recommended 
to delay it for individual and the group, or the recommendation is confined to 
mosque for the group, and the third is to make a distinction between strong heat 
and other times, and so it is recommended in the case of intense heat for both 
the group and the individual. 

The expression in the Muwatta' is that the Messenger of Allah said, "When the 
heat is fierce, then delay the prayer until it gets cooler, for scorching heat is from 
the blast of Jahannam." It means to wait for some shade and to the intensity of 
the heat to abate. The hadith about hastening the prayer is abrogated by this 
hadith. It is that the Messenger of Allah prayed Dhuhr at midday at the time of 
intense heat.] 

8.2e. The end of the time 

The end of the time of Dhuhr is when the shadow of an object is the same 
length as that object in addition to the length of its shadow at noon. 

[ This is the end of the ikhtiyari time for Dhuhr. The consideration of day here is 
from sunrise to sunset, as opposed to the day in fasting which begins when dawn 
breaks.] 

8.3. 'Asr 

8.3a. The beginning of 'Asr and end of Dhuhr 



The beginning of the time of 'Asr is the end of the time of Dhuhr 

[The beginning of tiie ikiitiyari time of 'Asr is tiie end of tiie ikiitiyari time of Diiuiir. 
On tiiis basis, tiiey siiare in tiie same time for tiie amount of four rak'ats or 'Asr 
siiares witii Diiuiir at tiie end of its time for tiie amount of four rak'ats. According 
to tiie first, if Diiuiir is delayed until the time of 'Asr begins and Dhuhr is done at 
the beginning of the time, he incurs no wrong action. According to this, if 
someone prays 'Asr at the end of the first length, it is invalid. According to the 
second, if he prays 'Asr while there still remains the time for four rak'ats of the 
time of Dhur at the beginning of the second length, he commits a wrong action 
since he does it before the time of the other has ended.] 

8.3b. The end of the time of 'Asr 

Its end is when the shadow of an object is twice the length of that object in 
addition to the length of its shadow at noon. 

[ This is the end of the ikhtiyari time of 'Asr.] 

8.3c. Another view 

It is also said that if, standing upright facing the sun with your eyes looking 
straight ahead, you can see the sun, then the time of 'Asr has arrived. If you 
cannot see the sun the time has not yet begun. If the sun has descended 
right into your field of vision you are well into the time. According to Malik, 
may Allah have mercy on him, the time for 'Asr lasts until the sun begins to 
turn yellow. 

[ Another view of the beginning of the time: this is with the head slightly bowed 
but not properly bowed (proper bowing is when the eyes are facing the ground.) 
Then if the sun comes into your line of sight, it is 'Asr. Some people deny that the 
author said this since its speaker is not known. The reply to him is that the arrival 
of the time is not known because this not apply at all times because the sun is 
high in the summer and low in the winter. 

In defining the end of the ikhtiyari time of 'Asr from the transmission of Ibn al- 
Oasim, it is when the sun begins to turn yellow in the earth. The position of the 
school is that it is better to perform 'Asr in the beginning of the time.] 

8.4. Maghrlb 

8.4a. The time of Maghrib 

The time of Maghrib - also known as the prayer of the one who is resident, 
meaning that a traveller does not shorten it but prays it in the same way as 
someone who is resident - is at sunset. 

[This is the ikhtiyari time. The Maghrib prayer has two names. This is because it 
occurs at sunset, and the other name is ash-Shahid, meaning resident. This is 



because the traveller prays it the same as the resident. Al-Fakhani said that its 
reason that Maghrib is called Shahid is because the traveller does not shorten it 
as is the case with Subh. 'Abdu'l-Wahhab reported that it is heard but it is not 
analogous because Subh is not so-named.] 

8.4b. Its Time 

When the sun has completely disappeared below the horizon, the prayer is 
due and it should not be delayed. This moment is the time for this prayer 
and it should not be delayed beyond it. 

[ What is observed in that is the disappearance of its body and circular orb, not 
its traces and its rays. Ibn Bashir said that this applies to a location where there 
are no mountains. When there are mountains, he looks towards the east and 
when darkness appears, that is an indication of its setting. When it disappears 
and sets, i.e. we can no longer see it because of the intervening barrier between 
us and it, then its time has begun and the prayer is not delayed. Maghrib only 
has one ikhtiyari time. When it is delayed, it moves into its daruri time. The well- 
known position is that it is not extensive. Indeed the amount required for doing it 
after the preconditions of its time exist is narrow. It is permitted for the one who 
obtains its preconditions of purity, sutra, facing qibla, the adhan and iqama, to to 
delay doing it for the necessary time required to achieve its preconditions. It is 
also said that its time extends to to the disappearance of the red twilight. Al-Baji 
and many of the people of the School prefer it because of what is in the Muwatta' 
where he says, "When the redness has gone, then the 'lsha' prayer is due and 
you have left the time of Maghrib," and what is in Muslim of the words of the 
Prophet, "The time of Maghrib lasts as long as the red twilight has not gone."] 

8.5. 'lsha' 

8.5a. Its name 

[The ikktiyari time for 'Atama or 'lsha', and Isha' is the recommended name for it 
because it was used in the Noble Book. A group of scholars, including Imam 
Malik, dislike calling it 'Atama . As for what is related in the Muwatta', the Musnad 
of Ahmad and the two Sahih collections from the hadith of Abu Hurayra, "If they 
had known what is in 'Atama and Subh, they would have come to them, even 
crawling" where it is called 'Atama, that clarifies that it is permitted and not 
unlawful to call it that, and there is no contradiction with ithe fact that it is 
disliked.] 

8.5b. The time of 'lsha' 

The time of the prayer of darkness or 'isha', the latter being the better name 
for it, is when the redness remaining in the sky from the remaining rays of 
the sun. When all yellowness and redness has gone, the time of 'isha' has 
arrived. No attention need be paid to any whiteness which may remain on 
the western horizon. 



[ The time of 'lsha' is when the redness in the direction of the sunset has 
disappeared, not the entire west, as the author states. Note that he mentioned 
yellowness first, even though it is later than redness. However, in Arabic the i/i/ai/i/ 
(and) does not demand sequence. 

The comment about the whiteness is in reference to the statement of Abu Hanifa 
that the "shafq" (twilight) is the whiteness. Our evidence is what ad-Daraqutni 
related that the Prophet said, "The twilight is the redness. When the twilight 
departs, then the prayer is obligatory." This is the beginning of the ikhtiyari time. 

8.5c. The end of its time 

The time for 'lsha' extends from this time until a third of the night has 
passed for those who want to delay doing it because of working or some 
other good reason. 

[ It ends with the first third according to the well-known position. Ibn Habib said 
that it extends to the middle of the night. It can be delayed for someone with an 
excuse, like work, and it should only be delayed from its early time by those with 
excuses. Other people, even if they are alone, should hasten to perform the 'lsha' 
prayer at the beginning of it its time. This is recommended.] 

8.5d. Delaying in the mosques 

It is better to do it as early as possible although there is no harm in 
delaying it a little in mosques to allow time for people to gather. 

[ "There is no harm" means it is recommended to delay the prayer in the 
mosques to allow people to gather. The author's premise is weak, and it is 
preferred that it is always advanced to the beginning of the time.] 

8.5e. After the prayer 

Sleeping before doing 'lsha' is disliked and so is talking after it unless there 
is a good reason for it. 

[Ibn 'Umar said, "It is disliked to talk after it more than it is disliked to sleep before 
it because the person might miss the virtues of the prayer of Subh in group or 
miss its time or miss rising for tahajjud and dhikru'llah in the night. An exception 
to that is discussing knowledge and acts of nearness to Allah. Exceptions to are 
is also the bridegroom, the guest and the traveller, i.e. someone who has arrived 
from a journey or is going on a journey, and whatever need demands like talking 
connected to someone's best interests, like buying and selling.] 

8.6. Daruri Times 

[The Shaykh spoke about the ikhtiyari time and not the daruri time. Subh was 
already mentioned. The daruri time of Dhuhr begins at the beginning of the 
second length and that of 'Asr begins with the yellowing and ends at sunset. 



although 'Asr is particular to four rak'ats before sunset. This time is daruri for it in 
particular so that if you pray Dhuhr in that time, it is making it up. It begins in 
Maghrib is when it can be finishing without negligence, i.e. follows finishing it. it. 
That of 'lsha' begins with second third of the night and ends when the dawn rises. 
The last of it is the amount of four rak'ats,as there is between Dhuhr and 'Asr. 

These times are called daruri tmes because it is not permitted to delay the prayer 
until them except for the people of necessity (darura), and the people of 
necessity are menstruating women, a woman with bleeding on account of 
childbirth, the unbeliever, the apostate, the child, the mad person, the person 
who is unconscious, the sleeper and theone who forgets. So when the 
impediment is removed from any of those, he prays in the daruri time and incurs 
no wrong action. Anyone who prays in these times except those with an excuses 
are disobedient.] 



Chapter Nine: On the Adhan and the lqama 

Linguistically adhan means informing, whatever it is, and in the Shari'a it is 
informing people of the times of prayer with particular words. 

9.1 The Adhan 

9.1 a. Its obligatory nature 

It is obligatory to call the adhan in mosques and wherever people meet 
regularly to do the prayer. 

[The judgement of the adhan is that it is an obligation in the form of the sunan, 
i.e. it is a confirmed sunna, in the mosques. It is clear from his words that there is 
no difference between the communal mosque, i.e. that in which Jumu'a is held, 
and mosques other than communal. There is also no difference between the 
mosques being close together or whether there is one mosque on top of another. 
It is also done is places where groups meet regularly to pray. 

It is clear that it is done whether it is in mosques or elsewhere since they seek to 
call others to the prayers. Every group seeks others. Even if it is not a regular 
prayer, then it is sunna for there to be an adhan. The irregular group differs from 
the irregular in that it is a group in a settled place where they do not wait for 
others in a place outside of a mosque, and so the adhan is not sunna for them 
nor it is recommended. Indeed, it is disliked. However in a journey, the adhan is 
recommended. It is recommended for someone who is alone on a journey to do 
the adhan. 

It is unlawful to do the adhan before the time has come, and it is disliked for the 
sunnas as it is disliked for missed prayers and in the daruri time and the general 
obligation. The evidence for the sunna nature of the adhan is his command and 
the perseverance of the people of the Deen on it in his time and after his time. 
This is the exact sunna. 

9.1 b. Someone who is alone 

If you are alone it is good to do the adhan. 

[It is recommended to do it, whether at home or on a journey. The well- known 
position is that this applies particularly to the traveller rather than the resident 
since it is true that Abu Sa'id heard the Messenger of Allah say, "When you are in 
your desert or among your sheep give the adhan. No man or jinn or anything 
within range hears the voice of the mu'adhdhan without bearing witness for him 
on the Day of Rising."] 

9.1 c. Status of lqama 

A man must must do the iqama, 



[It is confirmed tiiat tiie legally responsible person is obliged to do the iqama if he 
is a man. Ibn Kinana applies the words of the author to the obligation, saying that 
if someone omits it deliberately, his prayer is invalid. 'Abdu'l-Wahhab considers it 
sunna, i.e. the individual sunna for an adult who prays, even if it is a missed 
prayer or he is alone, or an imam of only women. and it is enough for a group 
prayer of only men or one in which there are women as well in respect of the 
Imam and men. The place of the sunna of the lqama, if there is enough time. 
Otherwise it is omitted. The iqama is more confirmed than the adhan because it 
is connected to the prayer. If there is a gap between them, the iqama is invalid 
and must be said again."] 

9.1 d. Women and the lqama 

but for a woman it is only recommended and if she doesn't do it it does not 
matter. 

[A woman commits no wrong action by omitting it.] 

9.1e. When the Adhan is done 

The adhan for a prayer should not be done before the time of that prayer 

[The aim of prescribing the adhan is to announce the arrival of the time, to inform 
those legally responsible that the time has come so that they can fulfil the 
oblgiation imposed on them. Therefore it is done after the time has come. It is not 
permitted to give the adhan before the time for any of the five prayers, even 
Jumu'a, i.e. it is unlawful. Ibn Habib said that the adhan for Jumu'a is given 
before the zenith while it is only prayed after it.] 

9.1 f. The case of Subh 

except in the case of Subh when there is no harm in calling the adhan in 
the last sixth of the night. 

["No harm" means that it is recommended to give the adhan in the last two hours 
of the night before dawn and then to give it again when the time comes in order 
to follow the sunna. The first adhan is recommended and the second is sunna. 
Ibn Habib gives the adhan at half of the night. Abu Hanifa does not have an 
adhan before its time like the other prayers. We have what is in the Sahih that 
the Prophet said, "Bilal calls the adhan while it is still night, so eat and drink until 
Ibn Umm Maktum calls the adhan." Al-Bistami says that the exact position of the 
people of the school is that it is given in the last sixth."] 

9.1 g. Description 

The adhan consists of the words: 

Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar. 



Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa'llah. Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa'llah. 

Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan rasulullah. Ash-hadu anna 
Muhammadan rasulullah. 

Hayya 'ala's-salah Hayya 'ala's-salah. 

Hayya 'ala'l-falah. Hayya 'ala'l-falah. 

Then you repeat it in a louder voice than the first time, repeating the 
testimony. You say: Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa'llah. Ash-hadu anna 
Muhammadan rasulullah. Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan rasulullah. Hayya 
'ala's-salah Hayya a'la's-salah. 

[Hayya means come to quickly without iiaste tiiat would cause you to lose 
tranquility and gravity. Haste is disliked then, even if he fears missing the group. 
Success is obtaining bliss in the Next World.] 

9.1 h. Subh 

Then if you are calling the adhan for subh you add here: As-salatu khayrun 
min'n-nawm. As-salatu khayrun min'n-nawm. This is not said in the adhan 
for any other prayer. Allahu akbar. Allahu akbar. La ilaha illa'llah. The last 
phrase is only said once. 

[Even if he is in a desert and there is no one else there. This is the expression 
and it means that waking up for the prayer is better than the rest obtained by 
sleep. They disagree about the one who commanded this sentence, i.e. "The 
prayer is better than sleep." It is said that it was the Messenger of Allah and it is 
said that it was 'Umar.] 

9.2. The lqama 

The phrases in the iqama are said only once. It consists of: 
Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar. 
Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa'llah. 
Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan rasulullah. 
Hayya 'ala's-salati 
Hayya 'ala'l-falahi. 

Qad qamati's-salatu'llahu akbaru llahu akbar 
la ilaha illa'llah. 



[The expressions are said once except for tiie takbir. IVIaking it single is the 
School. When it is made double by mistake, it is not allowed in the well-known 
position. So if error and forgetfulness do not suffice, it is more likely that the 
deliberate does not suffice either.] 



Chapter Ten: On How to Do the Fard Prayers and the 
Sunna and Nafila Prayers Connected with Them 

10.1. The Form of the Prayer 

lO.la. The state of Ihram 

Going into the state of ihram as far as the prayer is concerned is by saying 
Allahu akbar and no other expression is acceptable. 

[ Is ihram the intention or the takbir or both while facing qibla? Al-Ajhurri prefers 
the later. According to the first, the idafa is their words "takbir al-lhram" is the 
relation of the associate to its associate. According to the second, it is for 
clarification. According to the third, is part of the idafa of the part to the whole, i.e. 
the beginning of the attribute is ihram. It is to enter. This applies to all prayers, 
obligatory or supererogatory.] 

lO.lb. TheTakbir 

[It is to say, "Allahu akbar" with a natural extension for the amount of an alif 
(Allaah). If he fails to do that, then his ihram is not valid, as the one who mentions 
it only mentions it. No other expression is acceptable if he speaks good Arabic. If 
he does not speak good Arabic, then 'Abdu'l-Wahhab says that he enters the 
prayer by the intention except for the non-Arab. Abu'l-Faraj says he enters it in 
his own language, but this is weak, even if the prayer is not invalidated by 
analogy with the dislike of the supplication in non-Arabic by the one who can do it 
in Arabic. But what is relied on is the first statement. The author calls this 
sentence a "word" following grammatical usage. 

[The takbir is obligatory for the Imam and the person playing alone by 
agreement, and in respect for the one following in the well-known position. It is 
related from Malik that the Imam bears the responsibility of the takbir al-ihram for 
the follower. If the Imam omits the takbir al-ihram, intentionally or by 
forgetfulness, then his prayer is invalid as is the prayer of those following. The 
evidence for its obligatory nature is found in the two Sahih collections where the 
Prophet said, "The key to the prayer is purification and its sanctification is the 
takbir and its ending is the taslim." Purification is general and includes wudu' and 
ghusl. 

A precondition of the takbir is that it is done while standing, and it is agreed that it 
cannot be done before that. If that is omitted in the obligatory prayer, in that he 
says it sitting, or bending, or leaning on some support in such a manner that if it 
were removed, he would fall, then his prayer is invalid. 

A preconditon of the takbir al-ihram is that be accompanied by the intention. If it 
comes after it, then it is agreed that it is not allowed. The same applies if it is a lot 
before it. There are two well-known positions about whether it can be a little 
before it. One says that it is allowed and the other is that it is not. The preferred 



one is that it is allowed since it is not transmitted from them that it is a 
precondition of the accompaniment. The meaning of the precondition that it 
accompany it according to the second position is that it is not permitted for there 
to be a gap between the intention and the takbir. It is not a precondition that the 
intention actually accompany the takbir.] 

10. 1c. Raising the l-lands in the Tal<bir 

At the same time your raise your hands level with your shoulders, or lower, 

[When you say the takbir, it is recommended to raise your hands. Their backs are 
towards sky and palms to earth, level with the shoulders or a little lower, i.e. the 
top of the chest. This is for the man. As for the woman, it is a little less than that. 
Al-Qarafi related that consensus on that. There is disagreement about the 
judgement of this raising of the hands. Some believe that it is sunna and some 
that it is a meritorious act, which is what is accepted. The words of the author 
state that rising is particular to the takbir al-ihram. It is like that in the well-known 
position. It is also stated that he raises them in ruku' and in rising from two 
rak'ats.] 

10. 1d. Recitation 

and then begin the recitation. 

[The takbir is followed by the recitation without any division between them. Malik 
disliked for there to be glorification and supplication between the Takbir al-lhram 
and the recitation. Some of them recommend separating them with the words, 
"Glory be to You, O Allah, and by Your praise. Blessed is Your name and exalted 
is Your majesty. There is no god but You."] 

10. 1e. Howto do Subh 

If you are doing Subh you recite the Fatiha outloud. 

[The recitation of the Fatiha is obligatory in Subh and other obligatory prayers for 
the Imam and the one praying alone. There are two positions by Malik in the 
Mudawwana about whether it is in every rak'at or most. The sound one is that it 
is obligatory in every rak'at. Ibn al-Hajib said that. In general, it means one rak'at, 
even if it is Subh, Jumu'a or the travel prayer. 

As for the one following an Imam, it is recommended for him in what the Imam 
says silently. As for recitation in what is done outloud, it is sunna.] 

10. 1f. Basmala 

You do not say bismi'llahi-r-rahmani'r-rahim for the Fatiha nor for the sura 
which comes after it. 

[When he recites in Subh or other obligatory prayers, he does not recite the 



basmala in it at all, not in the Fatiha nor in the sura after it, silently or aloud, 
whether Imam or following. The prohibition in the words designates dislike since 
it is true that 'Abdullah ibn Mughaffal said, "My father heard me saying, 
'bismi'llahi-r- rahmani'r-rahim ' and he said, 'My son, beware of new things. 
Beware of doing something new which the Chosen one and his Companions did 
not do.' 'Abdullah ibn Mughaffal said, "I did not see a man among the 
Companions of the Messenger of Allah who more hated new things in Islam than 
him. He was the strongest of the Companions in hating the new. Part of the 
words of my father were, 'I prayed with the Prophet, Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 
'Uthman, and I did not hear any of them say it. So do not say it when you recite. 
Rather begin with, "Praise belongs to Allah, Lord of the worlds," etc. When you 
recite in the voluntary prayers, then there is scope. If you wish, recite it. If you 
wish, do not recite it.'" He disliked seeking refuge ( saying, "I seek refuge with 
Allah") in the obligatory rather than the voluntary prayer.] 

10. 1g. Saying "Amen" 

If you are by yourself or behind an imam you say ameen after the words, 
wala'd-daalleen, but you do not say it outloud. An Imam does not say 
ameen if he is reciting outloud but he does if the recitation is silent. There 
is, however, a difference of opinion about whether the imam should say 
ameen when the recitation is outloud. 

[ It is recommended to say it. "Amen" means "Answer!" You do this whether you 
are praying alone in a silent or loud prayer or if you are praying behind an Imam 
in a silent or loud prayer when you heard him say "Wala'd-dalleen." You do not 
say it outloud, but silently, even if the prayer is outloud. In other words, it is 
disliked to say it outloud and recommended to say it silently. 

It is disliked for the Imam to say it if the prayer is outloud, and it is agreed that he 
says it in the silent prayer. However, there is disagreement about the Imam 
saying it when the prayer is outloud.] 

10.1 h Reciting the sura 

After that you recite ... 

[After reciting the Fatiha, without any separation between them in the form of 
supplication or anything else. The judgement of the recitation of a whole sura 
after the Fatiha is that it is recommended and sunna. There must be more than 
the Fatiha, even if it one ayat or part of an ayat . The evidence for the sunna is 
being more that the Fatiha is that the prostration of forgetfulness or lack of it is 
based on reciting more than the Fatiha, not the sura. If he does more than the 
Fatiha, there is no prostration. Otherwise he prostrates. 

It is deduced from his words, "a sura" that he does not recite two suras in the 
same rak'at. That is the best for the Imam and the one praying alone. There is no 
harm in someone following the Imam doing that.] 



10.1i. What is recited in Subh 

one of the larger suras from the mufassal. If the sura you recite is longer 
than that, that is good so long as it is not getting too light. 

[ The sura which he recites in Subh should be one of the long mufassal, the first 
of which is al-Hujurat (49) according to the accepted position. There are other 
positions, saying from ash-Shura (42), or from al-Jathiyya (45), or from al-Fath 
(48) or from an-Najm (53), and extends to 'Abasa (80). The medium ones are 
from 'Abasa (80) to ad-Duha (93), and from ad-Duha (93) to the end. They are 
called /77L//assa/ because of the great number of divisions by the basmalas. 

It is good if the sura which he recites in the first rak'at of Subh is longer than one 
of the long muffasal, in that you are near a sura which is one of the long 
mufassal, not that your recite al-Baqara (2) or its like. This length is in respect to 
the Imam of a limited number of people who are content with that or someone on 
his own who is strong enough for that. Otherwise, it is best not to make it long. 
"Good" here means recommended, and his words imply that the sunna is only 
obtained by reciting one of the long mufassal, and the recommeendation is to do 
more. That is not like that. The sunna is obtained, even by reciting an ayat. 
"Getting light" is when the darkness is mixed with light and vice versa before it 
begins to brighten. It is understood from his words that when it is like that, he 
does not make it long.] 

10. 1j. The recitation is outloud in Subh 

The sura is also recited outloud. 

[It is sunna to recite the sura and the Fatiha outloud.] 

lO.lkRuku' 

When you have finished the sura you say Allahu akbar as you go down into 
ruku' - the bowing position of the prayer. 

[ You say the takbir as you go down. Three things are taken from his words 
about ruku'. One is the takbir, which is sunna. Is all of it except the takbir al-lhram 
is one sunna. That is what Ashhab says and most of the scholars take that 
position. Some say that every takbir is a separate sunna, and that is the position 
of Ibn al-Qasim, and it is predominant view. The evidence for it being 
predominant is that they stipulate the prostation of forgetfulness for omitting two 
of them. If all of them had been a sunna, then they would not have imposed 
because there is no prostration for omitting a part. The upshot of that is that if 
one takbir is omitted - except for the takbir of the 'ld - by forgetfulness, he does 
not prostrate. If he prostrates for it before the taslim deliberately or out of 
ignorance, then his prayer is in invalid. If he omits more than one, even all of 
them, then he prostrates. If he omits the prostration and a long time passes, then 
there is a difference according to the two positions. According to the statement 
that all is one sunna, then the prayer is not invalid by omitting three or more. 



According to the other, it is invalid when the prostration is omitted since the 
second mentions that the takbir is connected to ruku', and is recommended. It is 
like with every action of the prayer except for standing after two rak'ats.] 

The Ruku' position 

You put your hands on your l<nees, straightening your bacl< so it is parallel 
to the ground. 

[Ruku' is one of the agreed-upon obligations of the prayer and it has three forms: 
low, middle and high. The low is to place the hands near the knees. The middle 
is to place them on the knees without firmness, and the high is that which the 
author indicated here. 

Putting the hands on the knees is recommended, if they are both sound and he is 
not prevented from putting them on them by some impediment. An impediment 
would be amputation or shortening. He does not bind any further than having his 
back straight. Having the back straight is not obligatory. It is recommended since 
the obligation is general - bowing is obligatory. Its fullest form is to place the 
hands on the knees. It is recommended for him to spread his fingers based on 
what al-Hakim and al-Bayhaqi transmitted that when he bowed, he spread his 
fingers, and then he prostrated, he kept them together. 

It is recommended that the back be straight. The author mentioned both placing 
the hands on the knees and keeping the back straight since one of them does 
not necessitate the other. Keeping the back straight does not necessitate placing 
the hands on the knees and placing the hands on the knees does not necessitate 
keeping the back straight. Are both of them recommended or is simply one of 
them alone recommended?] 

The position of the head in ruku' 

You do not lift your head nor do you let it drop. You make sure that the 
insides of your arms are away from your sides. 

[ This is recommended. Omitting any of that does not invalidate the prayer. It is 
recommended that the insides of the arms be far from the sides. That is 
explained as being not very far, but a medium amount. This does not apply to 
both men and women. Women keep their arms to the sides. He does not mention 
the straightness of the knees, and he is not excessive in bowing by making them 
straight. He is also silent about the straightness of the feet which is that they are 
not right together. That is disliked. It is recommended that it be avoided.] 

Awareness in ruku' 

In both ruku' and sujud you should be aware of your state of complete 
submission. 

[Your heart must be humble. This is recommended as is well-known with the 



fuqaha'. Ibn Rushd said that it is one of its obligations although the prayer is not 
invalidate if it is omitted. It is obligatory in part of it, and must exist in the ihram.] 

What to say after that 

And then if you are by yourself you say, Allahumma rabbana wa laka'l- 
hamd (O Allah, our Lord, all praise belongs to You.) This is not said by the 
imam. Someone praying behind an imam does not say Sami'a'llahu liman 
hamidah, but he does say, Allahumma rabbana wa laka'l-hamd. 

[ Then you say, "O Allah, our Lord, all praise belongs to You", meaning You 
accept and You are praised for accepting or for your allowing that act of worship 
to be completed. You say this if you are alone or behind the Imam. The Imam 
only says the first statement. Someone praying behind an imam only says, "O 
Allah, our Lord, all praise belongs to You". The basis for these details is in the 
Muwatta' and elsewhere which report that the Prophet said, "When the Imam 
says, 'Allah hears whoever praises Him,' say, 'O Allah, our Lord, all praise 
belongs to You' for the previous wrong actions done by the one whose utterance 
coincides with that of the angels are forgiven," i.e both minor and major. They are 
only expiated by repentance or the pardon of Allah. In a version of at-Tirmidhi, 
"Praise is Yours," This hadith demands that the Imam does not say, "Our Lord, 
praise is Yours," and the one following does not say, "Allah hears whoever 
praises Him.]" 

10.1m Standing up straight after ruku' 

You stand up straight, still, and with the limbs settled 

[When you lift your head from ruku', you stand up straight and still. There are two 
things here: stillness, which is obligatory and will be discussed, and straightness, 
which is the sunna according to Ibn al-Qasim in all the pillars of the prayer and 
obligatory according to Ashhab and it is sound. The difference between stillness 
and straightness is that straightness has to do with stature and stillness involves 
the limbs resisting for a time. ] 

lO.ln Prostation 

and then go down into sujud without going into a sitting position on the 
way. 

[Then you go down to the ground in prostration, going into prostration from a 
standing position as the Prophet did. There is no disagreement that prostration is 
obligatory. You do not prostate from a sitting position as some people of 
knowledge say. It is useful to be precise. Ash-Shafi'i states that a very slight 
sitting before prostration is part of the sunna. The argument of some of the 
people of knowledge that he did that and the argument of one who denies that he 
sat before prostration is what is related from 'A'isha that he did that at the end of 
his life because the movement of his noble limbs had become heavy. It was not 
to change the sunna. It was due to an excuse, and it is negated when the excuse 



does not exist. If this sitting occurs by forgetfulness, and is not long, there is no 
harm. If it is long, then he prostrates on account of it. There is disagreement 
about when it is deliberate. that famous position is that if it is not long, there is 
no harm. If it is long, there is harm. Length is considered inasmuch as someone 
looking would think that he has turned away from the prayer.] 

The takbir 

As you go down into sujud you say, "Allahu akbar." 

[This is sunna to fulfil the pillar with the takbir. He did not mentioned what 
touches the earth first. It is recommended to place the hands before the knees 
when you go into prostration and to have the hands leave the earth after the 
knees in rising by his command to do that. That is what the people of Madina did. 
As for what the people of the Sunan relate stating that when he prostrated, he 
put his knees down before his hands and when he came he lifted his hands 
before his knees, ad-Daraqutni said that only Sharik has it, and things are said 
about Sharik. Some claim that it is an abrogated sunna.] 

What part of the face is on the ground 

You put your forehead and nose on the ground, 

[The forehead is what is between the temples to the forelock. As much of it as 
possible is placed on the ground. This is recommended. As for fulfilling the 
obligation in that, it is enough to place the least amount of the forehead. When he 
puts his forehead on the earth, he should not press it hard on the earth so that it 
leaves a mark - that it disliked because it is the action of the ignorant who have 
no knowledge. 

Prostration on both the forehead and nose is obligatory. There are various 
positions if it is confined to one of them. The famous one is that if it is confined to 
his nose, it is not enough and he must repeat it. If it is confined to his forehead, it 
is enough although he should repeat it within the time. It is said to apply to both 
ikhtiyari and daruri times. This is if the forehead is sound. If there are ulcers on 
the forehead, it says it in the Mudawwana that he indicates but does not prostrate 
on his nose because prostration on the nose naturally demands prostration on 
the brow. So when its obligation does not apply, its consequence does not apply. 
If he goes down and prostrates on his nose, Ashhab says that it is enough for 
him because it is more than indication. The Mudawwana says that it is disliked to 
prostrate on his turban.] 

Position of the hands 

with your palms flat on the ground, fingers facing qibla, on a level with your 
ears or further back - there being no fixed position for the hands - 

[ It is recommend he put the palms on the ground without barrier. It is 
recommended for the face and hands to be directly touching the ground because 



it is iiumilty and it is wiiat it is disliked to prostrate on what is luxurious and 
comfortable like wool and cotton. Matting is overlooked because it is like the 
earth, but it is best to forego it. Prostration on it is different from the first. The 
fingers are spead out on the earth. This is stressed and it is recommended that 
they face qibla. Al-Qarafi says that the reason for that is that they prostrate and 
so face qibla. Prostration itself is done on the hands, like the knees and the toes 
of the feet, and so it is sunna. They should be level with the ears or somewhat 
further back There is no definition as to where the hands are placed based on the 
statement of the Mudawwana that there is no definition in that. It is all permitted, 
and there is no obligation. If he does it differently, he only commits something 
disliked.] 

Position of the Arms 

although you must mal<e sure your forearms are not touching the ground. 
Your arms should not be close against your sides but should be held out a 
little. 

[ Since the Prophet forbade for a man to rest his forearms on the ground like a 
wild animal. One variant has "like a dog." It is disliked for a man to do this in 
prostration and it is disliked for him to rest them on his thighs. It is forbidden, 
meaning disliked, for a man to hold his arms close to his sides in prostration. It is 
recommended for a man to keep his arms away from his sides as the Prophet 
did. In the two Sahih collections it reports that in prostration he kept his arms 
from his sides so that the white of his armpits could be seen.] 

Position of the Feet 

During sujud your feet should be upright with your toes on the ground 
facing forwards. 

[The toes should be facing qibla and the knees should be apart and the stomach 
away from the thighs. The proof that that is part of the sunna is what Abu Dawud 
transmitted: when the Prophet prostrated, he had a gap between his thighs and 
they were not against his stomach at all.] 

What to say in sajda 

And then when you are in sujud you can say if you like, "Subhaanaka rabbi, 
dhalamtu nafsi wa 'amiltu suu'an faghfir 11." (Glory be to You my Lord. I 
have wronged myself and acted badly, so forgive me.) or if you like you can 
say something else. 

[ You have a choice in what you say between saying the first or not, and 
secondly between these words or other dhikrs. The first choice indicates a 
rejection of the one who says that tasbih is obligatory. The second choice 
indicates the refutation of the one who says that this must be said, i.e. even if the 
glorification is recommended, it must be with these words, and so the 
recommendation is only obtained by it. The result is that glorification in 



prostration is recommended by tiie autiior and otiiers. Tiie expression of tiie 
clioice means tiiat taken literally, one sides are equal, only indicates the 
rejection.] 

You can also make du'a' in your sujud if you want. 

[It is recommended to make supplication using the Our'an or something else, but 
it must be something permitted in the Shari'a and custom which is not denied, 
and the prayer is not invalidated by it. This is a separate supplication from the 
glorification.j 

Length of prostration 

There is no particular limit to the length of time you may stay in sujud but 
the shortest is the time it takes for the whole body to become still. 

[There is no limit to prostration in the obligatory. For the one praying alone, it 
should be not excessively long. If it is excessively long, it is disliked. There is no 
harm in it in the voluntary. For the Imam it is what will not harm those behind him. 
Its minimum which is adequate is that in which the joints become still and at rest. 
Stillness is obligatory in the prostration and in all the pillars of the prayer. But the 
Risala only deals with stillness in this place about the minimum which makes the 
obligatory prostration adequate. It is obligatory because that obligation, which is 
prostation, rests on it. There is disagreement about remaining longer than 
stillness. The view of the author of al-Mukhtasar is that it is sunna. He examines 
what is defined as extra in respect of the individual,the Imam and the one 
following, and whether it is equal in the length regarding it and other positions of 
the prayer or not. What is said in al- M u khtasar demands that all of that be equal.] 

IO.I0. Sitting between prostrations 

Then, saying, "Allahu akbar", you lift your head and sit back. In the sitting 
position between the two sajdas your left foot is folded underneath and 
your right foot remains upright and you lift your hands from the ground 
and put them on your knees. 

[ Then you say, "Allah is greater" while you are coming up. This rising is an 
obligation without disagreement, and multiple prostrations are inconceivable 
without a division between them. After you lift your head, you must sit straight. 
The bottom of the toes of the right foot remain on the earth. It is not understood 
from his words that you sit between the two prostrations as you sit in the 
tashahhud. As for the sitting of the person who prays sitting while he recites and 
bows, it is recommended to be cross-legged. He silent about where to place the 
left foot. 'Abdu'l-Wahhab says that he puts it under his right thigh. It is said that it 
is between his thighs. It is said that it is outside. Men and women are the same in 
that. 

You remove your hands from the earth and put them on your knees. He says in 
al-Jawhar \ha\ he puts his hands near his knees with his fingers level. If he does 



not lift his liands from tiie eartii, tiiere are two positions about tiie invalidity of the 
prayer. The best known is that it is invalid. The soundest, based on what al- 
Oarafi said, is that it is not invalid. It is accepted because this rising from the 
earth is only recommended and not doing something recommended is not one of 
the things which invalidate the prayer.] 

10.1q. Second prostration 

You then go into sujud again repeating what you did the first time. 

[Then after coming up from the first prostration, you prostrate again like the first 
with the relevant details.] 

lO.lr. Rising from prostration 

Then you stand up again directly from sujud pushing yourself up with your 
hands. You do not go back to the sitting position and stand up from there 
but rather you do as I have described. As you stand up you say, "Allahu 
akbar." 

[ After the second prostration, you stand up as you were without sitting. This 
indicates refutation of the Hanafi position. Ibn 'Umar said that if he sits and then 
stands, and it is deliberate, he asks Allah's forgiveness and does not have to do 
anything. If he forgets, he prostrates after the salam. The one who does it 
deliberately does not have to prostrate. Not going back to the sitting position 
indicates that it differs from the Shafi'ites who say it is sunna for him to rise for 
the second and fourth rak'ats from a sitting. We consider it meritorious for him to 
go back to the standing and to come up directly with your hands. You say the 
takbir during the move because it is recommended to say the takbir when 
beginning actions in the prayer.] 

lO.ls. Recitation in the second rak'at 

You then recite as much as you did in the first rak'at or a little less 

[After the takbir, you recite the Fatiha and a sura. The second should be similar 
or shorter than the length of the first. Both are affirmed. The author follows al- 
Fakhani is that the recommended is that the first rak'at should be longer than the 
second. The evidence for that is found in the two Sahih collections where the 
Prophet made the first long and the second short. What is meant is that the first 
is longer than the second in time, even if the recitation in the second is more, but 
he recited slowly in the first. It is recommended that he recites by the order of the 
Our'an, and reversal of order is disliked. However, he if inverts the order, there is 
nothing against him. The disliked reversal is to reverse the suras or recite the last 
half a sura and then the first half. It is like that in one or two rak'ats. When he 
does the forbidden reversal, then the prayer is invalid. That is like reversing the 
order the ayats of the same sura in the same rak'at.] 

and do the same again 



[This means that you repeat all the previous actions. Then you perform the 
prostration and sitting as was already described.] 

10.1t. The Qunut 

except that (being Subh) you also recite the qunut after doing rul<u' 
although you can, if you want, recite it before ruku' after finishing your 
recitation of Our'an. 

[ The Qunut is done in the second rak'at after coming up from ruku', although it 
could be before the ruku', there being a disagreement about whether it is 
meritorious or sunna. If it is sunna and he omits it and he does not prostrate for it, 
his prayer is is invalid. If it is meritorious and he prostrates for it, his prayer is 
invalid if the prostration is before the salam. It appears from the words of the 
author that it is better after ruku'. It is the position of Ibn Habib. The well-known 
position is that it is better before ruku' based on what is in the Sahih that the 
Prophet was asked whether it was before or after and he replied that it was 
before. It is also based on kindness to the one who is preceded and because that 
is what 'Umar continued to do in the presence of the Companions. 

The well-known position is that he does not raise his hands as he does not raise 
them in saying "Amen" or in the supplication of the tashahhud. It is better to do it 
silently because it is a supplication. If he forgets to do it before ruku', he can do it 
after it if he remembers. He cannot go back from ruku' if he remembers. If he 
does go back, then his prayer is invalid because he went back from an obligation 
to something recommended. ] 

10.2Qunut 

The qunut consists of the words: 

Allahumma innaa nasta'eenuka wa nastaghfiruka wa nuuminu bika 
wa natwakkalu 'alayka wa nakhna'u laka wa nakhla'u wa natruku 
man yakfuruk. Allahumma iyyaaka na'budu wa laka nusalli wa 
nasjud. Wa ilayka nas'a wa nahfid. Narju rahmataka wa nakhaafu 
'adhaabaka'l-jidd. Inna 'adhaabaka bil-kaafireena mulhiq. 

(O Allah, we seek help from You and ask forgiveness of You and 
believe in You and rely on You. We humble ourselves before you 
and renounce all other dins. And we abandon all who reject You. 
O Allah it is You we worship and to You that we pray and prostrate 
and for You that we strive and struggle. We hope for Your mercy 
and fear Your certain punishment. Your punishment will surely 
come to those who disbelieve.) 

[This is its chosen expression among the Malikis, although it is said, "We rely on 
you" is an addition in the Risala. One variant has after it, "We praise You well."] 



10.3. The final sitting, tashalihud and salam 

10. 3a. The final sitting 

Then you do the same regarding your sujud and sitting as has already been 
described. When you sit back again after your two sajdas you keep your 
right foot upright with the toes pointing forward and fold your left foot 
underneath with your left buttock resting on the ground, not on your left 
foot. 

When you finish the qunut, you go down into prostration without sitting. 
You sit between the two prostrations as was described. 

[ When you sit after the second rak'at for the tashahhud, you have your right foot 
upright with the toes forward, and the left foot folded underneath, sitting on your 
left buttock. That is the sound transmission. It is related as "buttocks" which it a 
mistake because if he sits on them, that it resembles squatting which is disliked, 
even though it is not actual squatting which is to put the buttocks on the ground 
and keep the thighs upright and place the hands on the ground, as a dog sits. 
You do not sit on your left foot. He said that in reference to Abu Hanifa who says 
that he sits on his left foot. The description which he mentioned resembles that in 
the Mudawwana in all the sittiing positions of the prayer.] 

Another foot position 

If you want, your right foot can be at an angle, with the side of the big toe 
resting on the ground. Both of these positions are acceptable. 

[ Without having the foot upright. What the shaykh mentioned is opposed to al- 
Baji that the bottom of the toes are on the ground and not the side. It is preferred. 
Then you sit for the tashahhud after the two prostrations of the second rak'at.] 

10.3b. The tashahhud 

You then say the tashahhud, which consists of the words: at-tahiyyatu 
lillah. az-zakiyatu lillah. at-tayyibatu's-salawatu lillah. as-salamu 'alayka 
ayyuha'n-nabiyyu wa rahmatu'llahi wa barakatuh. ass-alamu 'alayna wa 'ala 
'ibadai'llahi's-salihin. ash-hadu an la ilaha illa'llahu wahdahu la sharika lah. 
wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasuluh. 

(Greetings are for Allah, Good actions are for Allah. good words and 
prayers are for Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of 
Messenger of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the 
righteous slaves of Allah. I bear witness that there is no god except Allah 
alone without partner and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and 
His Messenger.) 

[ These are the words of the tashahhud preferred by most of the Malikis. In the 
Mudawwana instead of "Muhammadan 'abduhu" he has "Muhammad 



'abdu'llah" (Muhammad is the slave of Allah).] 

10. 3c. The salam 

If you then say the salam at this point, your prayer is valid. 

[i.e. after saying, "I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and His 
Messenger", the prayer is valid, whether you say part of it or leave part. Ibn Naji 
said, i.e. with either of the two statements or if he says something else. It is not 
valid to say that it is enough in the form of perfection because he did not mention 
the prayer on the Prophet. So the truth is that it it a discarded description.] 

10. 3d. Possible Additions 

You can also add to this, one possibility being: 

wa ash-hadu anna'lladhi jaa'a bihi Muhammadun haqq. wa anna'n- 
naara haqq. wa anna's-saa'ata aatiyatun la rayba fihaa. wa 
anna'llaha yab'athu man fi'l-qubuur. 

Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammadin wa 'alaa aali Muhammadin 
warham Muhammadan wa aala Muhammadin wa barik 'ala 
Muhammadin wa 'ala ali Muhammadin kama sallayta wa rahimta 
wa barakta 'ala Ibrahima wa 'alaa aali Ibrahima fi'l-'alamfna innaka 
hameedun majeed. 

Allahumma salli 'alaa malaa-ikatika wa'l-muqarrabeena wa 'alaa 
anbiyaa-ika wa'l-mursaleena wa 'ala ahli taa'atika ajma'een. 

Allahumma'ghfir 11 wa liwalidaya wa 11 a'immatina wa liman 
sabbaqanaa bi'l-eemani maghfiratun 'azmaa. 

Allahumma inni as'aluka min kulli khayrin sa'alaka minhu 
Muhammadun nabiyyuka wa a'udhu bika min kulli sharrin 
ista'adhaka minhu Muhammadun nabiyyuka. 

Allahumma'ghfir lana ma qaddamna wa ma akharnaa wa ma 
asrarnaa wa ma a'lannaa wa ma anta a'lamu bihi minhaa. 

Rabbanaa aatina fi'd-dunyaa hasanatan wa fi'l-akhirati hasanatan 
wa qina 'adhaaba'n-naar wa a'udhu bika min fitna'l-mahya wa'l- 
mamati wa min fitna'l-qabri wa min fitna'l- masfhi'd- dajjali wa min 
'adhaabi'n-naari wa su'i'l-maseer. 

As-salaamu 'alayka ayyuha'n-nabiyyu wa rahmatu'llahi wa 
barakatuh. As-salaamu 'alaynaa wa 'ala 'ibaadi'llahi's-saaliheen. 

(And I bear witness witness that what Muhammad brought is true. 
And that the Garden is true. And that the Fire is true. And that the 



Hour is coming and there is no doubt about it. And that Allah will 
raise up those in the graves. 

O Allah pray on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and 
have mercy on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as you 
prayed on and had mercy on and blessed Ibrahim and the family 
of Ibrahim. In all the worlds, You are praiseworthy, glorious. 

O Allah, pray on Your angels and those brought near and on Your 
Prophets and Messengers and on all the people who obey You. 

O Allah, forgive me and my parents and our imams and those who 
have gone before us with iman with complete forgiveness. 

O Allah, I ask You for every good thing that Muhammad, Your 
Prophet, asked You for and I seek refuge in You from every evil 
that Muhammad, Your Prophet, sought refuge in You from. 

O Allah, forgive us for what we have done and for what we have 
put off doing, for what we have kept hidden and what we have 
done openly and for what You have more knowledge about than 
us. 

Our Lord give us good in this world and good in the next world 
and protect us from the torment of the Fire. I seek refuge in You 
from the trials of life and death and from the trials of the grave and 
from the trials of the Dajjal and from the torment of the Fire and 
from an evil end. 

Peace be upon you, O Prophet and the mercy of Allah and His 
blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the right-acting slaves of 
Allah.) 

[It is understood that when he has said the supplication, it is recommended that 
he does not end with the salam until he has asked for peace on the Prophet. 
That is necessary for everyone who prays as opposed to the well-known position 
which is what al-Qarafi related: that the salam on the Prophet is not repeated 
when he makes supplication. Malik recommended it for someone following an 
imam. When the imam says the salam, he says, "Peace be upon you, etc." This 
addition is weak. Part of its weakness is that it is particular to the one following 
the Imam as Malik stated.] 

10. 3e. Saying the Salam 

Then you say, "As-salamu 'alaykum" once, 

[After that you say that salam which ends the prayer. This salam is obligatory 
without dispute for every one who prays, Imam, individual, or following an Imam. 
He only ends the prayer by it. Specificially incumbent is the phrase which the 



shaykh mentioned, by definition and order and in the plural. If he says, "Upon you 
peace" or "My peace upon you" or "The peace of Allah on you," or he omits the 
definite article, it is not adequate. 

Does he require an intention to end the prayer or not? There are two well-known 
positions. The predominant, as is seen in the words of Ibn 'Arafa, is that it is not a 
precondition, although it is recommended to do it. Indeed, the one who is unable 
to say the salam of release as a sentence leaves the prayer by his intention. 
Then the intention of ending is obligatory and the salam does not remove when 
he is unable to say part of it.] 

10.3f. The direction faced in the salam 

starting to the front and turning to the right a little as you say it. This is 
what the imam does or anyone doing the prayer by themselves. 

[ This means you incline your head a little to the right. The description of the 
salam differs with the different people praying. An imam or one praying alone say 
one salam, facing the front and a little to the right. He begins by facing is 
desirable. It is sunna for anyone who prays to say the taslim aloud. As for the 
taslim of someone else, namely someone following the Imam, it is best to say it 
silently. This applies to the man who has no one with him so that any error might 
result. "Saying it outloud" in the case of a woman is so that she can hear herself. 

It is recommended for everyone praying to say the takbir al-ihram aloud, and that 
is the case for the rest of the takbirs for the Imam as opposed to the one who is 
following, and for the person praying alone. It is recommended for the Imam to 
make the salam and takbir al-ihram short so that the one following does not 
precede him in them. What is meant is quickness without extension. 

The Imam and the one praying alone should begin to say it while facing the qibla 
because they are commanded to face qibla in all the pillars of the prayer, and the 
salam is one of its pillars, even though he leaves the prayer by it. It is 
recommended to turn to his right side in the course of it. If he says the salam on 
his left, intending to end it, and does not say it to his right, his prayer is not invalid 
according to the well-known position because he has omitted the right, which is 
meritorious. If the one following says the salam to the left, intending the merit 
with the intention of returning to the salam of ending, and he believes that the 
salam to the left is meritorious which does not end the prayer, and a long time 
passes before he returns to the final salam, then his prayer is invalid. If it is not a 
long time, it is not invalid because the salam to the left is for a meritorious action, 
and is ot like extraneous speech before the final salam because when he does it 
with the intention of bringing the final salam after it, he becomes like someone 
who advances something meritorious before an obligation.] 

10.3g. The salam for someone following an imam 

If you are doing the prayer behind an imam you say the salam once, turning 
a little to the right, then you return the salam of the imam towards the front 



and 

[The salam of the follower is to say one salam, turning to the right for all of it, as 
opposed to the Imam and the one praying alone. The difference between him 
and them is that their salam and response is considered to be part of the prayer, 
and so they face the qibla at the beginning like all the actions of the prayer. As 
for the one following the imam, his Imam said the salam, and he follows him, so it 
means that his prayer had ended. 

It is sunna for the one following to say another salam other than the final salam in 
the direction of the Imam, neither to the right nor the left. He indicates him with 
his heart by agreement. ] 

10. 3h. The salam to the left 

then, if there is anyone on your left who has said the salam, you greet them 
in return. You do not say the salam to the left if no one has said it to you. 

[ It is sunna for the one following the Imam to respond to his left is there is 
anyone on his left. It is evident that he does not say the salam to his left unless 
there is someone on his left who greets him. If he supposes that he did not greet 
him, as when he omits the salam, for instance he might suppose that he does 
greet him, but that is not the case. 

The position of the necessity of returning the salam to the left by the one 
following if there is someone on the left and he earns the merit of the group. If 
there is no one on his left who obtains the blessing of the group since there is 
actually no one there or there is someone who comes late and missed a rak'at 
with the Imam, he is not asked to return it. Bahram said, "Does the one who 
comes late who caught the merit of the group reply to the Imam and to the one 
who said the salam on the left when he finishes the prayer or not since he has 
missed its place? There are two transmissions: one is that which Ibn al-Qasim 
prefers and it is accepted is that he replies, even if the person on the left has 
departed.] 

10.31. The position of the tashahhud 

While you are saying the tashahhud you put your hands on your thighs, 
clenching all the fingers of the right hand except your forefinger which you 
extend with its side uppermost. 

[ It is recommended in the tashahhud to place the hands on the thighs close to 
the knees. This varies. The fingers of the right hand are clenched except for the 
forefinger. It is extended in supplication and glorification to indicate tawhid and to 
avert Shaytan based on what is in Muslim, "It drives away Shaytan and he does 
not forget as long as he is pointing with his finger." You point with its side 
uppermost. The bottom of the finger is not facing the earth or the reverse.] 

Whether or not to move the finger 



There is some difference of opinion as regards the movement of this finger. 

[Ibn al-Qasim says that it is moved, and iie is relied on. Others say that he does 
not move it. Based on the position that it is moved, there are two positions about 
whether it moved in the entire tashshhud or only in the testimonies because he 
confines himself to the first in the Mukhtasar. The literal meaning of the words of 
Ibn al-Hajib is that the second is the well-known one. There is also a question in 
both statements about whether it is moved from right to left or top to bottom.] 

IHolding it straight 

There are those who say that by holding it straight you are indicating that 
Allah is one God while those who move it say that doing so repels shaytan. 
I think they mean by this that you will be reminded in your prayer by 
moving your finger of what will prevent you, if Allah wills, from becoming 
forgetful and distracted. Your left hand is laid flat on your left thigh and you 
neither move it nor point with it. 

[ This means he holds it straight without moving it. The one who moves says that 
it is to repel Shaytan. The left hand is kept flat, and he does not point with it, even 
if his right hand has been amputated.] 

10.4. Dhikr after prayer 

It is recommended to do dhikr immediately after the prayer. You say 
'Subhanallah' (Glory be to Allah) thirty-three times, 'Alhamdu lillah' (Praise 
be to Allah) thirty-three times, and 'Allahu akbar' (Allah is greater) thirty- 
three times. Then you seal the hundred by saying, 'La ilaha illa llahu 
wahdahu la sharika lah. Lahu'l-mulku wa lahu'l-hamdu wa huwa 'ala kulli 
shay'in qadir.' (There is no god but Allah, alone without partner. His is the 
kingdom and His is the praise and He is capable of all things.) 

[ This is done after the obligatory prayers without being separated by the nafila 
based on what Abu Dawud transmitted that a man prayed the obligatory prayer 
and then did the voluntary and 'Umar ibn al-Khattab pulled him and made him sit. 
He said, "Do not pray the nafila prayers straight after the obligatory." The Prophet 
said to him, 'You are right, Ibn al-Khattab. Allah has made you right. The dhikr is 
done with the expressions heard from the Lawgiver. 

This is the sound transmsision with the omission "makes lives and dies." Praise 
is put before takbir and the reverse is done in the salam and asking permission. 
That is done to be mindful of what is found in the hadith. The like of what is here 
is in the two Sahih collections. In the Muwatta' is like what is in the chapter of 
greeting and asking permission. The literal meaning of what he says here is that 
he says, "Subhanallah, al-hamdu lillah and Allahu akbar" 33 times in a group. A 
group prefer it, including Ibn 'Arafa. Some prefer that they be said with each one 
separate.] 

10.4b. AfterSubh 



It is also recommended, after Subh, to continue to do dhikr and ask 
forgiveness and glorify Allah and make du'a up until sunrise or near to 
sunrise, but this is not obligatory. 

[ It is clear from his words that dhikr is other than asking forgiveness, glorification 
and supplication, Some of them say that dhikr is recitation of the Our'an. Some of 
them say that dhikr is explained by what is after it, so it is as if he were saying 
that it is asking forgiveness, etc. 

This lasts until sunrise based on what at-Tirmidhi related and said is hasan. The 
Prophet said, "If anyone prays Fajr in a group and then sits remembering Allah 
until sun rises and then prays two rak'ats, has a reward similar to that of a 
completed hajj." This is what the Salaf did. They persevered in occupying 
themselves with dhikr after Subh until the end of its time. It is not obligatory, 
recommended.] 

10.4C. Fajr 

There are also the two rak'ats of Fajr which you do before Subh after the 
break of dawn. In each rak'at you recite just the Fatiha silently. 

[ It is not enough if they are done before dawn, even with only the takbir al-ihram 
because it is a prayer which is prescribed and is dependant on the obligation of 
Fajr and it is connected to the time of that which it follows. Two positions are 
related about it in the general chapter of the obligatory prayers: desirable and 
sunna. The author of al-Mukhtasar follows the first, which is the accepted 
position. He must intend them as the two rak'ats of Fajr to make them distinct 
them from the nafila prayers. If he prays without that, they are not adequate. 

In each rak'at it is recommended to only recite the Fatiha silently, based on what 
is in the Muwatta' and Muslim where 'A'isha said, "The Messenger of Allah used 
to pray the two rak'ats of Fajr and they were so quick that I would wonder 
whether he had said the Fatiha in them or not." Ibn al-Qasim related that Malik 
recited the Fatiha and a sura in them from the short ones based on what is in 
Muslim that after the Fatiha, the Prophet recited in them al-Kafirun and Ikhlas. It 
is better to pray them in the mosque. 

If someone enters the mosque without having prayed them, and the iqama for 
the obligatory prayer has been given, he omits them and joins the Imam and then 
prays them after sunrise. Their time extends until midday. He does not make up 
any nafila prayers except them. Whoever sleeps through Subh until sunrise, 
prays Subh and then prays them afterwards. Whoever forgets them until he has 
prayed Subh or the time of Subh has come does not pray them until sunrise.] 

10.5. Dhuhr 

10. 5a. Recitation in Dhuhr 



Your recitation for Dhuhr should be from suras lil<e the ones you recite at 
Subh or a little shorter, 

[His words means that the recitation in Dhuhr is equal is what is recited in Subh, 
i.e. from the long mufassal. That is what Imam Ashhab and Ibn Habib said. 
Imam Malik said that it is recommended that the recitation in Dhuhr be a little less 
than the recitation in Subh. That is preferred. If, for example, he recited al-Fath 
(48) in Subh, he recites something like al-Jumu'a (62) or as-Saff (61). It is not 
understood that he recites the middle mufassal. Ibn 'Umar considers that the 
words of the author imply a third position, which is choice.] 

10.5b. Outloud 

but at Dhuhr none of the recitation is done outloud. In both the first and the 
second rak'ats you recite the Fatiha and another sura silently and in the 
last two rak'ats you recite just the Fatiha silently. 

[Recitation is not outloud in Dhuhr, either the Fatiha nor anything else. Reciting 
the Fatiha in the last two is by way of sunna. ] 

10.5C. Tashahhud 

You do the tashahhud in the first sitting as far as the phrase, 'wa ash-hadu 
anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasuluh.' 

[ He adds this. ] 

105d. Takbir for standing 

After that you stand up but do not say 'Allahu akbar' until you are fully 
upright. This is what someone leading the prayer, or someone doing the 
prayer by themselves, does. 

[ Then after finishing the tashahhud to the point mentioned, he rises for the third 
rak'at, and he does not say the takbir when he begins to stand up, but waits until 
he is upright according to what is known in the school in action and because he 
has not moved from a pillar. He has moved from a sunna to a fard, and the fard 
is more entitled to the takbir, and because rising for the third is like beginning a 
new prayer. That is how the Imam and person praying alone does it.] 

10.5e. Standing when following the Imam 

If you are doing the prayer behind an imam you stand up after the imam 
has said, 'Allahu akbar', and, when you are fully upright, you say, 'Allahu 
akbar'. 

[ If you are following an Imam, you only stand up after the Imam has said, "Allahu 
akbar" and has finished it. When you are upright, then you follow the Imam, and 
imitating it. All his actions come after the Imam's actions. In the hadith, "Do not 



precede me in bowing or prostrating." Tiiis tell us that the one following the Imam 
follows him because the prohibition against going ahead of him demands 
following. It negates getting ahead and doing at the same time. ] 

Apart from that, the rest of the prayer, in terms of the ruku', sujud and 
sitting, is the same as has been mentioned for Subh. 

The rest of the prayer is the same as that for Subh. The proof of that is that the 
Prophet did it and taught people. There is no difference in what was mentioned 
between him doing it and teaching people. 

10.5f. Nafila prayers after Dhuhr 

It is recommended to pray four nafila rak'ats after Dhuhr, saying the salam 
after each two rak'ats. 

[This is because of the Prophet said, "If anyone perseveres in the four rak'ats 
before Dhuhr and four after them, Allah will forbid him to the Fire," i.e. perserving 
in what was mentioned is a reason for not committing a major wrong action. Then 
his body will be forbidden to the Fire. The hadith is related by Imam Ahmad and 
the people of the Sunan, i.e. at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah and Abu Dawud. If 
you said that since it is encouraged to persevere with four before and four after, 
why does the author confine it to the four afterwards, I said that it is to point out 
the difference between it and 'Asr where he only does nafila before it. At-Tata'i 
mentioned it.] 

10.6 'Asr 

10. 6a. Nafila before 'Asr 

It is also recommended to do the same before 'Asr. 

[He should do four rak'ats before 'Asr since it is confirmed that he said, "May 
Allah show mercy on a man who prays four rak'ats before 'Asr" which has the 
senses of, "O Prophet, show mercy." There is no doubt that his supplication is 
answered.] 

10. 6b Recitation in 'Asr 

For 'Asr you do exactly the same as we have detailed for Dhuhr except that 
in the first two rak'ats, after reciting the Fatiha, you recite one of the short 
suras such as "Wa'd-duha" (93) or "Innaa anzalnaahu". (97) 

[ You do 'Asr like Dhuhr except that you use shorter suras. So if you begin it with 
one of the long mufassal, you should leave it and recite a short sura.] 

10.7Maghrib 

10. 7a Recitation in Maghrib 



For Maghrib you do the recitation outloud in the first two ral<'ats, in each 
ral<'at reciting the Fatiha and one of the short suras. In the third rak'at you 
recite the Fatiha on its own and do the tashahhud and say the salam. 

[ The third rak'at is done silently. The 'amal is that short suras are used. What is 
transmitted to the contrary is, interpreted, i.e. an-Nasa'i and Abu Dawud 
transmitted that the Prophet used to recite al-A'raf (7) in Maghrib. So it is 
interpreted that it is possible that he knew that those behind him would not be 
harmed by that. Otherwise, he would have continued on an easier action. 

You only recite the Fatiha in the third. After it, you do the tashahhud and prayer 
on the Prophet and make supplication after that and say the salam.] 

10. 7b. Nafila prayers 

It is recommended to do two nafila rak'ats after Maghrib and if you do more 
than this, that is good. Six rak'ats are specifically recommended. 

[ He stressed the recommendation to pray two rak'ats after finishing Maghrib and 
more is good. Evidence for its recommendation lies in the fact that the Prophet 
did it. What is more than two is good since He says, "Whoever does an atom's 
weight of good will see it." Six are recommended since he said, "If anyone prays 
six rak'ats after Maghrib in which he does not say anything evil [i.e. haram] 
between them, that is equal to the worship of twelve years." Ibn Khuzayma 
related it in his Sahih as did at-Tirmidhid. That which is in at-Tata'i from the Sahih 
of Ibn Khuzayma is that they are equal to the worship. One of them said, "To the 
worship of the Banu Israel". In the Collections of at-Tabarani, "If anyone prays six 
after Maghrib he will be forgiven his wrong actions, even if they are like the froth 
of the sea."] 

10. 7c. Nafila between Maghrib and 'lsha' 

Doing rak'ats in the time between Maghrib and 'lsha is also strongly 
recommended. 

[Al-Ghazali said, "The Messenger of Allah was asked about the words of the 
Almighty, "Their sides avoid the beds," and said that it is praying between 
Maghrib and 'lsha'. The Prophet said, "You must pray between Maghrib and 
'lsha', It removes vanities," i.e. it expels what someone has disliked words or 
actions so that he is not criticised for it nor is he moved to a forbidden action or 
from a small sin to a great one which only repentance ot Allah's pardon 
expiates. ] 

10. 7d. Other aspects of Maghrib 

As for the other aspects of Maghrib, they are the same as has already been 
mentioned regarding the other prayers. 

[This is to have the recitation is outloud in the first two with the Fatiha and a short 



sura, and only the Fatiha silently in the third.] 

10.8'lsha' 

10. 8a Recitation in 'lsha' 

For the last prayer, 'lsha - which is also known as al-'Atama although the 
name 'lsha is more appropriate -you pray the first two rak'ats outloud, 
reciting in both of them the Fatiha and another sura. The suras chosen 
should be a little longer than those chosen for 'Asr. In each of the last two 
rak'ats you recite the Fatiha to yourself. The other parts of the prayer are 
done as has already been described. 

[Recitation in the 'lsha' prayer is longer than 'Asr. In the last two rak'ats, he 
recites only the Fatiha. ] 

10. 8b. Sleeping before 'lsha' 

Sleeping before 'lsha is disliked, as is talking after it unless there is a 
special need to do so. 

[It is not disliked to talk after its time has come and before it has not been prayed. 
Al-Fakhani said that that. It is also disliked to sit up without conversation out of 
the fear of missing Subh and rising at night.] 

10.9 Volume of Recitation 

10. 9a. What is meant by 'reciting to yourself' 

The expression 'reciting to yourself' as far as the prayers are concerned 
means moving the tongue as you articulate the words of the Our'an. The 
expression 'reciting outloud' means, if you are doing the prayer alone, that 
you recite loud enough for yourself and anyone standing close to you to 
hear. 

[ This is the least of doing it silently and the most is that he only can hear himself. 
By moving his tongue, he is careful more reciting in the prayer with his heart. It is 
not enough. So if he were to take an oath that he would not recite Our'an and 
then made it flow in his heart, he does not break the oath of not reciting. 

The minimun of outloud in the obligation is that someone can hear it and its 
maximum has no limit. Al-Fakhani said, "Look at the meaning of his words, "if he 
is alone." It is clear that it is not for the Imam who sought make it heard by 
himself to hear himself and those behind him. If the one behind him does not 
hear him, his prayer is valid. The sunna is achieved by the one next to him 
hearing. Al-Aqfahasi said that if he is alone. he considers the one near him to be 
another persons praying, and so his principle in being outloud is that of a woman. 

The place where the outloud is demanded, as in the commentary of Shaykh, is 



when it does not entail confusing someone else. Otherwise that which will result 
in confusion is forbidden, even if it leads to making the sunna fall because he 
does not commit anything unlawful to obtain the sunna.] 

10.10. Women's Prayer 

lO.IOa Women's recitation 

Women's recitation in the Our'an should be quieter than that of men. 

[The woman is quieter than man so that only she can hear herself, like the 
talbiyya. The loudest of her loud and quiet recitation of it is the same, and it is 
that only that she can hear herself. According to this, she is the same silently and 
aloud, i.e. the silent is not lower than that which is done with the movement of the 
tongue, i.e. with how a man recites silently. ] 

lO.IOb. Difference from men's prayer 

Otherwise they do the prayer in the same way as men except that they 
should keep their legs together and their arms close to their sides and keep 
themselves as gathered as possible when sitting and in sujud and in the 
whole of the prayer in general. 

[ She is like the man in the prayer except that she keeps her legs together and 
arms close in. She does this out of fear of breaking wind because she is not like 
the man in retention. She has a certain looseness. If her legs were apart, she 
might break wind which would break wudu'. This is also true of ruku' and she 
does not put her arms out like a man. What the author mentioned is the 
transmission of Ibn Ziyad from Malik which is contrary to the statement of Ibn al- 
Oasim in al-Mudawwana because he considers the man and woman the same in 
the form. That which the author mentioned from the transmission of Ibn Ziyad is 
preferred and the words of Ibn al-Qasim are weak.] 

10.11 The Witr and nafila prayers at night 

10.11aThe Shaf' i and Witr 

Then you pray the Shaf'i (even) and Witr (odd) outloud. 

[After 'lsha', you pray the shaf'i prayer which is two rak'ats. There are positions 
about whether it a precondition that it have a specific intention or whether any 
two rak'ats enough. The evident one is the second based on that fact that it is 
valid that the Prophet said, "The prayer at night s in ones and twos. When one of 
you fears the approach of Subh prayer, he should pray the one rak'at of the witr 
to make odd what he prayed". After the two rak'ats, he prays the witr. It is a 
confirmed sunna in the famous position. It is said that it is obligatory and that it is 
the most confirmed of the sunnas. It is a stronger sunna than the 'id, and stronger 
than the Eclipse and Rain prayers The two rak'ats of tawaf are stronger than the 
witr. As for the funeral prayer, it is less than the witr and more than the 'id. Abdu'l- 



Baqi demonstrated that the funeral is more confirmed than the witr. 

In the best position it is a single rak'at after the shaf'i. The place of its excellence 
is after the shaf'i. There are two statements about whether the shafi'i is a 
precondition of completeness or a precondition of validity. The first is taken by 
the author of al-Jawhar and Ibn al-Hajib. Al-Baji clearly stated that it is well- 
known. The second is that he does a witr without the shafi'i. Ashhab says that he 
repeats his witr after the shaf'i as long as he has not prayed Subh, i.e. by way of 
sunna. When we say that the shafi'i must be put first it means its being before it 
is a precondition of validity. It must be connected to the witr. A small gap is 
permitted. There are two positions about whether a long gap is permitted.] 

10.11b. Night nafila prayers 

In the same way it is recommended to do nafila prayers at night outloud 
whereas nafila prayers during the day should be done to yourself although 
if you say them outloud during the day it is still acceptable. 

[This means it is permitted. Ibn al-Hajib related to statements about it being 
disliked.] 

lO.llc. Number of rak'ats for shaf'i 

The least number of rak'ats you can do for the shaf'i is two. 

[There is no limit to its maximum.] 

10.1 1d. Recitation in the shafi' 

It is recommended that you recite the Fatiha and Sura al-A'la (87) in the first 
rak'at and the Fatiha and Surat al-Kaflrun (109) in the second followed by 
the tashahhud and the salam. 

[ After the salam, you stand for the witr. It is recommended that they be 
separated by a salam based on the previous hadith and the Maliki School.] 

10.1 1e. Recitation in the Witr 

You then pray the single rak'at of witr, reciting in it the Fatiha, Surat al- 
Ikhlas and the two suras of protection. [113 and 114.] If you do more than 
one pair of rak'ats for the Shaf'i you do the Witr at the end. 

[ This recitation is recommended. Qadi Ibn al-'Arabi said that the one who strives 
recites in it the end of his hizb and others recite Ikhlas. The accepted position 
which the author mentioned is based on what Abu Dawud and others related. 
'A'isha was asked what the Prophet recited in the witr. She said, "He used to 
recite al-A'la in the first, al-Kafirun in the second and Ikhlas and the suras of 
protection in the third. It is clear that this answer does not conform to the literal 
words of the question because it literally was whether he did the witr with three or 



something else. So perhaps she understood that the asker meant what the 
Prophet recited in his witr.] 

10.1 1f. The night prayers of the Prophet 

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to 
pray twelve rak'ats at night making the number odd by praying one rak'at at 
the end. It is also said that he did twenty rak'ats making the number odd by 

adding one rak'at at the end. 

[There are sound transmissions in the Sahih, i.e. from the hadith of 'A'isha and 
there is no contradiction between the transmission of 12 rak'ats and that of 11 
rak'ats because the Prophet used to begin his prayer with two quick rak'ats after 
wudu' and sometimes they were considered part of his devotions. So sometimes 
she reported 12 and sometimes did not because they were connected to wudu' 
and the release of the knot of shaytan, and so she reported ten rak'ats. Standing 
at night or tahajjud was an obligation in respect of the Prophet and 
recommended for us since he said, "You should stand at night. It is the habit of 
the righteous before you and an act of nearness for your Lord and an expiation of 
evil deeds and prevents wrong actions.] 

lO.llg. Besttime 

The best time for doing night prayers is the last part of the night. 

[This is for the sake of tahajjud according to Malik and his followers based on 
what is in the two Sahih collections where the Prophet says, "Our Lord descends 
every night to the lower heaven when a third of the night remains. He says, 'ls 
there any who calls on Me so that I can answer him? Who asks of Me so that I 
can give to him? Who askes My forgiveness so that I can forgive him?" Ash- 
Shafi'i singled out the middle of the night by the report that the Prophet Da'ud 
used to sleep half the night and stand in prayer for a third of it and then sleep a 
sixth. Then it is established that the end of the night is better.] 

lO.llh Delaying night prayers 

For this reason it is better to delay your nafila night prayers and your Witr 
until the last part of the night. However, if you are someone who does not 
usually wake up in time you should do your Witr, along with any nafila 
prayers you want to do, at the beginning of the night 

[ This is based on what is in Muslim and elsewhere from the marfu' hadith of 
Jabir: "Anyone who is afraid that he will not get up at the end of the night should 
do his witr at its beginning. Anyone who intends to get up at the end of night, 
should do the witr at its end. The prayer at the end of the night is witnessed" i.e 
the angels of mercy attend it. The upshot is that it is recommended to delay the 
witr in two cases if it is his custom to wake up at the end of the night or whether 
he does or does not is equal. It is prayed before in one case. which is when he 
usually sleeps until Subh.] 



10.11i. Prayers after the Witr 

and then if you do wal<e up in the last part of the night you can do whatever 
nafila prayers you want to in pairs, but you do not repeat the Witr. 

[ If someone does not usually awake up and does his witr before and his nafila as 
is best for him, and then he later wakes at the end of the night, he can do 
whatever nafila he wishes because the fact that he has already done the witr 
does not keep him from beginning prayers after it. However the place of that is 
when he has the intention of nafila after the witr or during it, not that it happens 
before he begins the witr. If he intends to do nafila after the witr before the witr, 
that is not permitted. Indeed it is disliked. The best is for the nafila to be in pairs 
of two rak'ats based on the hadith about the night prayer being in twos. Then 
when he finishes his nafila, he does not repeat the witr since doing it after 'lsha' 
was valid and it is feared that it is disliked for him to repeat the witr since the 
Prophet said, "There are not two witrs in the night," as Abu Dawud and at- 
Tirmidhi transmitted it.] 

10.1 1j. Oversleeping 

If you normally pray at the end of the night but oversleep, you can still do 
your night prayers overlapping the time of Fajr up to when it begins to get 
light. 

[ Connected to oversleeping is the one becomes unconscious, insane, or 
menstruates and then the excuse disappears at dawn. He did not deliberately 
delay it and so he does not have to pray it, even if he is able to do it with Fajr and 
Subh before it gets light. He is permitted to do it between dawn and light. The 
precondition for doing it is that he does not fear that it will get light and that he 
slept through it by being overcome and that he does not fear missing the group. If 
he lacks its precondition, he omits it and prays Subh without the shaf'i and witr 
because they are done after Fajr without any precondition. 

When someone sleeps through his normal prayers until after Fajr, he does the 
witr because it has two times, ikhtiyari which is after the 'lsha' prayer until dawn, 
and a daruri time from dawn until he prays Subh according to the well-known 
position by the one who says that the witr is not prayed after dawn] 

lO.llk Praying witr late 

Then you pray your Witr and do Subh. 

[If he prays Subh and omits Fajr, he prays it after the time of the nafila. This is if 
there is enough time for three rak'ats. If there is only enough time for two rak'ats, 
he leaves the witr and prays Subh in the well-known position. Opposite it is the 
statement of Asbagh that he prays the witr as one rak'at and one rak'at of Subh 
before the sun. If there is only enough time for one rak'at, then Subh is 
incumbent by agreement. If there is enough time for five or six, he prays the 
Shaf'i and witr and Subh and omits Fajr. If it is ample enough for seven, he prays 



all.] 

10.111. WitrafterSubh 

If you remember that you have not prayed Witr after you have done Subh 
you do not mal<e it up. 

[The like of it is in the Muwatta' from a group of Companions. If he forgets the witr 
and remembers it in the Subh prayer, it is recommended that he step in the 
famous view if he is alone and then pray the witr and then start the Subh prayer 
again, i.e. after he repeats the Fajr after the witr. It is even more so if he 
remembers the witr after the Fajr prayer and before beginning Subh. So he prays 
the witr and then repeats Fajr. It is the same if he has prayed Fajr and then 
remembers an obligatory prayer before Subh, it it is few. Then he repeats Fajr 
after he has prayed the missed prayer. If he is following an Imam, it is 
recommended that he continue, even if he is certain that if he stops the prayer 
and prays the witr, he will catch the excellence of the group. There are two 
transmissions about the Imam. One is that he stops and the other that he does 
not. According to the position that he stops, does he appoint a deputy based on 
an analogy with minor impurity or does he not do so based on analogy of what 
was mentioned of a prayer in a prayer. According to the statement that he does 
not appoint a deputy, does the one following stop or not? He appoints and they 
complete their prayer. This disagreement about stopping or continuing is when 
the time is ample. If the time is short, he continues without disagreement.] 

10.12 Entering the Mosque 

10.12a.Two rak'ats 

If you are in wudu' when you go into a mosque you should not sit down 
until you have prayed two rak'ats 

[ When you enter a mosque, it is disliked to sit before praying and this is not 
eliminated by the fact of sitting. If he enters often, then the first is enough for him 
if he returns to the mosque soon by custom. Otherwise he should do it again. 

These two are a greeting for the mosque which is meritorious and is accepted. 
Ibn 'Abdu's-Salam said that they are sunna. The basis for this is the words of the 
Prophet, "When one of you enters the mosque, he should not sit down until he 
has prayed two rak'ats." (Muslim in the form of a prohibition) Al-Bukhari has it, 
"When one of you enters the mosque, he should do two rak'ats before he sits, ' 
by way of command. This command is by way of meritorious action, not by 
obligation, and the prohibition is dislike and not prohibition. 

There is no difference in the command to greet the mosque on the Friday 
mosque or others except the mosque of Makka. In it he begins with the tawaf 
when it is demanded of him, even if by recommendation or it is desirable for 
someone coming from outside to do them first or who does not intend it. If he is 



Makka and does not have to do tawaf and does not desire it, but iie enters it for 
tiie prayer or to visit tiie House and greets it witii two rak'ats if it is tiie time in 
wliicli tiie nafila is allowed. Otherwise, he sits like in any other mosque. An 
exception is also the mosque of the Prophet according to one of two statements 
of Malik that he begins with the greeting to the Prophet before beginning to bow 
and the other is that he begins with ruku' and Ibn al-Qasim recommends it and he 
is relied on because the greeting is the right of Allah and the greeting is a human 
right and the first is more confirmed.] 

10.12b. Thetime 

provided it is at a time when you are allowed to pray. 

[A precondition for greeting the mosque is that it is a time in which prayer is 
permitted. If a prohibited time has begun, like sunrise and sunset, the khutba for 
Jumu'a, after 'Asr and after Fajr, then it is obligatory that he does not pray in 
sunrise, sunset and the khutba, and desirable that he not pray after 'Asr and Fajr. 
If he begins the prayer in a prohibited time, then it is obligatory to stop and it is 
recommended in a disliked time. 

It is recommended for the one who is not permitted to greet because of the prior 
impediments to say four times, "Glory be to Allah and praise belongs to Allah. 
There is no god but Allah and Allah is greater" and he performs the greeting with 
the fard prayer or, which is better, with a sunna or desirable prayer. He obtains 
the reward if he intends the greeting and the fard.] 

10.12C. Fajr taking their place 

If you go into the mosque before you have done the two rak'ats of Fajr they 
take the place of those two rak'ats. If you have already prayed the two 
rak'ats of Fajr before you go to the mosque, there is a difference of opinion 
about what you should do. Some people say you pray two rak'ats and some 
people say you do not. 

[ In such a case, the two rak'ats of Fajr suffice for the greeting of the mosque and 
he does not pray the two rak'ats of greeting the mosque before it. That is 
accepted position. It is also said that he prays them, but that is weak. If you said 
that time does not demand the greeting and satisfying the thing is a branch of 
demanding it, I said that this is based on the position that the greeting is 
demanded at this time. If you pray them at home and then go to the mosque and 
find that the iqama for the prayer has not been given, there is disagreement 
about someone who prays the sunna of Fajr outside it. It is said that he prays two 
rak'ats and some say that the sits down before praying, and that is accepted.] 

10.12d. No nafila prayers between dawn and sunrise 

Between the break of dawn and sunrise there are no nafila prayers except 
the two rak'ats of fajr. 



[i.e. and the regular prayers of the one who slept through them as was stated, the 
shaf'i and the witr absolutely, the funeral for the one it is not feared will putrefy, 
and the prostation of recitaiton are done before brightening, and so doing them in 
that time is disliked. When you fear the corpse will putrefy, it is no unlawful to 
pray over him at the time of prohibition and it is not disliked at the disliked time. 
When he fears that the corpse will putrefy and prays over it at the time of 
prohibition or dislike, the prayer over him is not repeated when it is permitted, 
whether he is buried or not. It is like tha in the prohibited time if he is buried. 
Otherwise it is repeated. 

When the sun begins to rise, nafila are forbidden, including the funeral, the 
prostration of recitation and vowed nafgial to preserve the root until it has fully 
risen, and the dislike lasts until it has risen the length of a spear from the spears 
which are measured as 12 spans.] 



Chapter Eleven: the Function of the Imam 

11.1 The office of Imam 

On leading the prayer and judgements concerning the imam and those who 
pray behind an imam 

[This chapter clarifies who is the best person to be the Imam and who it is 
disliked to have as Imam. When someone prays alone, that takes the place of 
the group. It also clarifies one who joins alone on the night of rain. The 
judgement of the one following is that he recites with the Imam when it is silent 
and he stands at the right of the Imam when he is alone.] 

11. 1a. The best one to be Imam 

The man who should lead a group of people in prayer is the best and most 
knowledgeable one among them. 

[The one who leads them is the one with the greatest virtue, i.e. if a group gather, 
and all are excellent and one is more so, he is the one who is entitled to be 
Imam. It is said that the amount of knowledge has to do with the excellence.] 

Il.lb Women cannot be Imams 

Women cannot lead the prayer. This is the case whether the prayer is fard 
or nafila and whether the group in question are men or women. 

[ As the woman does not lead the prayer, neither does the hermaphordie. If 
either of them lead the prayer, the prayer must always be repeated according to 
the Maliki School whether those following are like them or not. Their own prayers 
are valid, even if they intend to be the Imams. Abu Ibrahim al-Andalusi disagrees 
with that and says, "Any woman or a hermaphordite like her who resembles a 
woman who leads a prayer must repeat it within the time. Know that actual being 
a male is a precondition for the validity of being an Imam. ] 

11. 1c. Non-Muslims cannot be Imams 

[In addition to this precondition, there is another precondition, which is being a 
Muslim. The Imamate of an unbeliever is not valid.] 

11. 1d. Imams must be adults 

[Also maturity is a precondition and it is not valid for a child to be the Imam of an 
adult in the obligatory prayer because the child is doing nafila and nafila does not 
make someone following in a fard prayer valid. ] 

11. 1e. Imams must be sane 

[Another precondition is sanity. The imamate of a madman is not valid.] 



11. 1f. The Imam must know the prayer and be upright 

[Another precondition is knowledge. Tiie prayer is not valid except lead by 
someone with recitation, fiqh, uprightness and the ability to perform the pillar sof 
the prayer. The one who is ignorant of recitation or fiqh cannot validily lead in 
prayer someone who has knowledge. As for someone who is illiterate like him, 
that is valid when there is no one present who can read.] 

Il.lg. The Imam must have good character 

[By good character is meant lack of impiety connected to the prayer. The impiety 
in the person who is impious towards it is someone who intends to be an Imam 
through pride and so his imamate is not valid. As for the impiety of the limb, like 
the fornicator, it is disliked for him to be the Imam but his prayer is valid as 
opposed to what is followed by the author of al-Mukhtasar that it is invalid by 
such an impious person. ] 

ll.lh. Ability 

[Similarly invalid is the imamate of the one who is unable to perform some of the 
pillars of the prayer which are fard for the one who is able to. ] 

11.11. Congruence 

[There must be congruence in the one followed, i.e. the person, place and time. 
Doing dhuhr behind someone doing 'Asr is not valid nor the reverse, nor 
performing a prayer behind someone making one up or the reverse, nor Dhuhr of 
Saturday behind Dhuhr of Sunday nor the reverse. ] 

ll.lj. Agreement of madhhab 

[The agreement of the school of the one following with the Imam in obligatory 
parts. So it is not valid to follow someone who omits the recitation in the last two 
or fails to rise from ruku' or prostration, for instance, and residence and freedom 
in Jumu'a. So the imamate of the traveller is not valid except when he is the 
khalif. What is meant by a traveller is the one outside of the land of the Jumu'a by 
a farsang. The Imamate of a slave on Jumu'a is not valid, and the Jumu'a must 
be repeated if that is possible.] 

Il.lk Reciting with the Imam 

People praying behind an imam should recite to themselves when he 
recites to himself 

[It is related that this means that the judgement of the one following the Imam is 
that it is recommended for him to recite with the Imam in what the Imam says 
silently. That is since lack of recitation is a means to thinking and whispering.] 

11.11. When the Imam recites aloud 



but should not recite with him when he recites outloud. 

[It is disliked to recite when he recites outloud, even if he cannot hear his voice, 
according to the text. If he recites with him, what he has done is bad, but his 
prayer is not invalidated. The basis for this is the words of the Almighty, "When 
the Our'an is recited, then listen to it and be silent." Al-Bayhaqi reported from 
Mujahid that the Messenger of Allah was reciting in the prayer and he heard one 
of the Ansar reciting, and then the words of the Almighty were revealed: down, 
"When the Our'an is recited, then listen to it and be silent." They related it from 
Mujahid from another path that he said it was during the khutba on Fridaya, and 
another path has the prayer and the khutba.] 

11.2 Late-comer making up missed prayer 

11. 2a. Catching the prayer 

If you catch one or more rak'ats of a group prayer then it is as if you have 
caught the whole prayer. 

[If you catch one or more rak'ats of the obligatory prayer or another prayer 
prescribed in a group like the'Oids, with the Imam, is judged to have caught the 
prayer. The Muwatta' has the words of the Prophet, "Whover catches a rak'at of 
the prayer had caught the prayer," i.e. he is obliged what the is obliged of the 
Imam in the prostration of forgetfulness. He does not follow anyone else nor 
repeat his prayer in another group. He says the salam to the Imam and to the 
one of his left and he obtains a reward similar to the reward of those who were 
present from its beginning. It is 27 degrees higher. This is when he misses the 
rest of it by necessity, not from choice. Abu Hanifa says that he obtains the 
excellence of the group. It is the literal meaning of the words of the author and 
agrees with its explanation. 

What we said indicates catching one rak'at of the ikhtiyari time is in the position 
of catching all the prayer in negating the sin, even if he delays the ikhtiyari. Also 
no one said that one who misses part of the prayer with the imam repeats it to 
obtain the benefits of the group. This is clear in the rest of his words. Catching 
the rak'at with the Imam" is by placing the hands on the knees , meaning he 
bows over so that if he wanted to place his hands on his knees, he could 
certainly do that and the Imam would not rise from ruku' before he placed his 
hands on his knees. 

The judgement of the one who misses a rak'at or more with the Imam is that he 
did performs what he missed with the Imam.] 

11. 2b. Making up the missed recitation 

You then make up the rak'ats you have missed after the imam has said the 
salam, making your recitation in them outloud or silent in the way that the 
imam did. 



[What the Imam recited of the Fatiha and the sura, he recites as the Imam 
recited: what he did silently he does silently and what he did outloud, he does 
outloud. If he sits in the place, he is permitted to sit, even if he is alone, by 
catching two rak'ats, then he stands with a takbir. If he sits in a place where it is 
not permitted do sit, even if alone, by catching one or three rak'ats wth him, he 
stands without a takbir. It is the famous position as opposed to Ibn al-Majishun. It 
is as he thought that the takbir is for moving to a pillar of the prayer. The author 
of at-Tiraz mentioned from Malik in al-'Utibiyya the position that if he sits in the 
second, he stands without a takbir. He said that it is based on the fact that he is 
making up the two previous ones and that which begins the first is the takbir al- 
ihram.] 

11. 2c. Making up other actions 

The other aspects of the prayer such as your standing and sitting are done 
as if you were continuing a prayer you had started by yourself. 

[He builds on what he has done. He prays like someone who prays until the end 
of his prayer and then remembers that he has missed some of the prayer. This 
has three forms because he either remembers what would invalidate one, two or 
three rak'ats by omitting prostration, recitation of the Fatiha or something else 
which would invalidate the prayer. ] 

11.3 Repeating the Prayer 

If you have already done the prayer by yourself you can do it again with a 
group in order to get the benefit there is in doing that 

[ If you have prayed the obligatory prayer alone outside one of the three 
mosques (Makka, Madina and al-Aqsa), where there is no regular Imam and the 
lqama was not given while you were in the mosque, it is recommended that you 
repeat what he prayed in the group, even in the daruri time. The repeating is for 
the sake of the excellence of the group which is limited by not being outside of 
the time of the prayer. If it is outside of the time of the prayer, it is not repeated. 

The group consists of two and more, and so there is no repeating with one until 
he is a regular Imam. 

If the iqama of the prayer is called while someone is in the mosque, he joins it. 
The Mudawwana states: "If anyone hears the iqama and has already prayed 
alone, it is not obligatory for him to repeat it unless he wishes, even if he is in a 
mosque which he has entered with the Imam. The intention of the one who has 
prayed alone who repeats it in the group is to obtain the excellence reported in 
that by the Prophet, "The group prayer is 27 degrees better than the pray alone." 
The prayer which is repeated for the excellence of the group is general in every 
obligatory prayer.] 

11. 3b The case of Maghrib 



except in the case of Maghrib. 

[If he were to repeat it with the Imam, he bows an even number, and does it as 
nafila. If he does not remember until he has prayed three with him, when the 
Imam says the salam, he does a fourth after it as nafila. If he does not remember 
until he has prayed with the Imam, he does not repeat it. It is also said that he 
does repeat it. He is not asked to repeat Maghrib for the group because if it is 
repeated, it becomes even. Maghrib is three so that the number of rak'ats of the 
day and night will be odd. According to the words of the author, he repeats Isha', 
even if he has done the witr. The well-known position is that it is not repeated if 
he has done the witr for the joining of the two witrs in the night according to one 
of two statements by Sahnun that he repeats the witr when he repeats 'lsha'.] 

11. 3c. Only one group prayer 

If you have caught one rak'at or more of a group prayer then you should 
not do that prayer again with another group. 

[ i.e it is forbidden for him, even if the second group is greater in number that 
more excellent and forfearing. It is the well-known position, i.e. because the 
excellence for which repeating is prescribed has been obtained, even if the 
prayer begins with the excellent, and the large group is better. However, this 
excellence is not prescribed for the sake of repetition. Ibn Habib said, "The 
excelence of the group is have number and the excellence of the Imam is based 
on what is stated by the Prophet, "The prayer of a man with another man is better 
than his prayer alone, and his prayer with two men is better than his prayer with 
one man, and what is more is more beloved to Allah Almighty," i.e. wherever he 
is, that is the case. So this would mean whoever prays with a group should 
repeat it with a better group, or the one who prayed with an imam should repeat it 
with a better imam. This is not what is meant and it is not what is meant in the 
hadith. This hadith indicates the encouragement to pray in a group or in large 
group. Then the author explains what is understood by his words, to make it 
clearer.] 

11. 3d. When it is allowed 

But if you have only caught the sujud or the tashahhud then you can, if you 
want, do that prayer again with another group. 

[ He can choose between two things: either building on his ihram or stopping and 
joining another group if he hopes to catch it. If he does not hope to catch it, then 
he completes his prayer and does not stop it. This is in respect of the one who 
has not prayed before that. As for the one who has prayed before that, and not 
caught the group prayer except for this amount, he does two, i.e. it is desirable 
after the salam of the Imam. He does two when the prayer is one after which 
nafila is permitted, as in at-Tata'i. According to Ibn al-Qasim, he absolutely stops, 
whether he began the prayer with the intention of the fard or nafila, i.e. after the 
two raka'ts, and does not complete his prayer. 



Opposite that is wiiat IVIalik related in al-Mabsut about his intention when he 
joined the Imam was to make it Dhuhr with four and his prayer at home nafila, 
then he must complete it and it is up to Allah to make the fard whichever of them 
He wishes. If he does not mean to negate the first, then the first is adequate and 
he does not have to complete this one.] 

11.4 Positions behind an Imam 

Then there are six positions regarding someone following the Imam regarding 
whether he is alone, or other men or women are with him. 

11. 4a. Two men 

If there is just one man with the imam he stands on the imam's right. 

[If there is one man or a child who understands the prayer, i.e. grasps that 
obedience is rewarded and disobedience is punished. Otherwise he is only a 
child. It is desirable for such a person to stand with the Imam to his right and a 
little bit behind him so that the Imam can be distinguished from the follower. It is 
disliked to be level. The fact that his place is to the right is based on what is in 
the Sahih that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I spent the night in the house of my aunt, 
Maymuna, and the Messenger of Allah rose to pray and I stood at his left and he 
moved me with his hand behind his back to the right side. 

11. 4b. Two men or more men 

Two men or more stand behind the imam. 

[This is based on what is in Muslim where Jabir said, "The Messenger of Allah 
stood to pray and I went and stood at the left of the Messenger of Allah and he 
took my hand and brought me round to stand at his right Then Jabir ibn Sakhr 
came and stood at the left of the Messenger of Allah and he took our hands and 
pushed us until he had us stand behind him."] 

11. 4c. Women 

If there is a woman there as well she stands behind the men. 

[If there a woman, she stands behind the men because of what is in Muslim 
where Anas said, "When I was an orphan in our house, I prayed behind the 
Messenger of Allah and Umm Sulaym was behind us."] 

11. 4d. A man and a woman following the Imam 

If there is just one man and a woman praying with the imam, the man 
stands on the imam's right and the woman stands behind them. 

[The man, or the child who understands the act of worship, stands to the right 
and the woman stands behind them based on what is in Anas where the 



Messenger of Allah prayed with him and his mother or aunt and he made him 
stand to his right the woman behind him. The judgement regarding a group of 
women with the Imam is the same of a man is with one woman with them. That is 
indicated in the chapter of Jumu'a where he says that the women should be 
behind the rows of men. ] 

11. 4e. A man and a woman 

If a man prays with his wife, she stands behind him. 

[Qadi Ibn al-'Arabi says that the clearest in it is that the husband is like the man. 
Allah Almighty says, "Dwell, you and your wife, in the Garden." She does not 
stand to his right, meaning it is disliked for to her do that. He should indicate to 
her to go back but the prayer of neither is invalidated by being level unless there 
is invalidation by impurity.] 

11.4f. A boy and man 

A young boy with a man stand side by side behind the imam as long as the 
boy is sensible enough not to run off and leave the man he is standing with 
on his own. 

[ When there is a child and a man, they stand behind the imam based on the 
previous hadith of Anas, but it is limited by the people of the school to when the 
boy is sensible and he understands the reward of the one who completes the 
prayer and the wrong action of the one who stops. If the boy does not understand 
what was mentioned, the man stands to the right of the Imam and the child is left 
to stand whereever he wishes. 

The judgment of these ranks is that it is recommended. Whoever disagrees with 
the order and prays otherwise has nothing against him unless that the woman 
goes forward to the rank of the man or in front of the Imam. It is like a man who 
goes ahead of the imam-that is disliked without excuse. When a woman goes in 
front of the Imam, his prayer is not invalidated nor the prayer of anyone with him 
unless he takes pleasure in looking at her or touching her. The statement that it 
is invalid by pleasure or looking is weak since there is no touching nor 
ejaculation. If the one following an Imam goes in front because of an excuse, like 
the lack of space in the mosque, it is permitted for him without dislike.] 

11.5 The Imam's single prayer 

11. 5a. The Imam's prayer is a group prayer 

The prayer of the regular imam when he is alone is considered as a group 
prayer. 

[The regular imam is the one who is appointed by the ruler or his representative 
or the waqif (trustee) or group of Muslims in any permitted or disliked manner 
because the precondition of the waqif demands that he be followed, even if he is 



disliked. It is like that with the ruler or his representative, even if they command 
something disliked in one of two positions. It is the same whether the position of 
the imamate is in an actual mosque or is a judgement, and thus ships are 
included in it, and any place in which there is normally a group prayer. 

On his own he considered to achieve the group prayer in its excellence and 
judgement. Therefore another group prayer is not repeated and it is not held in 
that mosque again. Whoever prays alone repeats it with him, but with the 
precondition that the prayer is within its normal time and people expect it 
normally, with the intention of the Imam, the adhan and the iqama. He can join 
prayers alone on the night of rain because the difficulty in respect of it and he 
says, "Allah hears whoever praises him," and does not add, "Our Lord, praise is 
yours," i.e. that is disliked.] 

11. 5b. No two prayers in the mosque 

It is dislil<ed for there to be two group prayers for any one prayer in any 
mosque that has a regular imam. 

[Before, after or with the regular imam according to the position of the schoool 
that it is unlawful for anyone to pray the prayer while the regular Imam is praying 
it, alone or in a group, because that would lead to mutual hate and dispute 
between the Imams and the splitting of the community whereas the Shari'a 
commands harmony. 

11. 5c If someone has has already prayed he cannot be Imam 

Anyone who has already prayed a particular prayer cannot then be the 
imam for that same prayer for anyone else. 

[Anyone who has prayed an obligatory prayer alone or in a group, as Imam or 
following, cannot lead that prayer which he repeats. It is known from the school 
that it is not permitted for someone doing a fard prayer to follow someone doing a 
voluntary one and is repeating that in which he led a group if they wish, which is 
the approved position of the school, or individuals. Ibn Habib says "individuals" 
and it seems that he noted the school of the opponent because the first prayer is 
allowed by ash-Shafi'i and others. When they repeat it in a group, they become 
like the one who prayed in a group and then repeated in another group.] 

11 .6 How to follow the Imam 

11. 6a. Following the Imam in the sujud of forgetfulness 

If the imam leaves out something in his prayer and does the sujud of 
forgetfulness those behind him follow him even though they themselves 
have not left anything out. 

[ It is obligatory that the one following follow him, even if he did it before him. The 
question has different cases. If he caught all the prayer with him, he is obliged to 



follow him in every aspect, whether prostration before or after. If he preceded 
him, then he must either have a rak'at with him or not. If he had a rak'at with him 
and his prostration is before, then he prostrates with him. If it is after, he does not 
prostatate with him and waits for him sitting, according to what is in the 
Mudawwana. They said that he is silent and does not say that tashahhud with 
him. If he differs and prostrates, then his prayer is invalid. If he is ignorant, 'lsa 
said that he always repeats it. He said in al-Bayan, and it is the most comparable 
on the basis of the school is that it is because he has introduced into the prayer 
what is not part of it. Ibn al-Qasim has excused it when it is ignorance and says 
that its judgement is that of forgetfulness to observe the one who says that he ust 
prostrate with the Imam. 

If he does not do a rak'at with him, he does not consequently prostrate 
afterwards. As for the prostration before, Ibn al-Qasim said that he does not 
follow him. If he differs and follows him, then his prayer is invalid, whether 
intentional or by ignorance, not by oversight. The basis is in what ad-Daraqutni 
reported that the Prophet said, "There is no oversight against the person 
following the Imam. If the Imam forgets, then it is against him and whoever 
follows him." In the two Sahih collections is that the Prophet said, "The Imam is 
made to be followed int he states of the prayer."] 

11. 6b. Not preceding the Imam 

No one should raise their head before the imam nor do any of the actions 
of the prayer until he has done them. 

[None of those following the Imam precedes him in ruku', prostration or anything 
else. If he gets ahead of him, he returns to him thinking to catch him before 
rising. Is returning sunna or obligatory? Al-Mawwaq confined himself to the 
second and even if he fails to return, his prayer is valid since he took his 
oblgiation with the Imam before he rose. Otherwise, it is obligatory for him to 
return. If he omits it intentionally or by ignorance, then his prayer is invalid, but 
not by oversight. It is in the position of the one who is crowded and it is an 
analogy with the lowering. 

Not going down before the Imam is based on what is in the Sahih collections that 
the Prophet said, "Does not the one who raises his head before the Imam fear 
that Allah will tranform his face into that of a donkey or make his form the form of 
a donkey?" In the variant of Muslim is that he said, "O people! I am your Imam so 
do not precede me in bowing, prostration, standing or leaving. 

You only do something after he has begun to do it. It is better to do it after he has 
begun it and to catch him in it. This is outside of the standing up after two rak'ats. 
In the rak'at, he must not do it until the Imam is already standing. The basis for 
that is that al-Bara' said, "When the Messenger of Allah said, 'Allah hears 
whoever praises Him,' none of them moved his back, i.e. stood up until the 
Messenger of Allah had gone into prostration. Then we went into prostration after 
him," i.e they delayed beginning their action from when he began it and they 



begin their action before iie finislied iiis prostration. Tiie commentator of tiie 
liaditli said, "It is forbidden to precede the Imam and to do it at the same time as 
him, and it is disliked to delay until he moves on to another pillar of the prayer. It 
is also said that accompanying him is disliked.] 

11. 6c Beginning the prayer behind the Imam 

You begin the prayer after he has begun it, 

[The one following begins the prayer with the takbir after the Imam has said it. 
This is obligatory. This is after he finishes saying the takbir. If he says it before 
him or at the same time as him, then his prayer is invalid, whether he concludes 
it before him, with him, or after him. There are six forms of this. If he begins after 
him and ends before him, it is invalid, and if he ends with him or after him, it is 
sound. So the forms are nine. The same applies to the salam, although in the 
case of tahrim, there is no difference between the intentional and the oversight. 
In the case of the salam, it is confined to the intentional, not to oversight. So his 
prayer is not invalid by that salam. 

Note: When he knows that he has said the tahrim before the imam and wants to 
say it after him, Malik says that he says the takbir and not the salam because it is 
as if he has not said the takbir by his disagreement from what he was 
commanded. Sahnun said that the says the salam because he disagrees about 
the validity of the first tahrim.] 

11. 6d. Standing up 

stand up after two ral<'ats after he has stood up 

[i..e it is recommended to stand after the Imam is completely standing.] 

11.6eThe Salam 

and say the salam after he has said the salam. 

[This is obligatory. If he says it before him or at the same time, then his prayer is 
invalid, unless he starts from forgetfulness. Otherwise, he waits until the Imam 
says the salam and then says the salam after him.] 

11. 6f. Other actions 

As for any other of the actions of the prayer, it is acceptable to do them at 
the same time as the imam but it is better to do them after him. 

[i.e. other than beginning, standing up from two rak'ats, and the salam. These are 
like going down into ruku', prostration, standing for the second and the fourth. It is 
permitted to do them at the same time, even though it is disliked, as is shown by 
the fact that he says, "it is better."] 



11. 6g. Omissions by the follower 

If anything is left out (sahw) by someone praying behind an imam, the 
responsibility for it is borne by the imam, 

[This is like tiie takbir and tiie words of tiie tasiiaiiiiud or adding a sajda or ruku'. 
Tiiere is no understanding of oversigiit, and it includes some intentionality, like 
omitting the takbir or the tashahhud. That is while he is following the imam. If he 
arrived late and forgets while making up what the missed with the Imam, the 
Imam is not responsible for it because following has ended and his judgement is 
that of someone praying alone. Then there are exceptions which he mentioned:] 

11. 6h. Exceptions 

except if it is something like not going into ruku' [Lit. like the rak'at] or 
sujud or leaving out the "Allahu akbar" that begins the prayer (takbirat al- 
ihram) or the salam at the end or neglecting to make the intention for that 
specific prayer. 

[ "Like the rak'at" means all that is obligatory except for the Fatiha, and the author 
did not ennumerate it. That is because all of these are obligations and the 
obligations do not fall aside by forgetfulness and are not made up by prostration.] 

11.61. A meritorious actions: the Imam changing his position after the 
prayer 

The imam should not stay in the same place after he has said the salam but 
should move away 

[When the Imam has said the salam for the obligatory prayer, he should not 
remain where he is, whether the prayer is nafila or not, but should move. It is 
clear in the words of the author that he moves. What is meant is not that he 
leaves the mihrab. What is meant is to move to the right or left. Al-Uhjuri said that 
it is enough that he change his place. Ath-Tha'labi said, "This is the sunna." 

There is disagreement about the reason for it. It is said that he only deserves the 
place for the sake of the pryer. When he finishes, he does not deserve it. It is 
said that the reason is to avoid confusion for the one who arrives. It is transmitted 
from ash-Shafi'i that he stays firm a little after the salam based on what is in the 
Sahih of Muslim that when he said the salam, he only sat for as long as to say, 
"O Allah, You are the Peace and peace is from You.You are blessed, O You with 
Majesty and Honour." 

Then he makes an exception about the Imam moving his place after the salam:] 

11. 6j. An exception 

except if he is in his own place in which case he can do either. 



[This means his house while he is resident or his mount while travelling or if he is 
in some wasteland. It is permitted for him without dislike because he is safe from 
what might be feared in that.] 

Point: Malik and a group of scholars disliked for the Imams of the mosques and 
groups to make supplication outloud after the obligatory prayers for those who 
are present so that combine for this Imam the precedence and honour of him 
establishing himself as a medium between Allah Almighty and His servants to 
obtain their best interests through him in supplication. Thus he is on the verge of 
exalting himself and his heart will be corrupted and he will disobey his Lord in this 
state more than obeying Him. It is related that one of the Imams asked 'Umar ibn 
al-Khattab for permission to make supplication for his people after the prayer and 
he replied, "No, I fear that you will become arrogant until you reach for the 
Pleaides!" 



Chapter Twelve: On Various Aspects of the Prayer 

[This deals with various topics which go beyond the prayer, like the one who is 
certain about wudu' and uncertain about breaking it, the one who cannot touch 
water by necessity or does not find anyone to bring it to him who does 
tayammum. ] 



1. Clothing 

2. Prostration on account of a mistal<e 

3. Constant Doubts 

4. l\/lissing a prayer 

5. Invalidation of the Prayer 

6. Joining Prayers 

7. Prayers missed because of an impediment 

8. Defects in wudu' 

9. The prayer of a sick person 

10. The prayer while mounted 

11. Nosebleeds 

12. Purity after a Nosebleed 
12.1 Ciothlng in the prayer 

12. 1a Minimum Clothing for a woman 

The least amount of clothing in which is acceptable for a woman to do the 
prayer is a robe which cannot be seen through which is long enough to 
cover the tops of her feet and a head covering through which the hair 
cannot be seen. 

[ Two things are necessary: a robe, and the descriptive words means either thick 
or enveloping. According to the second, it should be ample so that it covers the 
tops of the her feet. 

The second item is a head covering. It is a garment with which a woman covers 
her head. Its precondition is the same as the long garment, in that it has to be 
thick and not transparent. If she prays in something which is lightly woven and 



transparent, and it is sometiiing wiiicii siiows tiie 'awra witiiout tiiinking, tiien siie 
always repeats tiie prayer. If it only defines the 'awra, it is disliked and she 
repeats it within the time. The man is like the woman in that. So the woman must 
cover the top and soles of her feet and her neck and her hair. She is permitted to 
only show her face and palms in the prayer. The basis for that is the words of the 
Prophet, "Allah does not accept the prayer of a woman who has reached the age 
of menstruation except with a head covering" In one variant, "The Messenger of 
Allah was asked, "Can a woman pray in a robe and head covering without a 
waist-wrapper?" He said, "If the robe is ample and covers the tops of her feet."] 

12. 1b Minimum Clothing for a l\/lan 

The least which is acceptable for a man is a single garment, 

[Without dislike if it is thick and conceals all his body. If it only covers his private 
parts, then his prayer is allowed but there is dislike.] 

12.1C. What should not be covered 

You should not cover your nose or your face in the prayer 

[Neither a man nor woman should not cover the face in the prayer. All these 
things which are prohibited are disliked. ] 

12. 1d. Gathering clothes and tying back hair 

nor should you gather up your clothes or tie back your hair especially for it. 

[As for gathering up the clothes, it is disliked when it is done specifically for the 
prayer or because of fear that clothes might get dirty because that contains a 
form of non-humility. When he is working and the time for the prayer comes while 
he is like that, he is permitted to pray with what he has on without dislike. 

As for tying back the hair, it is disliked if that is in order to keep the hair from 
becoming dirtied by the earth or he does that for the prayer, i.e. ties his hair for 
the especially prayer .] 

12.2 Prostration on account of a mistake 

12. 2a Adding to the prayer 

Any time you inadvertantly add something to the prayer you should do two 
sajdas after saying the salam and then do the tashahhud and say the salam 
again. 

[ This is whenever the Imam, the one on his own or the one following makes a 
mistake in one of the suras or in what is prescribed for him in the obligatory or 
nafila prayer, according to what is in the Mudawwana as opposed to the one who 
said that there is no prostration in the nafila. Our evidence is in the words of the 



Prophet, "There are two prostrations for every forgetfulness." The result is that 
the nafila is like the obligatory except in five questions, silent and outloud: the 
sura is overlooked in the nafila rather than the obligatory. The fouth is when he 
raises his head from ruku', he completes it as a fourth in the nafila as opposed to 
the fard. The fifth is when he forgets a pillar of the nafila, and a long time has 
passed or he has begun an obligatory prayer or nafila, and has bowed - he does 
not have do do anything, as opposed to the fard, which he must repeat. 

If you add something, whether outside the words of the prayer, like speaking 
inadvertantly, or an action of the prayer, like bowing and prostrating, you 
prostrate for the forgetfulness in the Sunna according to what is in the Mukhtasar 
and in at-Tiraz as the obligation of doing it afterwards. at-Tata'i said that.] 

12.2b. Only two prostrations 

[He does the two prostrations after the salam, even if there is more than one 
oversight as long as it is not a lot. Otherwise the prayer would be invalid whether 
it is from other than the words of the prayer, like speech out of forgetfulness and 
is lengthy. If it is part of the words of the prayer, there is not prostration for saying 
it forgetfully, as the prayer is not invalid if it is intentional, as when he repeats the 
sura or adds a sura at the end of it, unless the words are a fard. Then he would 
prostrate for forgetfulness. This is like when he repeats the Fatiha out of 
forgetfulness, even in the same rak'at. There is disagreement about whether the 
prayer is invalidated by deliberately reciting it. The accepted position is that it is 
not invalid. 

Or he may add something which is not one of the actions of the prayer, as when 
he forgets that he is praying and eats and drinks. There is disagreement about 
that and it is said that all of them invalidates the prayer, whether a lot or not. It is 
said that if it is a lot, it invalidates, and otherwise it does not and is put right by 
the prostration. 

Or it can be one of the actions of the prayer when there is a lot of it in the four 
rak'ats, like the four actual rak'ats based on what is well-known from Ibn al-Hajib 
and those who follow him. The rak'at is considered to be rising from ruku'. When 
he raises his head from the second in four, or the first in three or four in two, then 
the prayer is invalid. There are two positions about whether it is invalid by half of 
it. It is said that it is invalid, and it is said that it is not, and that is the accepted 
position. He prostrates for forgetfulness. 

A lot in two is like two rak'ats. It is not invalidated by adding one rak'at in the 
famous position, like the two of Subh and Jumu'a, based on its being fard in its 
day. Opposite it is that it is only invalid by adding four rak'ats. It is like the four 
while travelling. They are not invalid except by adding four rak'ats. A lot in 
Maghrib is four rak'ats in the approved position that three is like four and its not 
invalidated except by adding four complete rak'ats. 

12. 2c. Missing out something 



[If you miss something out of tiie prayer you sliould do two sajdas before saying 
the salam after having finished the tashahhud. You then do the tashahhud again 
and say the salam. 

There is the case when the Imam or the one alone or the one following omit 
something which is a confirmed sunna, or the two minor sunnas, whether it is an 
actual decrease or uncertain one. The confirmed sunnas are those for which 
there are prostratations are eight: 

1. Recitation of more than the Fatiha in the fard, and so he prostrates for 
omitting that in the fard, but not in a nafila. 

2. Reciting outloud in the prayers which are outloud, and he prostrates for 
omitting that in the fard, not the nafila since he can do them silently. 

3. Doing it silently in its place. When he recites outloud in the place of the 
silent, he prostrates before the salam. This is related from the opinion of Ibn 
al-Qasim, but it is weak. What approved is that it is after the salam. 

4. A takbir other than the takbir al-ihram. This is based on all of them being one 
sunna. As for the statement that each takbir is a sunna, which is what the 
author of al-Mukhtasar says and is stated in al-Mudawwana as well, he 
prostrates for omitting two takbirs. 

5. The words, "Allah hears whoever praises Him." It is applies as what is 
before it does. 

6. The first tashahhud and 

7. and sitting for it. It is one sunna, and its words are one sunna, and the sitting 
for it is another sunna, and so it is composed of three sunnas. 

8. The final tashahhud. 

There is no prostration for other than these eight and the prostration before the 
salam is after the tashahhud. Then you finish the two prostrations and do the 
tashahhud a second time in the well-known position and then say the salam. It is 
preferred by Ibn al-Qasim and he stated that part of the sunna of the salam is 
that it follows the tashahhud. His words imply that he does not repeat the prayer 
on the Prophet. That is the case.] 

12.2d. Not repeating the tashahhud 

Some people say that it is not necessary to repeat the tashahhud. 

[That is also related from Malik and 'Abdu'l-Malik preferred it because the method 
of one sitting does not have the tashahhud repeated in it twice.] 

12. 2e. Both omitting and adding 

If you both leave something out and add something you do the two sajdas 
before the salam. 

[If you leave out some of the confirmed sunnas and add something insignificant 
which was already clarified, then the prostration is also done before the salam, 
for instance, if he omits the tashahhud and sitting for it and adds a prostration. 



What the shaykh mentioned about prostrating only for omission first with the 
increase after the salam and prostrating only for increase after the salam is the 
position of Malik. Ash-Shafi'i says that he absolutely prostrates before the salam 
and Abu Hanifa says absolutely after it. Our evidence for the increase is that it is 
true that once he prayed 'Asr and said the salam after two rak'ats. Dhu'l-Yadayn 
stood up and said, "Has the prayer been shortened, Messenger of Allah? Or 
have you forgotten?" The Messenger of Allah stood up and did the rest of the 
prayer and then did two prostrations after the salam while sitting, 

The evidence for the omission is that it is confirmed that he prayed Dhuhr and 
stood after the first two rak'ats without sitting. The people stood up with him. 
When he finished the prayer, people waited for the salam, but he said the takbir 
while sitting. He did two prostrations before the salam and then said it. Ibn 
'Abdu's-Salam said, "Decrease overcomes increase when they are together." 
The hadith contains an indication of the prescription of the prostration for 
forgetfulness - it is two prostrations. The taslim done forgetfully does not 
invalidate the prayer. A slight gap after it does not invalidate it. Words of no use 
by the Imam and the one following do not invalidate the prayer. 

12.2f. Forgetting to do the prostration of forgetfulness before 

If you forget to do the two sajdas which should be done after the salam you 
do them whenever you remember them even if a long time has elapsed. 

[ The prostration of forgetfulness which are after the salam should be done 
afterwards, even if it is a long time after the salam of the prayer, even after a 
month. The prostratation afterwards is to spite shaytan. So it is appropriate that 
he prostrate, even later.] 

12.2g. Forgetting to do the prostration of forgetfulness before 

If you forget to do the two sajdas which should be done before the salam 

[As for the one before, it mends the omission in the prayer and should be in it or 
close after it. His words in the Mudawwana is that he does it, even if it is in the 
time which it is forbidden. If he remembers it in a prayer which is not obligatory in 
the time of prohibition, he delays it until the nafila. It is also clear that it if it is a 
consequence of the Jumu'a prayer, he does not return to the mosque. The 
school, according to at-Tadili, is that he returns to the mosque. The literal text of 
the Mukhtasar\s that it is particular to returning to the mosque for the prostration 
before rather than the one after it. It is the approved position. This is the literal 
text of the Mukhtasar because he says, "in the mosque in the Jumu'a" in the 
context of the words about the prostration before. 

The prostration before must be done in the mosque in which the Jumu'a was 
performed if he misses the first rak'at of Jumu'a and rises to finish it and forgets 
the sura and leaves the mosque and a long time has not passed. He returns to 
the mosque in which he prayed Jumu'a. As for the one afterwards, if when he 
speaks out of forgetfulness or adds a rak'at by forgetfulness and forgets to 



prostrate until he has left the mosque, he can prostrate in any mosque.] 

12.2h. Doing the two prostrations later 

then you do them straight away so long as the prayer is not long over. 

[This is when you remember them shortly after finishing the prayer - and this 
shortness is not defined according to the School. It is the position of Ibn al- 
Qasim. It is like that with length. One consults custom. Whatever the custom is 
acted on in in them. According to Ashhab, it is defined by not having left the 
mosque.] 

12.21. After a long time 

If quite some time has elapsed, however, you have to do the prayer again 

[If it is a long time, then he repeats the prayer. This is obligatory because it is 
invalid since it is a result of omitting three sunnas. at-Tata'i says it is like 
forgetting the middle sitting, or three takbirs. This is if he omitted them by 
forgetfulness. If he left them deliberately, the prayer is invalid by simply omitting 
them according to al-Ujhuri. As-Sanhuri said that it is only invalid by length, even 
if he omits them deliberately.] 

12. 2j. Minor omissions 

unless what you left out was not particularly critical such as only the sura 
which should follow the Fatiha or two takbirs or saying the tashahhuds or 
similar things 

[ i.e. it consists of two slight sunnas like being silent or outloud, i.e. he prostrates 
for them, but when he omits that and a long time passes, his prayer is not invalid. 
This is when he comes to undertake it. Otherwise, it is invalid in this case becuse 
he omitted three sunnas. It is said that it is not invalid. If he does not do the 
standing for it. The words of al-Jazuli are useful in preferring the first. It is agreed 
that it is invalid since he left a sura in more than one rak'at. When the author 
says, "only the sura which should follow the Fatiha", even after the Fatiha, it is 
clearer so that it will not be imagined that the Fatiha is also omitted. "Similar 
things" are like the two praises. This is permitted as a mercy from Allah in the 
prevailing position, based on the fact that the specific expression is desirable. If 
he omits the two tashahhuds and sits for them because in that case his 
prostration is oly for two slight sunnas. 

12. 2k. When nothing is obliged 

in which case you need not do anything. 

[i.e. he does not have to repeat the prayer nor prostrate, i.e. even after a period 
of time, since it is the subject of the question of the author. It is known that the 
two slight sunnas are prostated for, but when a long time has passed, and he 



does not prostrate, he is not asked to prostrate or to repeat the prayer since it is 
for two slight sunnas. I know from what preceded that the prostration is 
prescribed to mend the gaps which occur in the prayer as if there is an extra 
ruku' or prostration through forgetfulness, or the omission of ruku' or prostration 
by forgetfulness, he repairs that omission before the salam. If he omits a 
confirmed sunna or two slight sunnas, he must prostration accroding to its 
circumstances, before or after to repair those gaps. There are gaps which occur 
in the prayer which are not mended by prostration, i.e. the prostration does not 
replace them - this is when he omits a pillar of the prayer.' 

12.21. When they are not sufficient 

The two sajdas of forgetfulness are not sufficient to mal<e up for missing 
out one full rak'at or sujud or failing to recite the Fatiha in two rak'ats of 
any prayer (or, in case of subh, one rak'at). 

[ i.e. a full rak'at which he is certain that he omitted or is unsure of it during his 
tashahhud and before his salam. Then he must perform that rak'at. The manner 
in which he does is that he does it, building on the preceding rak'ats, even if that 
rak'at, is one of two, and he prostrates after that for the one before the salam 
because of moving one of the rak'ats since he is Imam or alone. If it is not one of 
two, then he prostrates after the salam after he does the rak'at for the increase, 
not the decrease. 

If he omits a prostration or ruku' or rising from them and remembers that while he 
is standing, for instance, or doing the final tashahhud when he realises his 
omission or is unsure about it, and it is not possible to satisfy the fard in its place, 
then he does the unsure substitution and prostrates before the salam because 
the obligation in prostration is before. What is meant by doubt is hesitation and 
so it includes supposition, doubt, and uncertainty. This is in respect of obligations 
because doubt in decrease in them is like realising it in the obligation of bringing 
the unsure substitute as opposed to the sunnas. He does not prostrate for 
omitting them except when he is certain of missing them or it is equally balanced 
in his mind whether he did it or note. 

In cases of failing to recite, he mentions that if someone misses out an obligation 
or pillar, he performs it, and what he mentioned of lack of mending by prostration 
for missing out a rak'at or prostration is agreed upon. What he mentioned of lack 
of mending by prostration for omitting the recitation of the Fatiha in the entire 
prayer is the position of the majority, and it is preferred. Opposite it is what al- 
Waqidi related from Malik that when recitation is omitted in the entire prayer, his 
prayer is allowed. 

Al-Fakhani said that there are three positions about omitting recitation in half of 
the prayer, like one rak'at of a two rak'at prayer and two of a four rak'at prayer. 
The best known is that he continues and prostates before the salam and it is 
desirable that he repeat his prayer in order to be careful. The second is that he 
prostrates before the salam and it is enough for him. The third is that what he 



omitted of the recitation nullifies and he does the like of it and prostrates after the 
salam. This is what happens in the accepted position that it is obligatory in every 
rak'at. So it is accepted. Having claririfed this point, he moves on to its minimum 
omission: 

12. 2m. Missing the Fatiha in one rait'at 

There is a difference of opinion about what you should do if you miss out 
the Fatiha in one rai^'at in any prayer apart from Subh. Some people say 
that you only have to do the two sajdas before the salam; others say that 
the whole rak'at is invalidated and that you must do another rak'at to make 
up for it; yet others say that you do the two sajdas before the salam without 
doing another rak'at but then repeat the whole prayer to make sure of being 
correct. 

[ This is like one rak'at of a three or four rak'at prayer. There are three positions, 
all of which are in the Mudawwana. One is that the forgetfulness in recitation is 
satisfied by the prostration as long as it is not Subh. It does not invalidate it and 
satisfies it. 'Abdu'l-Malik preferred this position based on the fact that it is fard in 
the majority or based on the fact that it is not obligation or that it is oblgiatory in 
one or half of the rak'ats. 

The second is that the rak'at from which the Fatiha was omitted is invalid and he 
must do another rak'at to replace it. Ibn al-Qasim prefers this statement. This 
necessitates that it is obligatory in every rak'at. It is the approved statement. Ibn 
al-Hajib says that it is sound. Ibn Shas said that it is the famous transmission. 

The third is two prostrations and no rak'at, but the prayer is repeated to be follow 
the one who says that it is obligatory in every rak'at. The third transmission is 
derived from the first. The author states that completing the first is obligatory and 
repeating the second is recommended for care, and it is only recommended.] 

12. 2n. The best judgement 

This last judgement is the best if Allah wills. 

[This is because it complies with the other two positions. His prostration before 
the salam and the prayer is not invalid, compiling with the position that it is 
obligatory in the majority, for instance, and repeating the prayer compiles with the 
second. 

Two points from al-Fakhani: The first is that the shaykh does not mention the 
judgement of when he omits recitation from most of the prayer, say three out of 
four or two of out Maghrib. There are two positions in that. The best known is that 
he prostrates before the salam and repeats the prayer out of caution, i.e. it is 
recommended. In short, it is that if he omits most and half it is not invalid and he 
prostrates before the salam and repeats the prayer out of caution. 

The second is the place of the prior dispute. All of it is about omitting recitation of 



the Fatiha when he misses the place where it is done. If he does not miss it in 
that he remembers before he raises his head from the ruku' he returns to his 
recitation. 

There are two positions about repeating the sura. Al-Lakhmi recommends that it 
he be repeated, and it is the well-known position, as in at-Tawdih, either since it 
is sunna after the Fatiha or since it is sunna that it is only done after the Fatiha. It 
is apparent that the second statement, which is that it is not repeated, is not seen 
by Malik in the collections. He thought that the sunna was obtained by reciting it 
either before or after the Fatiha. Allah know best. Based on what al-Lakhmi 
preferred of repeating it, Sahnun said that he prostrates after the salam, i.e. for 
that increase in words. Ibn Habib says that he does not have to prostrate for it, 
i.e. he does not think a prostration is entailed for that increase in words. This is 
the predominant position. The author of at-Tawdih said that Ibn Habib's 
statement is sounder because there is no prostration for additional recitation by 
evidence, even if he recites two suras or recites a sura in the last two, as it says 
in at-Tahqiq.] 

12. 2o. No prostration for omission of a slight sunna or meritorious action 

If you forget to say one takbir or to say 'sami'a-llahu liman hamidah' once 
or to do the qunut you do not have to do the sajdas of forgetfulness. 

[Except forof the takbir al-ihram. As for not prostrating for one takbir, that is well- 
known. On that basis, if he prostrates for it before the salam, his prayer is invalid, 
unless he is following someone who believes that there is prostration for omitting 
that. Then his prayer is not invalid as it is not invalid if he omits the prostration 
after it. Ibn al-Qasim said that he prostrates for it, and what he mentioned of not 
prostrating for omitting the one praise is the School. There is no prostration for 
omitting the qunut. If he prostrates for it before the salam, his prayer is invalid.] 

12.2p. Remembering omissions after finishing the prayer 

If you finish the prayer and then remember that you left out part of it, you 
should go back to it straightaway by saying a new takbir al-ihram - 
provided that very little time has passed since you finished it - 

[ This is if you finish with the salam, believing you have done the prayer in full, 
forgetting that you have omitted something. This is not incompatible with saying 
the salam intentionally. If he says the salam forgetting that he is in the prayer or 
that he is speaking the salam, then he is in the position of the one who did not 
say the salam, and so he catches what he omitted. If he finishes and then 
remembers with certainty or doubt, and what is meant is by uncertainty is 
supposition, doubt, or suspicion, and he remembers that he owes one of the 
obligatory pillars of the prayer like the ruku', prostration or sitting according to the 
salam. If he says the salam forgetting when rising from prostration, he sits for the 
amount of the salam and says the salam, and then goes back, i.e. intends to 
complete it if it is close to the time where he left. At-Tata'i said that literal position 



of the school demands that he prays where he is immediately. If he does not do 
so and prays in another place, his prayer is invalid. 

When he resumes and intends to complete the prayer, he says the takbir al- 
Ihram, with his intention to resume accompanying the takbir. His outward words, 
"very little time has passed" is the transmission of Ibn al-Qasim from Malik. This 
is the accepted position. Opposite is that it is that if very little time has passed, he 
does not say the tahrim. The difference is about the takbir. There is agreement 
about the intention. When we said that he resumes with the tahrim, if he 
remembers while he is sitting, he says the tahrim as he is and does not have to 
stand. This is when he has left the prayer from the place of sitting. If he has left it 
in another place, like ending after praying one rak'at or three, except for Maghrib, 
he returns to rising from prostration and says that tahrim for it and does not sit. If 
he remembers while he is standing, there are two statements about his tahrim. In 
short, the early companions of Malik believed that he says the tahrim from 
standing because of because of immediacy. On that basis, there are two 
positions on whether he sits afterwards and then rise or not. Ibn Shiblun believed 
that he sits because it was the state in which he left the prayer. That is the 
accepted position. He does not say the takbir for that sittting. He sits without a 
takbir. When he sits, he says the takbir for ihram, and then he stands with the 
takbir which is done by the one who leaves the prayer after two. The place is that 
he sits is for ihram when he says the salam after two. As for the one who says 
the salam for one or three, he returns to the state of his rising from prostration 
and says the tahrim and does not sit since that is the place of his sitting. It is 
desirable for him to raise his hands when the takbir is said. 

12. 2q. Doing what was missed out 

and then do whatever it was that you missed out. 

[After the takbir al-ihram, he prays the rest of the prayer when he says the salam 
with certainly that his prayer was complete. If he said it either knowing that his 
prayer was not complete or being unsure whether it is clear that it was complete 
or incomplete, then the prayer is invalid. You know what happens if you 
remember after you said the salam. When you remember it before the salam, 
and it is in the last rak'at, he is either in ruku' or not. If he is in ruku' he does it 
standing. If he has come up from ruku', he does it fixed. If it is in prostration, he 
does from a sitting position, or from two, then he does them from standing. If he 
does them from sitting out of forgetfulness then he prostrates before the salam 
because of the lack of going down for them which is not obligatory. Otherwise, it 
would not be mended by the prostration of forgetfulness. It is disliked to do that 
deliberately as Zarruq said. 

If what is omitted is not in the last, he does it as we stated when it is in the last in 
sitting or standing or bending and he has not completed the rak'at after the rak'at 
which has an omission, when he finishes it, he has misses it and puts what he 
has done in its place when he is alone or an Imam. What we mentioned is that he 
does the omitted obligation if he can catch it. If what was omitted was the 



intention and tiie takbir al-iliram, tiiey cannot be caugiit because if tiiey are 
forgotten, tiiere is no prayer. If he forgets one of them, he starts the prayer from 
its beginning. Know that the unsure omission is like the definite one, What is 
meant by doubt is hesitation. As for in the sunnas, he only considers certain 
omission or where the doubt is equally balanced, not suspicion.] 

12.2r. After a long lapse of time 

If, however, a long time has elapsed or you have left the mosque, you must 
begin the whole prayer again. 

[If you rememeber after a long time has passes after finishing the prayer, which 
is defined by custom according to Malik and Ibn al-Qasim or you leave the 
mosque according to Ashhab, you must begin again because one of the 
preconditions of the prayer is that all of it is at the same time.] 

12.2s. Forgetting the salam 

That is also the case if someone forgets the salam. 

[He returns to sitting if it is soon and says the takbir al-ihram while seated and 
says the tashahhud. He brings the salam and prostrates after the salam, even if 
that is has been a long time or he has left the mosque where he began his prayer 
and his place. He says the takbir al-ihram while seated and the tashahhud and 
brings the salam when he remembers the salam after leaving the place. If he 
remembers it soon while he is sitting facing qibla, he says the salam where he is 
and does not need a takbir by which he says the ihram and he does not say a 
tashahhud. If he turns from it, they prayer is not invalidated if he faces it and says 
the salam He does not owe the takbir al-ihram, or the tashahhud and he must 
prostrate after the salam for forgetfulness.] 

12.2t. Uncertainty about the number of rak'ats 

If you do not know whether you have prayed three or four rak'ats you build 
on what you are certain of, repeating anything you are unsure about, in this 
case praying another rak'at to make sure of having prayed four. You then 
do the sajdas of forgetfulness after the salam. 

[ He prays until he is uncertain. So if he is certain about three, and unsure about 
the fourth, complete discharge of responsibility is only obtained by four. That is 
what the author means, "He repeats anything he is unsure about". He prostrates 
after the salam in the famous position. Ibn Lubaba said that he prostrates before 
the salam, and it is the literal interpretation of what is in the Muwatta' and Muslim 
where the Prophet said, "When one you is unsure about his prayer and does not 
know whether he has prayed three or four, he should remove the doubt and build 
on what he is certain about and then do two prostrations before the salam."] 

12.2u. Speaking inadvertantly in the prayer 



If you speak during the prayer inadvertantly, you also do the sajdas of 
forgetfulness after the salam. 

[This is if tiie Imam or tiie individual speaks a little in the prayer, forgetting he is 
in the prayer or that he is speaking. If he speaks deliberately, his prayer is invalid 
unless it has no purpose and so it is not invalid unless it is a lot in himself. A lot is 
known by custom. Then he prostrates after the salam because it is increase and 
is mended by the prostration. Forgetfulness excludes the intentional, ignorant 
and the one forced, and the one who is obliged to speak to rescue a blind 
person, for instance. Their prayer is invalid.] 

12.2v. Uncertainty about having said the salam 

If you are not sure whether you said the salam or not, you say it and do not 
do any sajdas of forgetfulness. 

[He does not rise from his place. If it is near the tashahhud, and does not 
prostrate for forgetfulness because he said the salam, and his prayer is 
complete. The second salam occurs outside the prayer and so there is no reason 
for prostration. If he did not say the salam, he says it now, and no forgetfulness 
occurs from him for which he prostrates. When it is near, but he has moved from 
his place, i.e. has not turned from qibla, he says the takbir again, the tashahhud 
and the salam and prostrates after the salam because of the increase. If he has 
not moved but turned from qibla, he faces it and says the salam and does not do 
the tashahhud or tahrim and prostrates after the salam.] 

12.3Constant Doubts 

12. 3a The case of someone subject to constant doubts 

Anyone who finds themselves thinking all the time that they have made a 
mistake in the prayer should pay no attention to their doubts. 

[ If this happens, it is obligatory to ignore it and he should rely on what he feels in 
himself about that because it is a test from Shaytan. When it has power over the 
heart, no action ever succeeds with it and so the useful remedy for this disease 
which brings about confusion is to turn away and the most beneficial remedy is to 
remember Allah: "As for those who are godfearing, when they are bothered by 
visitors from Shaytan, they remember. " (7:201) When he says to him, for 
instance, "You have only prayed three," so he says, "I have only prayed four and 
my prayer is sound."] 

12.3b. What hedoes 

They do not have to do anything in reparation but they should do the two 
sajdas after the salam. 

[If he repairs and builds on what he is certain about, his prayer is not invalid as 
al-Khattabi said. Perhaps his reason is that the basis is building on certainty. He 



ignores the person with constant doubts to make things easier for him. According 
to Ibn al-Qasim, it is recommended that he prostrate after the salam because is 
more like an addition if someone is like this since when he is unsure about 
whether he prayed three or four, he might well pray five.] 

12.3c General position about people with doubts 

This refers to people who find this happening a lot and who are continually 
in doubt about whether they have added something to the prayer or left 
something out and never feel certain that they have prayed correctly. 

[ i.e. doubt occurs very frequently, and he is always unsure about whether he 
omitted or forgot. The end of the excuse in it is that he does not have to prostrate 
by way of the sunna. This does not contradict the fact that it is recommended for 
him to prostrate. 

Know that a lot is considered to be when this occurs to him in every prayer or 
every wudu', or once to twice every day, or when it comes one day and stops, or 
two days and then stops in the third. That is the person with frequent doubt. If it 
comes two days and then stops on the third, that is not someone with continual 
doubt, as when it comes to him one day about wudu' and one day about the 
prayer: he is not someone with continual doubt because the doubt about the 
means, like wudu' does not include doubt about aims, like the prayer. ] 

12.3d. What such people do 

They should only do the two sajdas after the salam. On the other hand if 
they are certain that they have made a mistake they should make the 
appropriate reparation and do the sajdas of forgetfulness. 

[ He only has to prostrate after the salam only. However, if someone is certain 
that he is omitted something which would invalidate a rak'at, i.e. he is certain that 
he had forgotten a prostration or ruku' and failed to catch it, as when he 
remembers while he is in the final tashahhud, for instance, he does a rak'at in 
place of that which was corrupted and then he prostrates. If the rak'at in which he 
forgot is one of the first two, he prostrates before the salam, because he has both 
increase and decrease. The increase is the rak'at which he nullified and sitting in 
other than its proper place. the decrease is by omitting the sura because he 
brings a dubious rak'at by building, i.e, with the Fatiha only. If it is one of the last 
two, he only has increase and so he prostrates after the salam.] 

12.3e. Always making the same mistake 

If someone is always making a particular mistake in the prayer and this 
happens a lot, he should make the appropriate reparation but not do the 
sajdas of forgetfulness. 

[ If he often forgets something, as when it becomes his habit to always forget the 
first sitting, or to forget the prostration, he puts it right. The reparation of that has 



two aspects: one is that he missed the place of catching it and the second that he 
did not. The example of the first is the one is someone who habitually forgets the 
second prostration of the second rak'at, for instance, without it being a two rak'at 
prayer and he only remembers after the salam or after starting the third. He does 
a rak'at in the first and does not prostrate and the third becomes the second and 
he does not prostrate. The example of the second is when he remembers in the 
fard before he starts the third. These two aspects are included under "appropriate 
reparation". He does not prostrate for his forgetfulness.] 



12.3f. Standing up directly after prostration 



If you begin to stand up directly from sujud at the end of two rak'ats you 
should sit back down again as long as your hands and knees have not left 
the ground. 

[Meaning you move to rise. We do not take it literally so that it does not contradict 
with his words "after he goes back" because it literally means that he does not 
stand up after two of the obligatory prayer, omitting the sitting and whoever 
obliges that he omits the tashahhud. When he sits and stands up forgetting the 
tashahhud, he does not go back nor prostrate for it. It is agreed about when his 
hands and knees have not left the ground, so it applies even more if only his 
hands or knees have left the ground. Then he does the tashahhud and 
completes the prayer and does not have to prostrate because of the 
insignificance of that. If he continues to stand up deliberately, his prayer is invalid 
in the well-known position because he omitted three sunnas deliberately. If he 
continues out of forgetfulness, he prostrates before the salam.] 

12. 3g. What is done in this case 

If they have you should continue on up and not go back down and then do 
the sajdas of forgetfulness before the salam. 

[ If his hands and knees have left the ground, he continues. If the time of 
omission has been a long time and he has not prostrated, his prayer is invalid. 
This is true in two cases: one is when he leaves the earth with his hands and 
knees without standing up straight and then remembers after he has left the 
earth. The second is that he has left the earth and stood up straight. The 
judgement in it is the same: he continues and does not go back and then he 
prostrates before the salam. However if he differs and returns to sitting in the first 
instance deliberately, forgetfully or by ignorance, his prayer is not invalid and he 
prostrates after the salam for the addition. 

In the second case, if he deliberately returns to sitting, the Tawdih states that is 
well-known that it is sound, and he prostrates for it after the salam for the 
addition. If he returns by ignorance, Sahnun is reported in an -Nawadi r as saying 
that his prayer is invalid. Ibn al-Qasim related that he continues his prayer and 
then prostrates. If he goes back, he does not rise until he does the tashahhud . 

If he abandoned the tashahhud deliberately after returning, then his prayer is 



invalid according to Ibn al-Qasim, but not of Ashhab. Perhaps the words of Ibn al- 
Qasim is based on its being invalid by deliberately abandoning a sunna which 
differs from from Ashhab. It is like that in some commentaries on Khalil. If he 
goes back inadvertantly, there is agreement that his prayer is not invalid. He 
prostrates after the salam.] 

12.4 Missing a Prayer 

12.4a. Missing a prayer 

If you have missed a prayer you should do it as soon as you remember in 
the same way that you would have done it if you have done it at its right 
time. 

[ If you remember a prayer which you forgot, or slept through or deliberately 
omitted in the well-known position of the School, you must make it up without any 
disagreement in the case of the forgotten prayer, and the recognised position of 
the School in the case of the the deliberately omitted prayer. The basis for that is 
what Muslim related that Prophet said, "If anyone forgets a prayer or sleeps 
through it, its expiation is that he pray it when he remembers it." 

When you remember is whether it is in night or day at the sunrise and sunset, i.e. 
whenever you are certain or think that you have omitted it. As for when you are 
unsure, and things are equally balanced, it must be made up, but you avoid 
those times of the prohibition, as is obligatory in the forbidden times and 
desirable to forbid the disliked times. As for a suspicion of omission or logical 
possibility, it is neither obliged nor desirable to make it up in such cases. It is 
clear from the words of the author that it is obligatory to make up missed prayers 
immediately, and it is not permitted to delay except for an excuse. 

He does the number of ruku' and prostration and its forms - silent or aloud and 
does the qunut if it is Subh and does the iqama for every prayer. If he forgets it 
on a journey, he makes it up as on a journey. If he forgets it while resident, he 
makes it up as resident. He the time of making it up and missing it differ in 
respect of health or illness, he takes account of the time when he is making them 
up. If he misses it while healthy and is ill when he makes it up and can only make 
the intention or indicate with gesture, he makes it up with intention or gesture and 
does not defer it because he might die. If this is adequate in performing the 
prayer, it is even more proper that it be adequate when making up a prayer.] 

12.4b. Repeating prayers done after the missed prayer 

If you have already done the prayer of the time you are in you should do it 
again after making up the prayer you missed. 

[ Then after making up the missed prayers, you repeat the current prayer when it 
is within its time. This applies equally to the Imam, the one praying alone, and 
one following. It is desirable for each of them to do it if he remembers a small 



number of missed prayers - four or five - after iie iias prayed tiie current prayer 
and tiiere still remains enough time to repeat the current prayer after making up 
what he forgot of a small number of missed prayers. The example of that is if he 
forgets Maghrib of the day before, for instance, and remembers it after he has 
prayed Subh the following day and before the sun rises. He prays Maghrib and 
repeats Subh, but does not repeat 'lsha' since its time has gone. If he remembers 
Maghrib after sunrise, he does it and does not repeat anything at all. 

If he has prayed the current one and then remembers several missed prayers, 
six or five, he does not repeat the present prayer after he makes up what he 
missed.] 

12.4C. If there are a lot of prayers to make up 

If you have a lot of prayers to make up you can do them at any time of the 
day or night, including sunrise and sunset, according to what is convenient 
in your particular situation. 

[ If he has forgotten them, or slept through them, or intentionally left them, he 
makes them up at any time of the day or night, even at sunset and sunset. He 
first spoke about a few prayers and here about many, and repeats his words 
about sunset and sunrise to indicate Abu Hanifa who says that only Subh of the 
day can be prayed at sunrise and at sunset only 'Asr of the day. His evidence is 
the previous hadith. However he indicates that hardship is removed when they 
are made up without laxness. Then he indicates the second part:] 

12.4d. Less than five prayers to make up 

If the number of prayers you have to make up is less than five you should 
do them before doing the prayer of the time you are in even if that means 
going over the time of that prayer. 

[ If the number of prayers is less than the prayers of a 24 hour day, then he is 
obliged to do them before the present prayer. Included in this is the one who 
owes Dhuhr and 'Asr, or Maghrib and 'lsha', and only has enough time for the 
last. Nevertheless he must do the first. If he does the present prayer first, then it 
is valid although it is a wrong action to do it intentionally rather than out of 
forgetfulness, and he does not have to repeat when the time has gone. Thus he 
does the missed prayers even if that entails missing the current prayer. This is 
the well-known position. Ibn Wahb said that he begins with the current prayer.] 

12.4e. Several missed prayers 

If the numbers of prayers you have to make up is greater than this and you 
are afraid that if you do them you will not be able to do the prayer of the 
time you are in in its time, you should pray that prayer first. 

[ Then he begins to clarify the judgement of the order of several missed prayers 
with the current prayer. It is if he misses, according to what the shaykh says, five 



or more, or according what al-Maziri states, six or more. It is understood from his 
words that when he does not fear missing the current prayer, he begins with the 
omitted ones. This is the position of Ibn Habib. The accepted is what Ibn al- 
Qasim related that he begins absolutely with the current prayer, whether the time 
is narrow or wide, but it is obligatory when the time is short and recommended 
when it is wide. Then he moves to speak on the third category.] 

12.4f. Remembering a missed prayer while praying 

If, while you are doing a prayer, you remember having missed a previous 
prayer, the prayer you are doing becomes invalid. 

[ If he remembers a few prayers, which are those which must be in order with the 
current prayer while doing an obligatory prayer, then the prayer becomes invalid 
and so he must stop it. It is not actually that it is invalid. Ibn Naji says that it 
means that it is obligatory to stop the prayer. This statement is the literal position 
of the school as he said in at-Tawdih. It is said that it is recommended. The 
famous position is what is in al-Mudawanna that he continues with the Imam and 
repeats it, and there is disagreement about the obligation to repeat the prayer, 
i.e. based on the fact the order between a few prayers and several ones is an 
obligation of the precondition. It is well-known in al- M u khtasar \ha\ he repeats it 
in the time, i.e. it is not obligatory to repeat it in the time, but it is recommended. 

In short, when the Imam or the one praying alone remembers a few missed 
prayers before performing one rak'at with its prostrations, he must stop. It is also 
said that it is desirable. If he has performed one rak'at with its prostrations, it is 
recommended that he make it double. It is said that it is obligatory. The one 
following follows his Imam in that. There is no difference between four and two, 
like Subh, Jumu'a, and the shortened prayer. The literal meaning of the 
Mudawwana is that Maghrib is like the others and he makes it double if he has 
done one rak'at. This is not relied on. Rather he completes Maghrib. That is what 
Ibn 'Arafa prefers. If he remembers it after completing two full rak'ats of Maghrib 
with their prostration, he completes it with the intention of the obligation. If the 
one following remembers a few missed prayers, he continues with his Imam. 
Then it is desirable for him to repeat it within the time. There is no difference 
whether the repeated prayer is a Jumu'a or other and he repeates it as Jumu'a is 
possible. Otherwise it is Dhuhr.] 

12.5 Invalidation of the Prayer in Certain Cases 

12. 5a Laughing 

If you laugh while doing a prayer you have to repeat the prayer 

[This is laughing with sound. It is obligatory to repeat the prayer because it is 
invalid by agreement if it is deliberate, whether it be the Imam, person following 
or individual. According to the well-known position, it is the same if it is 
inadvertant or from being overcome. Opposite it is the position that it does not 



impair it, based on analogy witii speecii. Ibn Naji said that the literal meaning of 
his words would be even if he laughs silently at what Allah promises the believers 
as when he reads an ayat which describes the people of the Garden and laughs 
out of happiness. 

Based on the well-known position about the inadvertant and being overcome, the 
Imam should delegate someone and then become a follower and then it is 
obligatory to repeat it after that within the time. What is meant inadvertance 
forgetfulness, as when he forgets that he is doing the prayer. ] 

12.5b. Laughing does not break wudu' 

but you do not have to do wudu' again. 

[This differs from Abu Hanifa who says that laughing breaks wudu' as it 
invalidates the prayer except in the funeral prayer where it only invalidates the 
prayer. The one following is different from the one alone and the Imam in such a 
case.] 

12.5C. If you laugh behind an Imam 

If this happens when you are praying behind an imam you complete the 
prayer with him but then do it again afterwards. 

[ If someone laughs in a prayer behind an Imam, it is recommended that he 
continue to observe the prayer. It is said that it is obligatory, and the one who 
follows continues limited by the first so he cannot leave while laughing, but is 
overcome. It is the same if he does it by forgetfulness. If he is able to leave, he 
does not continue. The second is that he did not laugh intentionally. Otherwise 
he does not continue in being overcome and forgetfulness afterwards. The third 
is that he does not fear by continuing that the will miss the time. Otherwise he 
stops. The fourth is that the laughter of those following, all or some, does not 
oblige that it continue. Otherwise, he stops, even if he suspects that. The fifth is 
that he it is not Jumu'a Otherwise he stops, even if the time is ample.] 

12.5d. Smiling 

If you merely smile no reparation is necessary. 

[If anyone praying only smiles while praying, he does not have to prostrate for 
forgetfulness nor does the prayer become invalid when it is intention or done 
through ignorance, although it is disliked to do it intentionally. If it is a lot, then the 
prayer is invalidated, even if it is due to forgetfulness because the smile is the 
movement of the lips and so it is like the movements of eyelids or feet.] 

12.5e. Blowing 

Blowing in the prayer incurs the same judgement as talking - if it is 
intentional it invalidates your prayer. 



[It invalidates it if it is deliberate and done by ignorance, but does not when it is 
by a slight forgetfulness, and he prostrates after the salam. It is not a 
precondition for the invalidation on account of blowing that two letters appear 
from him nor one letter. It is clear from that what is meant is blowing with the 
mouth. When it is done with the nose, it does not invalidate the prayer, even if 
intentionally, and there is no prostration for its forgtfulness. The evidence for 
invalidation is what is related from Ibn 'Abbas who said that blowing in the prayer 
is speech, and so it invalidates it. 

It is agreed that clearing the throat out of necessity does not invalidate the prayer 
nor is there prostration for it. There are two positions about when it is not 
necessary by Malik, which distinguish between the intentional and forgetful. The 
other statemeent is that it absolutely does not invalidate it. Ibn al-Qasim takes 
that position and al-Ujhuri and al-Lakhmi prefer it since it is insignificant. 

The school is that the sigh on account of illness does not invalidate the prayer, 
even though it is one of the sounds which are connected to speech because it is 
the place of necessity. Bahram and at-Tata'i said that. It is like that with weeping. 
When it is not accompanied with sound, it does not invalidate when it is used to 
humility, i.e. it is a precondition that he be overcome. In short, what is connected 
to weeping is when it is without sound that it does not invalidate, whether it is by 
choice or being overcome by humility or not unless there is a lot of volition in it. 
That which is has sound invalidates, whether it is by humility or affliction if it is by 
choice.] 

12.5f. Mistake about qibla 

If you mal<e a mistal<e regarding the direction of qibla you should do the 
prayer again if there is still time. 

[These refers to any of the people of ijtihad with evidence of the direction of the 
Ka'ba. It includes the one who imitates someone else of good reputation and 
knowledge, or a mihrab when he is outside of Makka or Madina and strives in the 
direction which he thinks is it since he has tokens of it. So he prays in that 
direction and then it becomes clear to him after he has finishes the prayer that he 
was wrong about the direction of qibla, so that he had his back to qibla or 
deviated a lot from it. It is always recommended that he repeat the prayer within 
the ikhtiyari time. If he prays without striving, then must repeat the prayer even if 
he gets it right. ] 

12.5g. If there is impurity on clothes or the place 

The same applies if you do the prayer in clothes with some impurity on 
them or pray in an impure place. 

[Or if there is impurity on the body and you then remember that impurity after 
finishing the prayer, then the prayer is repeated in the time. The time for Dhuhr is 
until yellowing and for Maghrib and 'lsha' it is the entire night.] 



12.5g. Wudu' with unacceptable water 

The same also applies if you have done wudu' with water whose colour, 
taste, or smell has definitely changed, you must do the prayer again 
however much time has elapsed and of course repeat your wudu'. 

[ If he does this out of forgetfulness with impure water, which is that which has 
changed, as a small amount of water into which something impure has fallen and 
not changed and he does not remember until he has finished his prayer. If he 
remembers it during the prayer, then it is invalid simply by remembering it. The 
recommendation is dependent on remembering it. His words are based on his 
school, which is that a little matter in which impurity has fallen and has not 
changed is impure. The accepted position is that it is not impure. On that basis, 
he does not have to repeat it at all. ] 

12.6 Joining prayers 

12. 6a. Joining Maghrib and 'lsha' 

You are allowed to join Maghrib and 'lsha when there is heavy rain and also 
if the night is muddy and very dark. 

[What he mentioned about joining on a rainy night is an indulgence upon which 
the author of the M u khtasar proceeds, and does not make its judgement clear. Is 
it allowable, which is the literal meaning of their words, but not the most 
appropriate whih is the occurence of the prayer in its time? 

Linguistically allowance is to make easy. In the Shari'a it is to permit something 
forbidden when a preventative reason exists, i.e. if it were not for the existence of 
that difficulty, and the preventative reason here is that it can be done in its time. 
Part of what the author mentioned as a reason for joining is well-known, and it is 
rain. Rain is a reason for joining Maghrib and 'lsha' according to the famous 
position provided that it is a lot of rain. It is that which causes average people to 
cover their heads, whether it falls or is about to fall which is known by the 
conditions. Snow and cold are similar to rain. 

It is agreed that another reason for joining is mud and darkness. What is meant is 
thick mud and darkness means a night without moon. If the clouds cover the 
moon, then it is not darkness, and the prayers are not joined for that. It is evident 
from the words of the author that the prayers are not joined for darkness alone 
nor for mud alone. That is the case. The people of the school agree that the 
prayers are not joined for darkness alone. As for mud, al-Qarafi states that the 
well-known position that they are not joined. To summarise, his position is that 
the allowance between Maghrib and 'lsha' is that only these two prayers can be 
joined. That is indeed the case. Ibn al-Hajib said that . 

12. 6b. How joining is done: when it is done 

When this is the case the adhan for Maghrib is called at the beginning of 



the time outside the mosque. Then, according to MaWW, you should wait a 
little, 

[ The well-known position of Malik is that you wait a little. Ibn 'Abdu'l-Hakim and 
Ibn Wahb disagrees, but this is the well-known position. Maghrib should be 
delayed a little so that those whose houses is far from the mosque can come to 
the mosque.] 

12.6c. The iqama for Maghrib of the joined prayers 

then call the iqama inside the mosque and do the prayer. 

[After this short delay, it is sunna to give the iqama for the prayer inside the 
mosque. It should not be long in the well-known position because it should be 
shortened in other instances and so it is more appropriate here. Ibn al-Hajib said 
that joining should be intended in the first. There are two statements about when 
he delays it to the second, i.e. about whether or not it is allowed. Both agree that 
the intention should be with the first and the dispute is whether it is allowed when 
it is in the second, being obligatory that he intend it then. In short, its place is the 
first and it is demanded of the Imam and the follower. If the follower omits it, it is 
not invalid, and so it is obligatory, but not a precondition. As for the intention of 
the imam, it is necessary. If the Imam omits the intention to be imam, they are 
invalid since it is omitted in them. If he leaves it it in the second and does it in the 
first, the evident position is that it is sound and the second is invalid. He only 
prays it when the twilight vanishes. If he omits it in the first and intends to join, it 
is invalid because its validity is dependent on the intention of being an imam. ] 

12. 6d. The adhan and iqama for 'lsha' 

Then you call the adhan for 'lsha inside the mosque and do the iqama and 
then do the prayer. 

[This is done after Maghrib is finished, without delay or glorification or praise or 
nafila. So there is no nafila between Maghrib and 'lsha' in the well-known 
position. The adhan for 'lsha' is given after Maghrib. It is clear that this adhan is 
recommended because it is not a group which needs another one. It is inside the 
mosque so that people do not think that it is the time of 'lsha' has come. After the 
adhan, the iqama is given and the Imam leads the people in the prayer 
immediately. This is a precondition for every joining, and it is not particular to 
joining on a rainy night.] 

12.6e. Leaving after the joining 

Then everyone should leave while there is still some light left in the sky. 

[They should leave after the prayer without delay. If they join and do not leave 
until the twilight has gone, then they repeat 'lsha'. It is also said that they do not 
repeat it. ] 



12.6f. The second case of joining: 'Arafat 

It is an obligatory sunna to join together Dhuhr and 'Asr at Arafat at midday 
with an adhan and an iqama for each prayer. 

[ This is on tiie iiajj. It is a confirmed sunna. Tiiis question is dealt with in the 
chapter on Hajj. ] 

12. 6g. The third case of joining: at Muzfalifa 

The same applies to joining Maghrib and 'lsha on your arrival at Muzdalifa. 

[i.e the same judgement as regards the sunna and the adhan for Maghrib and 
'lsha' applies at Muzdalifa. The author of the Mukhtasar considered it to be 
recommended. The accepted position is that it is sunna. This is when it is 
possible to reach it. If that is not possible due to illness or his mount, then he 
joins when the twilight departs when he stops with the Imam. The fiqh of the 
question is that the one going to Muzdalifa either stands with the Imam or 
not.The obligation is that he stands with the Imam. If he does not stand with the 
Imam as when he stands alone or does not stand at all, he prays every prayer in 
its proper time.] 

12. 6h. The fourth case: joining when travelling 

If you are travelling hard you are permitted to join two prayers together; 
that is to pray Dhuhr at the end of its time together with 'Asr at the 
beginning of its time and likewise with Maghrib and 'lsha. 

[ This is on an obligatory journey like the hajj and the commercial journey, 
whether the prayer is shortened in it or not. He is permitted to join two prayers 
whose time is shared, like Dhuhr and 'Asr, and Maghrib and 'lsha'. When midday 
catches him while travelling and he intends to camp before sunset, he can join 
Dhuhr and 'Asr at the end the first time and the beginning of 'Asr. 

The description of joining Maghrib and 'lsha' the same as that of joining Dhuhr 
and 'Asr in that when sunset catches him and he intends to camp after dawn, he 
can join Maghrib and 'lsha' formally since he prays Maghrib near the vanishing of 
the twilight and prays 'lsha' at the beginning of its time because he will dawn here 
is like sunset in respect of Dhuhr and 'Asr.] 

12.61. When starting out 

If you are starting your journey at the beginning of the time of the first 
prayer you may also join the two prayers together then. 

[ According to the famous position, he can join before he sets out by putting the 
first of them at the beginning of the ikhtiyari time and the other in its daruri time. 
This is the real joining. From this it is known that the daruri time of 'Asr extends 
before and after it. The real joining is not like this and is only done by someone 



with an excuse in tiie form of a journey or sometiiing else. As for tiie formal 
joining, it is permitted for the one who has an excuse and others. When he 
intends to camp before the sun yellows, he cannot join. Rather he should pray 
Dhuhr before he travels and delay 'Asr until he stops, i.e it is obligatory because 
he is able to put each prayer in its allotted time in the Shari'a. He can choose 
about the 'Asr prayer. If he wishes he delays it until he stops. If he wishes, he 
brings it forward if he intends to camp when the sun yellows. ] 

12.6J. Fifth case: sick people joining prayers 

Sicl< people are permitted to join the prayers if they are afraid, at the time or 
Dhuhr or Maghrib, that their sickness will cause them to lose 
consciousness before the time of the next prayer. 

[They can join prayers which share in the time in the well-known position. Ibn 
Nafi' said that each prayer should be prayed in its proper time. If they fear that 
they might become unconscuious at the second prayer, they can join. This is at 
the beginning of the time of the first prayer according to the well-known position. 
It is said that the first is at the end of its time and the second at the beginning of 
its time. In the well-known position, he joins Dhuhr and 'Asr at midday and 
Maghrib and 'lsha' at sunset. He joins at the beginning of the time because he is 
afraid that he will become unconscious and that permits joining. It is like the the 
fever which comes in fits, i.e. shakes, or vertigo which will come at the second 
time when he is sure of that. ] 

NOTE: When he joins out of fear of being unconscious at the second time and 
then that is removed by being free of that, 'lsa said that he repeats the second 
prayer. Sanad said that he means within the time. The most probable is that it is 
the daruri time. Ibn Sha'ban said that he does not repeat it, but that weak. 

12.6J. Second category Joining making it easier for the sick person 

If joining the prayers makes things easier for someone suffering from 
dysentery or a similar illness, he can do the two prayers together either in 
the middle of the time of Dhuhr or when the redness in the sky fades after 
Maghrib. 

[ This applies to all illnesses which make it difficult for him to rise for every 
prayer. Then he can join two prayers whose time is shared, and so he joins 
Dhuhr and 'Asr in the middle of Dhuhr, and Maghrib and 'lsha' when the twilight 
fades. So Maghrib occurs at the end of its ikhtiyari time, based on its extending to 
twilight and 'lsha' at the beginning of its ikhtiyari time. ] 



Chapter Thirteen: On the sajdas of the Our'an 

The prostrations of the Our'an are sunna. The decision of Ibn 'Arafa is the 
preferred. It is said that they are meritorious. Ibn al-Hajib and others said that it is 
well-known for the reciter and the one who intends to listen, not the one who 
hears it. 

13.1 Preconditions 

[There are three preconditions for the prostration of the listener. 

1 . The reciter is fit to be Imam, i.e. he is a sane, adult male in wudu'. He does 
not prostrate when he hears an ayat of prostration recited by a 
hermaphrodite, woman, child, or someone not in wudu'. 

2. The listener is sitting to learn from the reciter what he needs of recitiation in 
idgham or memorisation of what is recited. 

3. The reciter has not sat so that people can listen to the excellence of his 
recitation. He has sat to recite the words of Allah or intends to let people 
listen for the sake of admonition and preventing acts of disobedience. 

When these preconditions exist, and the reciter does not prostrate, the one who 
intends to listen prostrates according to the well-known position.] 

13.2 Verses where prostration is made 

There are eleven sajdas in the Our'an, these being the places where you are 
commanded to go into sujud. None of these are in the Mufassal . They are: 

[ They are called 'aza'im in Arabic to encourage that it be done out of fear of 
abandoning them which is disliked. The Mufassal are those frequently separated 
by the basmala, the first of which is al-Hujurat (49), according to some. So there 
is no prostration in an-Najm, al-lnshiqaq (84), and al-Qalam (68). 

The first is:] 

1. In Surat al-A'raf, (7:206) where Allah ta'ala says: (And they glorify Him 
and to Him they prostrate) which is the end of the sura. 

If you are doing the prayer you should go into sujud when you reach this 
point and then recite what is easy for you f rom Surat al-Anfal or some other 
sura and then go into ruku' and sujud. 

[ If you are doing a prayer, whether nafila or obligatory and recite it, then you 
prostrate for it at the moment of respect because it is subject to the prayer. It is 
disliked to intentionally recite an ayat of prostration in an obligatory prayer. After 
prostrating, it is recommended that you stand and recite some of al-Anfal or 
another which is easy, then do ruku' as normal so that it is not immediately after 
prostration. 



The rest are:] 

2. In Surat ar-Ra'd (13:15) where Allah ta'ala says: (...and their shadows in 
the morning and the afternoon). 

3. In Surat an-Nahl (16:50) where Allah ta'ala says: (They fear their Lord 
above them and do what they are ordered to do.) 

4. In Surat al-lsra (17:109) where Allah ta'ala says: (They fall on their faces 
weeping and it increases them in humility.) 

5. In Surat Maryam (19:58) where Allah ta'ala says: (When the signs of the 
Rahman are recited to them they fall down prostrating and weeping.) 

6. In Surat aZ-Hayy (22:18) where Allah ta'ala says: (Whomever Allah abases 
no one can ennoble. Surely Allah does what He wills.) 

7. In Surat al-Furqan (25:60) where Allah ta'ala says: (Should we prostrate 
to what you order us to prostrate to? And it makes them run even further 
away.) 

8. In Surat an-Naml {27:26) where Allah ta'ala says: (There is no god except 
Him, the Lord of the Mighty Throne.) 

9. In Surat as-SaJda (32:15) where Allah ta'ala says: (They glorify their Lord 
with praise and they are not proud.) 

10. In Surat Sad (38:24) where Allah ta'ala says: (He sought forgiveness 
from His Lord and fell down bowing and turned to His Lord in repentance.) 
It is also said that this sajda is done after the words. (...an exalted place 
with Us and an excellent return.) (38:25) 

11. In Surat Fus/7/af (41 :37) where Allah ta'ala says: (And prostrate to Allah 
who created them if it is indeed Him you worship.) 

13.3 How the prostration is done 

13. 3a. You must be in wudu' 

You do not do these sajdas in the Our'an unless you are in wudu'. 

[Preconditional for it is wiiat is preconditional for the other prayers: purity from 
both major and minor impurity and facing qibla.] 

13.3b. Thetakbir 

You say a takbir for them 

{In going down and coming up by agreement if that is while he is in the prayer, 



and in the well-known statement, if he is not in the prayer. It is said that it is 
disliked and it is said that he can choose between the takbir or not doing it. Then 
there are three positions. He does not raise his hands, which is disliked in going 
down and rising. There is no tashahhud in the well-known position. It is also said 
that there is a tashahhud.] 

13.3c. No salam 

but do not say the salam. 

[There is no salam, i.e. it is disliked unless he intends to remove any dispute.] 

13. 3d. The takbir on rising 

There is leeway as to whether you say 'Allahu akbar' as you come up from 
the sajda although we consider it preferable to do so. 

[ It a fourth position in the question in which Ibn al-Hajib relates three positions, 
i.e. he has a choice when he rises, but not when he does down, as Ibn Naji 
pointed out. Do his words, 'Whether you say 'Allahu akbar' although we consider 
it preferable' refer to the takbir when rising? i.e. does it mean that he says the 
takbir when rising as he does when going down so that it is the same as the first 
of the three positions, or does the takbir refer to rising and going down which is 
also the first? So in any case he chooses the well-known position.] 

13.4. When to do or omit the prostration 

13. 4a. In the prayers 

You should do these sajdas, if you recite the ayats where they come, in 
both fard and nafila prayers. 

[These prostrations are done in the fard and nafila prayers, whether you are the 
Imam or praying alone, even if it is disliked to recite them intentionally in the fard 
prayer in the well-known position. It is disliked for the Imam and someone 
praying alone to recite the prostration ayat deliberately in the fard because if he 
does not prostrate, he enters into the threat, and if he prostrates, he increases 
the prostation over the obligation and that might lead to confusing those 
following. As for the nafila, it is not disliked to intentionally recite the prostration 
ayat in them alone or in a group, outloud or secretly, resident or on a joruney, at 
night or day, confirmed or not confirmed, fearing to confuse the one behind him 
or not.] 

NOTE ONE: Part of what he says about the fard and nafila is that if he recites 
them in a khutba he does not prostrate. It is said that is since there is no space in 
it in the order of the khutba and the judgment is that reciting it is disliked. If it 
occurs that he prostrates in the khutba, it is not invalid, even if he is forbidden to 
prostrate. 



NOTE TWO: If an imam recites a prostration ayat and does not prostrate, tiien 
tiie follower leaves it. If the follower prostrates when his Imam has not done so, 
his prayer is invalid when that is deliberate rather than inadvertant, as the prayer 
of the follower is not invalid by not prostrating with the Imam who prostrates, 
even if he leaves it deliberately - but he has behaved badly. Ibn Wahb related 
that it is not disliked to recite it in the fard. Al-Lakhmi, Ibn Yunus, Ibn Bashir and 
others say that is correct since it is confirmed that the Prophet continued to recite 
the prostration ayat in the first rak'at of the Subh prayer on Jumu'a. Ibn Bashir 
said, "Our excellent shaykhs and theirs used to persevere on that, and it is done 
at any time of day or night except the Friday khutba, sunrise, when it becomes 
yellow and daybreak. It is disliked to do it at these times. There is disagreement 
about doing it at daybreak and yellowing after praying Subh and afrer praying 
'Asr. In the Muwatta' it is absolutely not allowed after them, either in yellowing or 
daybreak. In the Mudawwana, it is the accepted position that he can prostrate 
after it after them as long as it is not yellow or daybreak. This is what the shaykh 
says.] 

13.4b. At times when prayer is forbidden 

You should also do them if you recite any of these ayats after praying 
subh, provided the light is not yet bright, and after 'Asr provided the sun 
has not turned yellow. 

[ This is a confirmed sunna. Thus it resembles funerals. and there is a difference 
between the one who does them in the two times because of it being confirmed 
sunna because the simple nafila are not done after 'Asr and after Subh.] 



Chapter Fourteen: On Travelling Prayers 

[Its judgement is that it is sunna. Its reason is the journey and its place is the four 
rak'ats prayer. One of its preconditions, which are four, is the distance. It deals 
with of what invalidates shortening and questions connected to it. He indicated 
the first five which are the description of the travel prayer and its judgement, 
reason, place and some of its preconditions.] 

14.1 Travel which reguires shortening the prayer 

14.1aThe distance 

If you travel a distance of four mail stages which is forty-eight miles, you 
should shorten the prayer, 

[This is when you intend to make a land or sea journey which is obligatory, like 
the obligatory hajj, or desirable, like voluntary hajj, or permitted, like for 
commerce, of at least four mail stages. This definition indicates the distance, and 
in terms of time, the prayer is only shortened in a journey of a day and a night by 
animals carrying normal burdens. If he shortens before that, it is said that if it is 
35 miles, he always repeats it, and in 40 he does not repeat. There is some 
disagreement about whether he repeats it within the time or not. Ibn Rushd said 
in at-Tawdih that he always repeats for shortening the prayer in 36 miles in the 
School. The prayer which is shortened is the obligatory prayer and the prayer 
which is being made up.] 

14.1b. The number of rak'ats 

doing only two rak'as for each except in the case of Maghrib which is not 
shortened. 

[Maghrib is odd and cannot be divided. It is also becuase it makes the number of 
prayers in the day odd. Subh is not shortened because it is not established in the 
Shari'a that it is shortened, which would make it one rak'at. He is silent about 
Subh because it is not shortened. So there is consenus that Subh and Maghrib 
are not shortened and so the journey has no effect on them.] 

14.1C. Its preconditions 

[There are preconditions for shortening: 

1. 1The distance intended is in one go. If it is not intended, as when he goes 
for a need which he thinks is close but ends up going a further distance. 
Indeed, that is the case if he is sure that it is but he does not know exactly 
where. He does not shorten, even if he goes four mail stages. Similarly he 
does not shorten when he stays in the middle of distance for the time in 
which it is obliged to do the full prayer, like four days. To sum up, the first 
precondition contains two things: one is the intention and the second is that 



it is in one go. 

2. Tiie journey is a permissible one. 

3. According to wiiat is in ad-Dakhira, a traveller does not follow a resident. Ibn 
al-Qasim said in the book that he does it in full if he catches a rak'at with 
him. If he catches less than a rak'at, Malik said that he does not do the full 
prayer. The fiqh of the question is that if the follower is a traveller behind a 
resident sometimes he will intend the full prayer behind him and and he will 
make his ihram like that of the Imam. Sometimes he will intend the travel 
prayer. In all of this, he either catches one rak'at or not. In the first case, he 
follows him absolutely. In the second if he catches a rak'at with him, then his 
prayer is invalid. Otherwise it is valid and he prays two rak'ats. 

4. He does not turn a short journey into a long one without excuse. 

5. He does not shorten the prayers until he leaves the houses of the town 
behind him. 

14.1d. When you can start shortening 

You are not permitted to shorten the prayer until you have passed beyond 
the houses of the town you are in so they are all behind you, leaving none 
in front of you or level with you. 

[ Ibn Naji says that it is whether it is a place where Jumu'a is held or not. That is 
the case in the well-known position. Opposite it is what Mutarrif and Ibn al- 
Majishun related from the Imam that if the town from which the journey begins is 
a Jumu'a town, the prayer is not shortened until he has gone three miles beyond 
its walls. Otherwise, it is from the end of its buildings. The place of the dispute is 
about adding the gardens when it happens that he passes the gardens. If the 
houses are separate, he must leave them all when they are united under the 
name of 'quarter' and 'abode' or the name 'abode alone or the name 'quarter' 
when when share together. Otherwise he shortens as soon as he leaves his 
house. It is clear that they are behind him.] 

14.1e. When you stop shortening 

You do not leave off shortening the prayers until you return to the place 
you set out from or come within a mile of it. 

[ Until he returns to the houses or less than a mile. Ibn 'Umar is unsure of the 
words here. This phrase is unclear because at the beginning of his words he 
made it less than a mile while travelling and the last words he made him resident. 
This is not sound. Some say that the contradiction when he says, "until he 
returns to it." with "or is near to it" as another statement means until he returns to 
it means until he is near them. Then his words, "or near" mean the same. The 
upshot of this interpretation is that if he is less than a mile, he must do the full 
prayer, whether he is at its gardens or not. A little means a third of a mile, or 
more.] 

14.1f. If a traveller stays in a place for four days 



If a traveller intends to stay in a place for four days or twenty prayers he 
should do the complete prayer until he moves from that place. 

[ This is based on Ibn Naji. Tiiere are two positions. Siiortening ends wiien iie 
iias tiie intention of staying four full days or more if it reaches twenty prayers, and 
it is that on whose basis Ibn al-Qasim proceded. Ibn al-Qasim considers that 
stopping the judgement of the journey is four full days and 20 prayers. So he 
considers that the stop which ends the judgement of the journey is that he stays 
until the fourth 'lsha'. If someone arrives before Fajr on a day and intends to 
leave after sunset on the fourth, he shortens because he will not be there for the 
period of 20 prayers. Sahnun and 'Abdu'l-Malik said that if the intention of what 
he will pray in it is 20 prayers, that ends the judgement of the journey. The point 
of the dispute appears when the time of Dhuhr comes. If he is able to perform the 
prayers according to Dhuhr of its day and 'Asr and he does Dhuhr and 'Asr in full. 
If he counts the days, he voids the day in which he entered, meaning he does not 
count it among the four days which he abides. If someone intends to remain for 
four full days, he prays in full from the time he enters the place in which he 
intends to remain. If he enters at Dhuhr, he does it in full and completes 'Asr and 
'lsha' and the day he enters is not counted among the days which he abides. 

They make an exception to the intention of remaining four days or more 
invalidating the principle of travel is the intention of an army to stop in the Abode 
of War. What is meant by the Abode of War is the place where the army settles, 
even in the Abode of Islam when it is not secure. Another things which stops 
shortening is the knowledge of abiding by custom like the custom of the hajji 
when he enters Makka to abide for four days.] 

14.2. Leavlng and arriving towards the end of the time of Dhuhr 
and 'Asr 

14. 2a. Leaving before praying Dhuhr and 'Asr 

If you leave a place before you have prayed Dhuhr and 'Asr and there is still 
enough daytime left to pray three rak'as you should pray them both as 
travelling prayers. If there is only enough time to pray two rak'as or one 
you should pray Dhuhr in full and 'Asr as a travelling prayer. 

[ If you start to travel in this case there is agreement if he omitted them by 
forgetfulness. The same applies is that if he left them intentionally but he is a 
sinner. If he is like that, he prays them as travel prayers because he travels in 
their time when Dhuhr is estimated as two rak'ats and one rak'at of 'Asr remains. 
There is disagreement about this estimation and whether or not one takes 
purification into account in it he he is not in a state of purity. Al-Lakhmi, al-Qarafi 
and Abu'l-Hasan said that. Others said that it, and that is the position of Ibn 
'Arafa. 

If there is only enough time for two rak'ats, you pray Dhuhr in full because you 
became responsible for it while resident. 'Asr is prayed with a travelling prayer. 



because he was travelling in its time. He begins with Dhuhr according to Ibn al- 
Qasim, which is the preferred position. He begins with 'Asr according to Ibn 
Wahb so that he does not miss it in its time. while Ashhab says that he begins 
with whichever he wishes because of the disgreement of the people of 
knowledge on that. Malik and Ibn Shihab both say that he begins with the first 
while Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab says that he begins with the last.] 

14.2b. Arriving before having prayed them 

If you return from a journey without having prayed these two prayers and 
there is still time for five rak'as you do them both as full prayers 

[If you return from a journey and there is time for five rak'ats in the day, and you 
have forgotten to pray Dhuhr and 'Asr, you pray them as resident because you 
have caught their time with four of Dhuhr and one of 'Asr. The judement of the 
deliberate is the same as the forgetful.] 

14.2c. When there is still time for four rak'ats 

but if there is time for four rak'as or less down to one rak'a you do Dhuhr as 
a travelling prayer and 'Asr in full. 

[Because the time for 'Asr went when you were responsible for it while travelling. 
'Asr is prayed in full because he caught it while resident.] 

14.3. Arrlvlng at the end of the time of Maghrib and 'lsha' 

14. 3a. When you arrive and there is time for one or more rak'ats 

If you return during the night without having prayed Maghrib and 'lsha and 
there is still time enough before fajr for one or more rak'as you pray both 
Maghrib and 'lsha in full. 

[ This is estimated, and applies whether he omitted them out of forgetfulness or 
intentionally. They are prayed in full because there remains enough time to catch 
Isha' and so he is obliged to pray it as a resident. As for Maghrib, there is no 
disagreement that it is always three, either at home or on a journey.] 

14.3b. Setting out on a journey 

If you set out on a journey and there is enough of the night left to pray one 
rak'a or more you do Maghrib in full and pray 'lsha as a travelling prayer. 

[ Because he catches its time in the journey. The rule of this chapter in relation to 
the two night prayers is that it considers one rak'at on arrival and leaving, while in 
relation to the day prayers or one of them, on leaving if there is what is enough 
for three rak'ats, he prays the two travel prayers and two or one. The second is a 
travel prayer. In respect of the day prayers, if he arrives when there remains 
enough of the day to pray five rak'ats, then he prays them as resident. If there 



are four or less to one, he prays Dhuhr as a travel prayer. Allah knows best.] 



Chapter Fifteen: On the Jumu'a (Friday) Prayer 

[It is is obligatory. He clarifies the time of its obligation and the place in which it 
must be performed and for whom it is obligatory and other topics connected to it. 
It is derived from jama' (to gather) since people gather in it and the first to call it 
Jumu'a was Ousayy. He gathered Ouraysh on that day and said, "This is the Day 
of Jumu'a."] 

15.1. It is obligatory 

Going to Jumu'a is obligatory. 

[It is clear that what he goes to obligatory. The Friday prayer and going to it are 
obligatory by the Book, Sunna and consensus. In the Our'an, it is the words of 
the Almighty, "O you who believe! When the prayer is called on the Day of 
Jumu'a, rush to the remembrance of Allah." (62:9) Al-Fakhani said that Malik 
said, "Going in the Book of Allah is action. Action and doing are synonyms," i.e. it 
means that rushing to remembrance means going in general, whether it is on foot 
or not. Al-Fakhani used as evidence for that the recitation, "go to the 
remembrance of Allah." What is meant by remembrance is the khutba or the 
prayer or both as stated by the commentator of the Muwatta'. 

As for the Sunna, it is what is in Muslim from what the Prophet said about some 
people who refrained from going to Jumu'a: "I seriously thought about ordering a 
man to lead the people in prayer and then burning down the houses of certain 
men who failed to attend Jumu'a." 

As for the consensus on that, al-Fakhani stated that there is no disagreement 
between the Imams that Jumu'a is an individual obligation. Going to it is obliged 
when there is no impediment. If there is is an impediment, then it is not 
obligatory. The impediment can consist of various things: illness which makes it 
hard for him to do it, when one of his parents is ill or near death, or he fears loss. 
This also applies to close relative, like child or wife. Another reason is when he 
fears for his property from a ruler, thief or arsonists. Another reason is severe 
rain and mud, etc.] 

15. 1a. When it becomes obligatory 

It becomes obligatory when the imam sits on the minbar and the 
mu'adhdhins begins the adhan. 

[The obligation to go to the Jumu'a prayer begins when the mu'adhdhins begin 
the adhan if their house is near. As for someone whose house is far, it is 
according to what it takes to reach the place where Jumu'a is held at midday. 
These are the details for others than those by which the Jumu'a is held. As for 
those who make up the number by which Jumu'a is held, they are obliged to go 
so that he will hears the khutba from its beginning. Those in the city and a 
distance of three miles or less from it are obliged to go to it. 



The two adhans were already mentioned. Jumu'a has two adhans: one did not 
exist in the time of the Prophet, and the other did. He explains the early one.] 

15.2. The sunna of the adhan 

The early sunna was for the mu'adhdhins to climb the minaret 

[The desirable method is to ascend when the Imam sits on the minbar. This was 
the Sunna of the Companions since there was no minaret in the time of the 
Prophet. They used to give the adhan at the door of the mosque. Zarruq said 
that. So there was one adhan in the time of the Prophet which was done at the 
door of the mosque while the Prophet was sitting on the minbar. Then 'Uthman 
introduced another adhan which was done before that on the minbar while the 
imam was also sitting on the minbar. Al-Fakhani reported that Ibn Habib said, 
"When the Prophet entered the mosque, he ascended the minbar and sat. Then 
the mu'adhhdins gave the adhan. There were three who gave the adhan on the 
minaret one after the other. When the third finished, the Prophet stood up to give 
the khutba. It was like that in the time of Abu Bakr and 'Umar. Then when there 
were a lot of people, 'Uthman commanded the introduction of an earlier adhan 
before that which was done on the minaret and it was done at midday at az- 
Zawra', a place in the market, so that people could gather and leave the market. 
When he went out and sat on the minbar, then the mu'adhdhin gave the adhan 
on the minbar. When Hisham ibn 'Abdu'l-Malik was khalif, he moved the adhan at 
az-Zawra' and put it on the minaret at midday. When he sat on the minbar, then 
an adhan was given in front of him. When the mu'adhdhin finished, he gave the 
khutba. The adhan which 'Uthman introduced is done first but was the second to 
be prescribed, and it happens now on the minaret. That which happens before 
the khatib is done second but was first to be prescribed because that which is 
now done before the khatib was done at the door of the mosque in the time of the 
Prophet and Hisham changed it." What is meant by the minaret in what Ibn Habib 
said is the place where the adhan was given because there was was no minaret 
in the time of the Prophet and the place of the adhan was at the door of the 
mosque.] 

15. 2b. Consequences of the adhan for Jumu'a 

at that point when selling or doing anything else which might distract you 
from going to Jumu'a becomes haram. 

[When the adhan is given before the Imam, then selling becomes unlawful for 
everyone for whom Jumu'a is obligatory except the one who is compelled to it as 
when it happens that the call for Jumu'a is given and he cannot find water with 
which to purify himself except by buying it. So both are allowed to buy and sell 
because this is part of mutual help to worship. Other distracting things are 
forbidden: like eating, sewing, travelling, the gift, sadaqa and taking by a pre- 
emption.] 

15. 2c. Giving an earlier adhan 



The calling of an earlier adhan is a practice which was introduced by the 
Banu Umayya. 

[It was was introduced by 'Uthman ibn'Affan.] 
15.3 Preconditions for Jumu'a 

[Know tiiat Jumu'a iias preconditions for its being obligatory, and preconditions 
for its performance. The difference between them is that the preconditions for 
obligation are those by which responsibility arises and the legally responsible 
person is not required to achieve them. The preconditions for performance are 
those by which responsiblity is removed and it is obligatory for the responsible 
person to obtain them. ] 

15. 3a. Preconditions for its being obiigatory 

[They are ten: 

1. Announcement of the time 

2. Islam 

3. Adulthood 

4. Sanity 

5. Maleness 

6. Being free 

7. Residence 

8. Health 

9. Nearness so that he is not more than three miles away - or quarter or a third 
of a mile more. 

10. That it be a settled place.] 

15. 3b. Preconditions for performance 

[They are four: 

1. The Imam, 

2. The group 

3. The mosque 

4. The khutba. 

The shaykh mentioned some of these conditions and he did not distinguish them 
from one another.] 

15.3c. The required size of the town 

Jumu'a is obligatory if there is a large enough town and a large enough 
group of people in it. 

[ It is clear from the school of Abu Hanifa that the Jumu'a is only held in the city. 
Some of his companions added that it should be in a city in which the Imam has 



established the hudud. The school of Imam Malik is that it is held in the city and 
in the town where buildings are connected, even if their connection is only be 
benefit in that they help one another, even the hudud are not established there. 
On this basis, the words of the Shaykh must be interpreted that it is said that he 
meant by town of connected buildings the category of towns. ] 

[Khalil said that it should be in the oldest mosque of the locality.) 

15. 3d. The group 

[The second is a precondition for validity, i.e. for establishing the Jumu'a there 
must be a group. They do not give the number with Imam Malik, but what is 
meant is the existence of those who are independent in terms of defence and 
mutual help in things necessary for life. When can remain indefinitely with 
security and the power to defend themselves, then the Jumu'a is valid, even if 
there are only twelve men remaining to complete the prayer with the Imam. 
There is no difference between the first Jumu'a and others. 

15. 3e. The khutba 

There must be a khutba before the prayer. 

[It is obligatory in the famous position, and it is said that it is sunna. They are 
both related in the preferences. It is a precondition of validity because it is not 
transmitted that the Prophet prayed Jumu'a without a khutba. If they pray without 
a khutba, then they repeat it within the time. If they do not repeat until the time 
has gone, they repeat it as Dhuhr. ] 

15.4. Preconditions for the khutba 

15. 4a. Khutba before the prayer 

[There are preconditions for the validity of the khutba. The author indicates them, 
beginning with the khutba before the prayer since the Almighty says, "Then when 
the prayer is finished spread through the earth." (62:10) The fa' is for the order 
and consequence. It does not deny that people disperse after the prayer and it is 
not incompatible with its being after the khutba if the khutba is after the prayer. 
"Afterness' is a wide preposition. That is what was done by him and the Rightly- 
guided khalifs after him. Whoever is ignorant and prays before the khutba 
repeats the prayer only. One precondition is that it is after midday. One of them is 
that it is in the presence of the group by whom the Jumu'a is constituted. One of 
them is that it is two khutbas. If there is one khutba and then he prays, the 
Jumu'a is repeated after the second khutba. The separation between the two 
khutbas by the prayer is slight, and so it does not oblige the invalidation of the 
first khutba. 

The least of what satisfies the khutba in the well-known position is that to which 
khutba is applied to by the Arabs. It is a form of rhymed words different from 
poetry or prose. For it to be done not in Arabic is null. If no one can be found who 



knows Arabic, then it is cancelled. It is said that its minimum is "Al-hamdu lillah" 
and the prayer on the Messenger of Allah" and cautioning and good news. This is 
weak since the accepted position is that they are recommended in the two 
khutbas. Another precondition it is that it is outloud. If it is silent it is null. There 
are two well-known positions about whether purification is a precondition for its 
validity. One of them if that purification is not a precondition and it is disliked 
without it.] 

15. 4b. Leaning on a bow or staff and sitting in the middle 

During the l<hutba the imam should lean on a bow shaft or a staff. He 
should sit before the start of the khutba and in the middle of it. 

[While he is giving his khutba, it is recommended that he lean on a bow shaft or 
staff. 

He sits at the beginning of the khutba and in the middle. There is disagreement 
about this and in standing for it. Al-Maziri says that standing for it is obligatory 
and a precondition, It is said that it is a sunna. If he gives the khutba sitting it is 
valid, but he behaves badly. So both of the first and second sitting are sunna in 
the well-known position. The length of the middle sitting is that of the sitting 
between the two prostrations. The basis in what he mentioned is that continues 
to be the action in all cities and times from the time of the Prophet until now.] 

15.4C After the khutba 

The prayer is performed when the khutba is over. 

[It is a precondition to connect the prayer to the khutba, and a short gap is 
overlooked as opposed to a large one. It is obliged as a precondition that the 
Imam of the prayer is the khatib. If something prevents his imamate, like breaking 
wudu', or a nosebleed, and water is near, the prayer must wait for him. If it is far, 
he delegates someone, and it is desirable that he delegates someone who was 
at the khutba. ] 

15.5 The Rak'ats of Jumu'a 

15.5a. Two rak'ats done outloud 

The prayer consists of two rak'as in which the imam recites outloud. 

[There is agreement that the prayer is two rak'ats. If it is deliberately more, it is 
invalid. If he adds out of oversight, then he procedes on the basis of having 
added something to the prayer. The Imam must intend to be the Imam. 
Otherwise the intention is not adequate. It is recommended to perform the prayer 
at the beginning of the time. Bahram said that there is no one disagrees that the 
beginning of its time is midday. The well-known position is that it extends until 
sunset.] 



15.5b. Recitation in it 

In the first ral<'a he should recite Surat al-Jumu'a (62) or something similar 
and in the second Surat al-Ghashiya (88) or something similar. 

[There is consenus that recitation in it is outloud. In the first rak'at after the Fatiha 
he recites Surat al-Jumu'a (62). Ibn 'Umar objects to "or something similar" since 
it is recommended to recite Surat al-Jumu'a (62) in it since it contains the rules of 
Jumu'a and because the Prophet used to recite it at the first rak'at. The answer to 
that objection is that he means to refute the one who said that the Prophet only 
recited it in Jumu'a. In Muslim we read that the Prophet recited al-A'la (87) in the 
first rak'at., There is no objection to the fact that in the second rak'at it is 
recommended that he recite Surat al-Ghashiyya (88) or its like.] 

15.6 The obligation of Jumu'a 

15. 6a. Its obligatory nature 

Going to Jumu'a is obligatory for anyone in the town or within three miles 
of it. 

[It is agreed that it is obligatory if he meets the preconditions of the Jumu'a and 
has no legitimate impediment, as it is obligatory for those outside the city within 
three miles. That is the position of Ibn 'Abdu'l-Hakam and Ibn al-Hajib stated it. 
'Abdu'l-Wahhab and others say that the distance begins from the mosque. That 
is the position of the author of al-'Umda. He deduced that because the definition 
of three miles is by hearing, and hearing related to the minaret. If it is said that it 
is not obliged if it is more, that is the position of Ashhab. What is relied on is the 
transmission of Ibn al-Qasim, that three miles is approximate and so it is obliged 
for those a little beyond it, like a third or quarter of a mile. Then he indicates the 
preconditions of Jumu'a:] 

15. 6b. Those for whom it is not obligatory 

It is not obligatory for travellers nor is it obligatory for the people at Mina 
nor for slaves, women or children. 

[It is agreed that it is not obligatory for the traveller, nor for the people of Mina 
other than its inhabitants. It is obligatory for its inhabitants when they have a 
sufficient number for Jumu'a, whether they are hajjis or not. Nor is it obligatory for 
women or children by agreement. The basis in what was mentioned is what at- 
Tabarani related in al-Kabir from the words of the Prophet, "Jumu'a is obligatory 
for every Muslim except four - a owned slave, a woman, a child, and someone 
who is ill." If those for whom it is not obligatory he attends it and prays, it suffices 
for Dhuhr.] 

15. 6c. When a slave or woman is present 

If a slave or a woman does attend they should do the Jumu'a prayer. 



[Meaning it is sufficient for Diiuiir. In tiie case of tiie traveller, it is sufficient for 
Dhuhr according to Malik. Ibn al-Majishun said that it is not sufficient for him 
because he is not responsible for it. The nafila does not satisfy the fard. ] 

15. 6d. Where women stand 

Women should be behind the rows of the men. Young women should not 
go to Jumu'a. 

15. 6e. The obligation to listen to the Imam 

It is obligatory to listen to the imam while he is giving the khutba 

[It is obligatory for everyone who attends the Jumu'a to be silent and listen to the 
Imam while he is giving the first and second khutbas and in the stitting between 
them, whether he can hear the khutba or whether the Imam abuses someone he 
is not permitted to abuse or praises someone he is not permitted to praise. Ibn 
Habib said that words are permitted if the Imam says something which is not 
permitted. Al-Lakhmi says that it correct. The author of the Mi7/c/7fasar confines 
himself to it. One does bless the sneezer and he says"Praise be to Allah" silently 
in himself. One does not greet nor return a greeting, even by indication. One 
does not drink water. In short, he is forbidden anything incompatible with the 
obligation of being silent, even for the one who is not listening. The basis for that 
is the words of the Prophet in the two Sahih collections: "Even saying, 'Be quiet!' 
to your companion while the Imam is speaking on the Day of Jumu'a constitutes 
foolish chatter." If commanding to the correct is called foolish talk, so that applies 
even more to other things. 'Foolish talk' is speech in which there is no good. 

Among the times when speech is permitted is the time when he asks for blessing 
for the Companions and supplication for the ruler. It is permitted to speak during 
the khutba for certain matters which include a little dhikr when there reason for it, 
saying 'Amen' with listening to forgiveness or rescue from the Fire, seeking 
refuge when hearing the Fire and shaytan mentioned, and the prayer on the 
Prophet r when he is mentioned. All that is silent and disliked outloud.] 

15. 6f. Sitting facing the Imam 

and you should sit facing him. 

[The people face the Imam while he is giving the khutba, and all rows are the 
same in this. What al-Baji says about the first row not having to do that is weak.] 

15. 7. Other points related to Jumu'a 

15. 7a. Ghusl 

It is also necessary to do a ghusl before going to Jumu'a. 

[Ghusl for the Jumu'a prayer is obligatory, not for the day. It is part of the adab of 



the prayer. It is obligatory as a confirmed sunna. Its time is before the Jumu'a 
prayer. It must be connected to going out to the Jumu'a in the well-known 
position. Ibn Wahb said that if he washes after Fajr, that is enough, even if it is 
not connected to going out. It is performed the same as the ghusl on account on 
janaba.] 

15. 7b. Going early to the mosque 

It is recommended to get to the mosque early but not right at the beginning 
of the day. 

[One of the adab of Jumu'a is to go early. It is recommended because the 
Prophet and the Companions used to do that, i.e. they went to the mosque at this 
time. The first of what satisfies it is the sixth meant where the Prophet says, 
"Whoever washes on the Day of Jumu'a and then goes in the first hour, it is as if 
he offered a camel." It is not at the beginning of the day for that is disliked 
because the Prophet did not do it and none of the Companions did it.] 

15.7C. Perfume and best clothes 

It is also good to put on perfume and dress in your best clothes. 

[It is recommended that perfume be put on for it. One of the adab of the Jumu'a 
is to use perfume for the one who attends it - men but not women. It is perfume 
whose colour is hidden and scent is discerned, like musk. By it he intends to 
obey the sunna and does not intend boasting and showing off. 

One of the adab is to deck oneself in one's best lawful clothes. It is that which the 
people of the Shari'a consider good on this day, Friday: it is white. The basis is in 
what Abu Dawud related from the hadith of Abu Hurayra where the Messenger of 
Allah said, ""If anyone bathes on Jumu'a, puts on his best clothes, applies on 
scent in his house if he has any, then comes to Jumu'a, and takes care not to 
step over the necks of people, then prays what was prescribed for him and then 
keeps silent when the Imam comes out until he finishes his prayer, it will expiate 
for what happened in the previous week." Abu Hurayra says "And three days 
more." He says, "The good actions is multiplied ten times."] 

15. 7d. Leaving without doing nafila 

With us it is preferred that you should leave after finishing the prayer 
without doing any nafila rak'as in the mosque. 

[The Malikis prefer that one who prays Jumu'a leave after finishing the tasbih and 
the like connected to it and not do any nafila in the mosque, whether Imam or 
follower. It is is like that by agreement about the Imam. According to one 
statement about the follower, i.e. it is part of the adab that the one who prays 
Jumu'a leave after the prayer and not do any nafila is based it being is related 
that Ibn 'Umar prayed Jumu'a and left and prayed two rak'ats in his house. Then 
he said, 'The Messenger of Allah used to do this with nafila after them." As for 



before, it is permitted for tiie follower rather than the Imam, i.e. desirable.] 

15. 7e. Nafila before Jumu'a 

You can do nafila rak'as before Jumu'a. 

[The one who is a follower in the mosque can do nafila before Jumu'a if he 
wishes as long as the Imam has not sat on the minbar. If he sits, then there is no 
nafila. When he comes out for the khutba, he does not do nafila. When he enters 
while he is doing nafila, he makes it quick.] 

15. 7f. The Imam does not do nafila 

The imam should not do any nafila rak'as before the prayer but should go 
straight to the minbar when he comes in. 

[The Imam does not do nafila before Jumu'a in the mosque, i.e. it is disliked for 
the Imam since the Prophet did not prayer before Jumu'a at all. Ibn 'Umar said 
that that is the same whether there is ample time or not. 

The recommended adab include trimming the moustache and nails, plucking the 
armpits, shaving the pubes when that is needed, using the tooth-stick and 
walking to the prayer based on what is reported about that in traditions.] 



Chapter Sixteen: On the Fear Prayer 

16.1 Its Judgement 

[Al-Qarafi says that it is possible to define it as doing one of tiie five fard prayers. 
Its judgement is obligatory, i.e. obligatory as a sunna. Ibn al-Mawwaz said that it 
is an allowance and the author of the Mukhtasar confines himself to the truth of 
the allowance for it, a which is the legal principle of the excuse which allows waht 
is forbidden, like eating carrion. It is prescribed by an excuse, which is necessity 
while confirming the existence of the forbidden, which is foulness in carrion. By 
analogy he says here that it is prescribed for an exuse, which is fear, with the 
establishment of the forbidden, which is altering the prescibed prayer. 

There is no contradiction between its being sunna and its being an allowance 
because the allowance can become an obligation: like eating carrton for one so 
compelled. The evidence for the confirmation of its judgement and that it is not 
abrogated is the Book, the Sunna and consensus. Al-Muzani claims that it is 
abrogated, but that is rejected. As for its evidence in the Book, it is the words of 
the Almighty, "When you are with them E" (4:102) In the Sunna, part of it is what 
Yazid ibn Ruman related with his isnad that a group prayed with the Prophet 
while a group faced the enemy. He prayed one rak'at with them and then 
remained standing and they led themselves. Then they went and faced the 
enemy and the other group came and he led them in the remaining rak'at and 
then remained sitting and they led themselves. Then he said the salam with 
them. As for consensus, a group of the Companions prayed it after the death of 
the Prophet , including 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, Abu Hurayra, and Abu Musa, and none 
of the Companions objected to it. It was done on journeys and while resident, 
singly and in groups. ] 

16.2. When it is done on a journey 

The fear prayer is done when travelling if there is fear of trouble from an 
enemy. 

[The fear prayer is done when the Muslims fear the enemy, i.e. they believe or 
think that there is harm from the enemy. What is meant are the unbelievers 
because fighting them allowed, and there is an analogy made to include revels.] 

16.2a. Beginning the Fear Prayer 

The imam steps forward with one group leaving the other group to face the 
enemy. 

[As in al-Mukhtasar, whether the enemy is in qibla or not. It is like that as 
opposed to Imam Ahmad who said that if the enemy is in the direction of the 
qibla, they all pray with the Imam without any division since they see the enemy. 
It is not a precondition that the two groups be equally divided as opposed to the 
one who makes that a precondition. The sound version is that each group should 



have power to resist the enemy. If the enemy can be resisted by half, they are 
divided in two halves. If they can be resisted with a third, he prays with a third the 
first rak'at, and with two-thirds in the second. According to the Imam he informs 
people how it will be done they begin the prayer to avoid confusions since most 
people are not familiar with it.] 

16.2b.The first group 

He prays one rak'a with this group and then remains standing while they 
pray a second ral<'a by themselves. They then say the salam and go and 
stand where their companions were standing. 

[He leads the group in prayer and remains on his own and then they leave him. If 
that happens deliberately before he is on his own, then their prayer is invalid. 
When he is on his own, he can chose between standing between recitation, 
supplication or silence. Then they pray a rak'at on their own, say the salam and 
go to replace the second group in facing the enemy.] 

16.2c. The second group 

This second group then come and do the takbir al-ihram. The imam prays 
his second rak'a with them and then does the tashahhud and says the 
salam whereupon they pray their second rak'a and finish their prayer. 

[Then the second group say the ihram and stand behind the Imam who prays the 
second rak'at. The Imam says the tashahhud and salam in the well-known 
position. A counter view it is that he does not say the salam, but indicates to the 
second group to stand for the second rak'at which they owe and pray it, and he 
says the salam for it. So they catch the salam with him as the first group caught 
the ihram. The well-known position is that the Imam says the salam and does not 
wait for the second group who pray with him one rak'at and left the Imam. They 
make up the rak'at they missed with him and finish.] 

16.2d. The case of Maghrib 

This is what is done for all the fard prayers except Maghrib when the imam 
prays two rak'as with the first group and one with the second. 

[In Maghrib, the Imam prays two rak'ats and says the tashahhud. After he has 
said the tashahhud, he stands and remains so according to the well-known 
position and indicates to the first group to stand. Then they stand and complete 
their prayer on their own. They say the tashahhud and the salam and leave and 
take the place of their companions. Then the second group come and say the 
ihram behind him and he leads them in praying a rak'at and then says the 
tashahhud and salam. Then they finish the two rak'ats they missed with the 
Fatiha and sura and then they go. This description which the shaykh mentions is 
the well-known one from the position of Malik, and he considers it sound that the 
Prophet did it. 



It was two preconditions: tiie first is tiiat tiie figiiting is permitted, i.e allowed, and 
it includes the obligatory, like fighting the people of shirk and rebellion, and the 
permitted, like fighting those who desire property and that those who pray with 
Imam can leave. If the enemy is such that they cannot resist the ambush, then 
the second is not permitted when the fear ends in the course of the prayer. They 
complete it with the quality of security. If there is security after the prayer, it is not 
repeated. This is the description of the fear prayer when travelling. ] 

16.3. When it is done while Resident 

16.3a.When there is danger 

If an imam is leading the prayer in a situation of great danger for a group of 
people who are not travelling, he prays two rak'as with each group for 
Dhuhr, 'Asr, and 'lsha. 

[When they are resident, the Imam can lead them in the fear prayer. The 
expression of al-Jallab is clearer than this: "When there is fear in the resident 
prayer, it is not permitted to shorten the prayer, but it is permitted to divide the 
people. So the Imam leads one of the two groups in two rak'ats and sits and does 
the tashahhud and then indicates them to stand to complete it. It is said that he 
stands when he finishes his tashahhud and waits for them to finish and go and 
the others to come, standing, silent or making supplication, not reciting. Then he 
prays the remaining two rak'ats with the second group. Then he says the salam 
and they finishes what they misses after the salam, It is said that he waits for 
them to make up what they missed and then says the salam, and they say the 
salam with his salam, but the first is the well-known.] 

16.3b. The adhan and iqama 

The adhan and the iqama are done for each prayer. 

[Travelling and when resident in a group. This is because every prayer is an 
obligation absolutely in the journey, and when resident. ] 

16.4. The Fear Prayer done alone 

If the situation is too dangerous for even this, then everyone should pray 
individually as best they can, either on foot or horseback, walking or 
running, and whether facing the qibla or not. 

[If it is too dangerous for a group prayer, then they pray individually as best they 
can in ruku' and prostration. If they cannot do that, they use gestures to indicate 
prostration lower than bowing. They can be on foot or mounted on horses or 
camels, walking or running, facing qibla or not. Then they do not have to repeat it 
when they are safe, wither in the time or after it. The basis for what he mentioned 
is the words of Allah Almighty, "If you fear an enemy, then pray on foot or 
riding," (2:239) and His words, "Remember Allah standing and sitting and lying 



on your sides. When you are safe again do tiie prayer in tiie normal way." (4:103) 
So Allaii Almighty commands that you pray the prayer in its time according to the 
situation. In the Muwatta', Ibn 'Umar said, "When fear is intense, then pray, 
standing, and on foot or riding, facing qibla or not." Nafi' said, "I do not think 
'Abdullah mentioned that except from the Messenger of Allah."] 

NOTE: It is permitted in a state of intense fear to walk a lot and to rush, which is 
to move the foot, jab with the spear, and shoot the arrow and speech, even if it is 
a lot if he needs to do that in what is connected to them, like warning someone 
about someone who is aiming at him, telling him to kill him, glorification and 
boasting when shooting, or rajaz portry if he prepares that to weaken the enemy. 
Otherwise there is no need for it. 



Chapter Seventeen: On the two 'ld prayers and the 

takbirs on the days of Mina 

[This is Fitr and Adiia. He clarifies tiie time for going out to tiiem and iiow tiiey 
are done, and clarifies the path by which one returns from them and what he 
does and what he says when he goes out to them. He also explains the takbirs in 
the days of Mina and the time in which the takbir occurs on the days of Mina and 
clarifies what it is recommended to do on the day of the 'ld. He begins with their 
judgement] 

17.1 Its judgement 

Praying the two 'id prayers is an obligatory sunna. 

[What is meant is that both of them are confirmed sunnas. So it is a confirmed 
sunna and is an individual sunna in respect of the one obliges to go to Jumu'a: a 
legally responsible free man, etc. It is not sunna for a slave, child, madman, 
women or traveller. The traveller is the one who is more than three miles outside 
the land of Jumu'a, but it is recommended for the one who is not commanded to 
it to pray it. So it is desirable for the slave, woman, child and the one a parsang 
outside the land of Jumu'a although there is an exception for the hajji traveller at 
Mina. They are not commanded to establish it nor is it desirable or sunna 
because the standing at the Mash'ar takes the place of his praying Jumu'a. As for 
the people of Mina, their praying for it in a group is a blameworthy innovation. 
There is no harm in a man praying it for himself. It is recommended for someone 
who misses the 'ld prayer with the Imam to pray it alone. If a woman goes to it, 
she does not wear clothes meant to attract people's attention nor does she put 
on perfume out of fear of sedition, i.e. doing that is unlawful is the fear is 
probable, and it is disliked if it is uncertain. The old woman and others are equal 
in this. ] 

17.2. How to do the prayer 

17. 2a. The time of setting out 

The imam and the people should leave for the prayer early in the morning 
so that by the time they arrive at the prayer place the time for the prayer 
has come. 

[The time for setting out for the 'id prayer for the Imam and people is after sunrise 
so when they reach the place of prayer, it is time for the prayer. This is for the 
one whose house is near. As for the one whose house is far, he leaves before 
that so that he can catch the prayer with the Imam. This is the clarification of the 
time of setting out, not the time of the prayer which he mentions: when he 
arrives, it is the time of the prayer. 

Its time is when the sun is the height of one or two Arab spears, which is 12 



spans, by the medium span. This is is relation to what the eye sees. In actual 
terms, it is when the sun has traverses the distance which only Allah knows. It is 
recommended to go out for it to the place of prayer except with an excuse. 
Makka and other places are the same in that. Imam Malik said that the people of 
Makka prayed in the Masjid al-Haram, i.e. in sight of the Ka'ba. It is an act of 
worship lacking elsewhere. It is reported that every day 120 mercies descend on 
this House, 60 for those doing tawaf, 40 for those praying, and 20 for those 
looking at it. 

It is recommended to walk when going to the 'id prayers rather than returning 
beause he has finished an act of nearness. It is recommended to eat before 
going to the prayer on the 'ld al-Fitr but not the 'ld al-Adha.] 

17.2b. No adhan or iqama 

There is no adhan or iqama for the 'ld prayers. 

[In the well-known position there is no call for the prayer to gather based on what 
is found in Muslim from 'Ata'. Jabir reported that there is no adhan on the Day of 
Fitr before the Imam goes out nor after he goes out and there is no iqama or call 
in the mosque of the prayer and nothing is done to announce the prayer, like 
beating a drum, for instance. When there time comes, there is no adhan or iqama 
or call. The Imam simply begins the prayer.] 

17.2c. Two rai^'ats recited outloud 

The imam leads the prayer in two rak'as, reciting outloud in each of them. 

[He leads the people by reaching the place of prayer or the mosque after the 
nafila when the people are gathered. He prays two rak'ats based on what is in 
the two Sahih collections that the Prophet prayed it as two rak'ats. It was like that 
with the khalifs after them.There is no disagreement that he recites outloud.] 

17.2d. What is recited 

In both he recites the Fatiha and a sura such as Surat al-A'la (87) or Surat 
ash-Shams {9^). 

[According to what is in the Muwatta' and Muslim the Messenger of Allah used to 
recite Qaf {87) and al-Qamar (54) in Adha and Fitr. ] 

17.2e. The takbirs 

In the first rak'a he says seven takbirs including the takbir al-ihram. In the 
second he says five takbirs not including the takbir for standing up from 
sajda. 

[He does not raise his hands in any takbir, either in the first or second except the 
takbir al-lhram in the well-known position. It is reported from Malik that he 



recommended it in every takbir. Tiie takbirs are connected to eacii otiier except 
for tiie amount of tiie takbir of tiios following. It is desirable for him to separate 
them by that amount. If the Imam says the takbir more than seven in the first or 
more than five in the second, the follower does not follow him, even if that is the 
school of the imam. He says the takbir before recitation, even if the school of the 
Imam is to delay, as the literal evidence of the people of the School indicates. If 
the Imam forgets a takbir of the 'id prayer, he goes back as long as he has not 
moved into ruku'. When he places his hands on his knees, he does not go back. 
If he goes back, some of them deduce that it is not invalid and others deduce that 
it is invalid. The reason for that is he returns from a fard to a sunna. 

If he places his hands on his knees having missed a takbir inadvertantly, he 
continues and prostrates before the salam. Anyone who comes after the Imam 
has finished the takbirs and finds him reciting, says that the takbir in the well- 
known position as opposed to Ibn Wahb. He said it is because he becomes 
someone who is making up in the judgement of the Imam. The opinion of the one 
with the well-known position is that he is not making up by the insignificance of 
the matter. 

It is like that when he catches of the takbirs. He says the takbir with him for what 
he caught of it and then completes what remains of the Imam beginning the 
recitation. He does not say that takbir for what he has missed in the takbirs of the 
Imam. If he finds him in the ruku', he says the takbir al-ihram and owes nothing. If 
he catches the recitation in the second rak'at, he says five takbirs since the takbir 
of standing is cancelled for him. When he makes up the first, he says the takbir 
seven times counting the takbir of standing in them since he missed the takbir al- 
ihram.] 

17.2f. Tashahhud 

There are two sajdas in each rak'a and the prayer is completed with the 
tashahhud followed the salam. 

[After the two prostrations comes the tashahhud, i.e. the prayer on the Prophet 
and supplication. He includes all of it. There is the salam after the tashahhud.] 

17.2g.The khutba 

The imam then gets up onto the minbar and gives a khutba. He sits before 
it begins and again in the middle. 

[After finishing the salam, the Imam goes up the minbar. So the khutba is after 
the prayer. The khutba of the 'id is not like that of Jumu'a in respect to time. This 
is after the prayer and the other is before the prayer. Nor in respect of beginning. 
This begins with takbir and that with praise and the prayer on the Prophet. It is 
like it inasmuch as they are both in Arabic and outloud: that is necessary in both. 
The text of the Mukhtasar states that it is recommended that the khutba be after 
the prayer based on what is in the Sahih that the Prophet used to begin with the 
prayer before the khutba and this was the action of the Rightly-guided khalifs 



after him. He sits at tiie beginning and middle of it because tiiey are two kiiutbas 
witiiin tiie wiiole khutba according to the judgements of the 'id and what is 
prescribed it in is obligatory and recommended.] 

17.2h After the khutba 

When it is finished he leaves. 

[The Imam then leaves without sitting down after he finishes the khutba if he 
wishes. He can stay here he he is. It is disliked for him and those following him to 
do nafila before it and after it if it is done in the desert based on what is in the two 
Sahih collections that the Messenger of Allah went out on the Day of al-Adha and 
prayed two rak'ats without not praying before or after them. If it is performed in a 
mosque, it is not disliked either for him or those following to do nafila before or 
after it according to Ibn al-Qasim because the hadith was described the desert.] 

17.2i. How to return home 

It is recommended for him to return by a different route from the one he 
came by and this applies to everyone else as well. 

[The Imam should return by a different route since it is affirmed that the Prophet 
used to do that. This is true for people because they are the same in this. As the 
Imam should return by a different route, so those who follow do so since the 
wisdom applies to all.] 

17.3. On'ldal-Adha 

If it is the 'ld al-Ad-ha (sacrifice) the imam should bring his sacrificial 
animal to the prayer-place and slaughter it there so that everyone else can 
slaughter their animals after him. 

[When the Imam goes to the' id prayer on the Day of Sacrifice, he should bring 
his animal to the prayer-place and slaughter it so that people will know and they 
can go and slaughter after him since they are not be permitted to slaughter 
before him. If someone slaughers before him, it is agreed that he must repeat it. 
If the Imam does not bring his animal to the prayer-place, they slaughter after he 
returns to his home and that it enough for them, even if they err and actually 
slaugher before him.] 

17.4 DhJkr on the Way to the Prayer 

On both the 'ld al-Fitr and the 'ld al-Adha the imam should do dhikr Allah 
outloud from the time he leaves his house until he arrives at the prayer- 
place. Everyone else does the same continuing until the arrival of the imam 
when they stop. 

[It is recommended for the Imam or others to say the takbir when they leave the 
house. It is understood from his words that he does not say the takbir before he 



leaves. It is the well-known position. There is the position that the beignning of 
the time of takbir begins from sunset on the night of the 'ld. That is for the 'ld al- 
Fitr and 'ld al-Adha. Abu Hanifa said that he does not say the takbir for the 'ld al- 
Fitr. His evidence is what ad-Daraqutni related that the Prophet used to say the 
takbir of the Day of Fitr when he left his house until he comes to prayer place. 
That was the action of the people of Madina as opposed to the Salaf. It is clear 
that the words of the Shaykh that he says the takbir whether he leaves before or 
after sunrise. It is stated by Malik in al-Mabsut. Some of them transmit that that 
which Malik says in al-Mabsut is that the takbir is from the time of leaving the 
Subh prayer. Ibn 'Abdu's-Salam, who has most appropriate position, said that 
that especially applies to Adha to achieve resemblance with the people of the 
Mash'ar. This takbir is outloud according to most scholars so that he hears 
himself as do those near him and a little beyond that. Al-Qarafi said that the 
Messenger of Allah went out on the Day of Fitr and Adha, raising his voice in the 
takbir and that continued to be the action of the Salaf. When he reaches the 
prayer-place, that is the end of the takbir of the Imam. 

What is meant by the people doing it is that they do the same as the Imam in 
beginning the takbir and its description. In the end, they differ from him because 
they stop the takbir when he reaches its place.] 

17.4a. When the Imam says that takbir in the l<hutba 

Every time the imam says the tal<bir during his l<hutba everyone else 
should repeat it to themselves. Otherwise they should remain silent and 
pay attention. 

[Silently. According to the School, a group of the Companions did that. They are 
silent for other than the takbir according to Malik in the transmission of Ibn al- 
Qasim because they must listen and it resembles Jumu'a.] 

17.5 Saylng "Allahu akbar" on the Days of Mina 

17. 5a. Takbirs after the prayers 

During the 'days of sacrifice' you should do the takbir straight after each 
fard prayer starting with Dhuhr on the day on the 'id and ending with Subh 
on the fourth day, this being the last of the days of Mina. 

[It is recommended for the people to say the takbirs after the fard prayers before 
the tasbih, praise and takbirs. It is evident from his words that the Imam, the 
followers, and the one on his own, male and female, are all equal in that. He 
mentions the fard rather than the nafila, and the present rather than the missed 
prayer. The takbirs begin at Dhuhr and end with Subh on the fourth day after the 
sacrifice.] 

17.5b. Form of takbir 

The form of this takbir which is done after the prayers is: 'Allahu akbar, 



Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar.' 

If you do tahlil and tahmid as well that is good. If you want to do that you 
say, 

'Allahu akbar Allahu akbar la ilaha illa'llahu wallahu akbar Allahu akbar 
wa lillahi'l-hamd.' 

This has been related from Malik. Both the first formula and the fuller 
version are equally acceptable. 

[There are two descriptions of it. One is: 'Allaiiu akbar, Allahu akbar, Allahu 
akbar,' and the second is recommended and given. If you wish, you can combine 
them. This is related from Malik via Ibn 'Abdu'l-Hakam. Ibn al-Jallab 
recommended it. The first is also related from 'Ali and 'lyad stated that it is well- 
known. Both are permitted because it is not established that the Prophet 
specified either of these two. When the command to do dhikr when leaving for 
the 'id prayer was mentioned, what is meant by is the dhikr commanded in the 
words of the Almighty: "Mention Allah's name on particular days," (22:28) and His 
words, "Remember Allah on the designated days" (2:203) is appropriate to 
mention on these days. That is clarified when he says:] 

17.5C. "Particular days" 

The 'particular days' [These are mentioned in the Our'an.] are the three 
days of sacrifice. The designated days' are the days of Mina, namely the 
three days after the 'id. 

[The designated are for the stoning mentioned in the ayat. They are the second 
and third days of the Day of Sacrifice. The first of the day of sacrifice is particular 
and not designated. The fourth is designated and not particular. The two middle 
days are both particular and designated.] 

17.6. Preparlng for the prayer 

17. 6a. A ghusl 

It is good to do ghusl for both the 'ids but it is not necessary 

[It is recommended to have a ghusl, in the same form as the ghusl for janaba. It 
is asked of every one with discrimination, even if not legally responsible nor 
intending to go to the prayer. It is not necessary as sunna. The best time is after 
the Subh prayer. It is enough if he washes before Fajr.] 

17.6b. Perfume and best clothes 

and it is recommended to use perfume and to wear your best clothes. 

[Perfume is recommended for men whether or not they go to the prayer. If 



women go to the prayer, it is not permitted for tiiem to use perfume, and tiiere is 
no difference between old woman and otiiers. Tiiere is no iiarm is tiiey do not go 
out. It is recommended for men to wear their best clothes, which means new, 
even if they are black. All the evidence for that is in the sunna. In the hadith of 
Ibn 'Abbas, "The Prophet used to bathe on the Day of Fitr and Adha and put on 
perfume and encouraged that and he ordered us when we went to the place of 
prayer to wear the best clothes we had." 



Chapter Eighteen: On the eclipse prayer 

[Clarification of its general description in the solar and lunar eclipses. The terms 
kusuf and khusuf are synonyms and both used for the sun and moon. It is said 
that there is a difference between them: kusuf is when the light changes and 
khusuf\s when the light goes entirely. The moon loses all its light, but the sun is 
not like that, and so khusuf is used of the moon and kusuf of the sun. Their 
evidence is in the Sunna where the Prophet said, "The sun and moon are not 
eclipsed for the death or life of anyone. When you see that, remember Allah." 
One variant has, "then pray." The eclipse prayer is sunna.] 

18.1 The Solar Eclipse 

18.1a. Its judgement 

The eclipse prayer is an obligatory sunna whenever there is an eclipse of 
the sun. 

[It is agreed that the Solar Eclipse prayer is a confirmed sunna. There is 
disaagreement about the lunar eclipse. The two famous positions are that the 
lunar eclipse prayer is recommened as al-Ujhuri stated. The solar eclipse prayer 
is done in a group or singly. It is better in a group.] 

18.1b. How it is done: first recitation 

The imam goes to the mosque and begins to lead the people in prayer 
without either an adhan or an iqama. He recites silently a very long piece of 
Our'an such as Surat al-Baqara. Then he goes into ruku' for the same 
amount of time. Then he stands upright again saying 'sami'a llahu liman 
hamidah.' 

[When the sun is eclipsed, wholly or partly, the Imam goes to the mosque, and 
when he arrives, he leads the people in prayer. There is no precondition of 
number in it, like Jumu'a. There is no adhan or iqama or statement, "The prayer 
is gathered" based on what is transmitted of the action of the Prophet. He says 
the takbir to begin as in all prayers. Then he begins to recite silently the Fatiha 
and then a long bit of Our'an because the Prophet did that. It is defined as being 
like Surat al-Baqara. The School is that it is recommended to recite al-Baqara in 
the first standing of the first rak'at after the Fatiha. Opposite is the School that 
"like" indicates that it is desirable and this sura is not particular. What it is meant 
is the length. Then he does ruku' for the same length of time, and then comes up. 
The Imam says "Allah hears whover praises Him" and the follower says "Our 
Lord, and praise is Yours."] 

18.1C. How it is done: second recitation 

Then he recites another piece of Our'an slightly shorter than the first. Then 
he goes into ruku' again for the same amount of time as he spent reciting. 



Then he once more stands upright saying, 'sami'a llahu liman hamidah.' 

[Then, in the well-known position, he recites the Fatiha. which differs from Ibn 
Maslama who says that he does not recite. The reason for that is that it is two 
rak'ats and the Fatiha is not repeated twice in the same rak'at. He recites less 
than he did in the first standing. It is recommended that it be Ali 'lmran. In his 
second ruku' he says the tasbhih and does not recite or make supplication.] 

18.1C. How it is done: two sajdas 

Then he does two full sajdas. 

[He does them with tranquillity. There are two positions about whether they are 
long like the ruku'. The most well-known is the first. The second is in the 
Mukhtasar o\ Ibn 'Abdu'l-Hakam. It seems probable.] 

18.1d. How it is done: second rak'at 

After this he stands up again and recites another piece of Our'an slightly 
shorter than the previous one and then goes into ruku' for the same length 
of time. Then as before he stands upright again and recites one more 
slightly shorter piece of Our'an which is followed by ruku' for the same 
amount of time as the recitation. He stands back upright again and then 
does two sajdas as before. 

[He recites the Fatiha and then a shorter piece, and it is recommended that it be 
Surat an-Nisa'. Then after the third standing, he goes into ruku' in which he 
glorifies and does not recite or make supplication. Then he comes up and then 
recites the Fatiha in the well-known position and then a shorter sura than the 
third, and it is recommended that it be be Surat al-Ma'ida.] 

18.1e. How it is done: tashahhud 

Finally he says the tashahhud and then the salam. 

[This is the description which the shaykh mentioned. Al-Fakhani says it is our 
School and the school of the majority. Its evidence are sound explicit hadiths on 
this previous manner which our author described. Abu Hanifa say that he prays 
two rak'ats like other nafila prayers.] 

18.1f. Can be done at home 

If you like the prayer can be done in this way in your own house. 

[The eclipse prayer can be done at home when that does not lead to abandoning 
it in the group. If doing that leading to not doing in the group, then it is disliked to 
pray it at home. He then goes on to the lunar eclipse.] 

18.2 The Lunar Eclipse 



18.2a No group prayer 

If there is an eclipse of the moon there is no group prayer. 

[This is in tiie well-known position. It is transmitted from al-Qarafi that the 
prohibition is one of the nature of the haram. As for the group, Malik and Abu 
Hanifa forbid it because the Prophet did not gather a group for the lunar eclipse. 
Ashhab and al-Lakhmi allow it.] 

18.2b. How it is done 

When it happens people should pray individually, reciting outloud as for 
any other nafila prayer at night. 

[People pray in their own in their houses in the well-known position of the School. 
An opposite position is found in the report that in al-Majmu'a that Malik said that 
they pray individually in the mosque. Recitation is outloud as for other nafila, 
since it might be imagined that people pray in the form of the nafila without 
specific intention. It is possible that it has the form of of the solar eclipse. We 
read in at-Tahqiq, "The apparent meaning of the words of Malik is that it does not 
need a specific intention like other nafilas as opposed to the solar eclipse which 
needs a particular intention. What is desired is obtained by two rak'ats only 
although it is desirable to pray groups of two rak'ats until it is finished. It's time is 
the entire night. Its is not done when dawn comes.] 

18.3. The khutba after the prayer for the solar eclipse 

18. 3a. No formal khutba 

There is no formal khutba after the prayer for the eclipse of the sun 

[There is no khutba before or after the eclipse prayer because a group of the 
Companions transmitted the description of the Eclipse prayer and none of them 
mentioned that the Prophet gave a khutba in it. As for what is related from 'A'isha 
that the Prophet prayed the eclipse prayer and then went and addressed the 
people and praised and lauded Allah, it means that he spoke some words which 
contained the praise of Allah and the prayer on the Prophets and admonition as 
would be found in a khutba.] 

18.3b. Informal admonition 

but there is no harm in the imam taking the opportunity to admonish and 
remind people. 

[He reminds people about the calamities which happen in this world because of 
disobeying Allah. It differs from what is before it because the khutba has no 
meaning except this. It is not the particular form of the khutba. The Mukhtasar 
says that reminding is only recommended.] 



Chapter Nineteen: On the Rain Prayer 

[Clarification of tiie time wiien it is done, wliicli is in the early morning until the 
sun declines. He clarifies the place where it is done, which is the desert. Its 
name, istisqa' linguistically means to ask for drink and in the Shari'a it is to ask 
Allah for water beause of drought which has occured.] 

19.1 Its judgement 

The rain prayer is a sunna which is acted upon. 

[The Rain prayer is a sunna which it is confirmed should be prayed, and is not 
abandoned. This differs from Abu Hanifa who says it is not prescribed. The 
evidence for its being prescribed is what is in the two Satiiti collections: that the 
Prophet went out to the place of prayer and prayed for rain from Allah. He faced 
the qibla and reversed his cloak and prayed two rak'ats in which the recitation 
was outloud. There is no disagreement that the supplication is after changing the 
cloak and after facing the qibla and after the prayer.] 

19.2 Who performs it 

Thie imam goes out for tiie prayer 

[One variant has the "Imam and the people". It appears to be general, but that it 
not the case. They are divided into those who go out for it and those who do not 
go out for into three groups. One group go out to it by agreement: they are the 
legally responsible Muslims, even if they are slaves or women who normally go 
out and children with understanding. One group do not go out for it by 
agreement: young women and menstruating women. There is a group about 
whom there is disagreement: they are the children who do not understand, young 
women who are not tempting and the people of the dhimma. The well-known 
position for other than the people of the dhimma is that they do not go out. The 
well-known position for the people of the dhimma is that they go out with the 
people, not before or after them. They do not mix with the people, but are to one 
side. 

It is recommended that the Imam command the people to repent and avoid 
injustices. That is before they go to the place of prayer because sins are a cause 
for misfortunes. Allah Almighty says, "Whatever strikes you of an affliction is by 
what your hands earned." (42:30) The reason for denying the answer, as has 
come in hadith was made clear by al-Fakhani when he says, "The dusty 
dishevelled slave stretches out his hands to the heaven, 'O Lord, O Lord' while 
his food is haram, his clothing is haram and he is nourished by the haram, so 
how can he be answered like that?" He commanded them to give sadaqa and 
charity. It is recommended to fast thee days before the rain prayer and they go 
out in ragged clothes and humility with transquility and gravity. The well-known 
position is that the Imam says the takbir when they go out to it.] 



19.3ltstime 

in the early morning as for the 'id prayers. 

[It is probable that the resemblance is in the prayer-place, i.e. the Imam goes out 
to the prayer place as he goes out for the 'id, i,e. for other than the people of 
Makka, They pray for rain in the Masjid al-Haram as they pray in it. Then he 
says, "morning" to clarify the time of going out. ] 

19.4. How it is done 

19.4a Two rak'ats 

He leads the people in two rak'as 

[When the Imam reaches the prayer-place, he leads the people in only two 
rak'ats by agreement of those who say that it is prescribed. It is permitted to do 
nafila before and after it. Ibn Habib transmitted that that it disliked from Ibn Wahb 
by analogy with the 'id prayer. The one who says that it is permitted distinguishes 
the rain prayer as being intended to seek nearness by good actions to remove 
punishment, which is not like the 'ld prayer.] 

19.4b. Recitation 

in which the recitation is outloud. He recites Surat al-A'la in the first rak'a 
and Surat ash-Shams In the second. He does two sajdas and one ruku' in 
each rak'a and finishes with the tashahhud and the salam. 

[It is agreed that the Prophet recited outloud in them. In the first rak'at he recites 
the Fatiha and Al-A'la (87) in it, and the like of that in the second with the Fatiha 
and ash-Shams (91). These two suras are mentioned because the Prophet 
recited them in it. There are two prostrations in each rak'at. There is one ruku' is 
avoid being like the eclipse prayer. When he finishes the final prostration, he 
does the tashahhud and salam.] 

19.5. Thekhutba 

He then turns and faces the people. When everyone is quiet he stands and, 
leaning on a bow-shaft or staff, gives two khutbas sitting down between 
them. 

[It is desirable while he is sitting on the earth. He does not ascend a minbar 
because this situation demands humility. When they are still in their places, it is 
recommended that he stand and begin to speak. The two khutbas in the Rain 
Prayer resembles that on the two 'ids in that they are after the prayer and he sits 
in them at the beginning and second. That is what the Prophet did it.] 

19.6. Changing the cloak 



When he finishes he faces the qibla and then turns his cloal< inside out, 
putting what was on his right shoulder on his left shoulder and vice versa. 
He does not turn it upside down. Everyone else does the same except that 
he is standing and they remain seated. 

[When he finishes the khutba, he faces the qibla where he is and changes his 
cloak, for luck, to indicate the change of their state from hardship to ease. This is 
what the Prophet did. He does not turn his cloak upside down. Sanad said that 
because that is not recorded from him nor from anyone after him. The description 
of turning is to put the lower edge on the top and the top on the bottom, based on 
what is in that of bad luck in respect for His words, "We turned the place 
completely upside down." (15:74) As for changing what is on the right to the left, 
it is only possible by turning it inside out. Then the men but not the women do the 
like of that of the Imam, if they have cloaks and change their cloaks while seated. 
The Imam changes it while standing.] 

19.7Supplication 

Then, while like this, the imam makes du'a' after which he and everyone 
else leave. 

[This is done while he is standing facing qibla. It is done outloud and the 
supplication is of medium length, neither long nor short. Part of the Prophet's 
supplication was, "O Allah, give water to Your slaves and animals and spread 
your mercy and give life to your dead land." It is recommended for the one who is 
near to the Imam to say "Amen" after his supplication and to raise his hands with 
the palms towards the earth, looking at the sky. Then according to the well- 
known position they leave. It is said that he returns facing the people, reminding 
them and supplicating, and they say Amen to his supplication and then go.] 

19.7a Notakbirs 

There are no special takbirs in this prayer or in the eclipse prayer. There is 
just the takbir al-ihram and the normal takbirs for going into ruku' and for 
going into sujud and coming back out of it. There is no adhan or iqama for 
the rain prayer. 

[There is no takbir in the khutba. Takbir is replaced with asking forgiveness. He 
says, "I ask the forgiveness of Allah the Immense. There is no god but Him, the 
Living, the Self-Subsistent, and I turn to Him." In the two khutbas, he often says, 
"Ask for the forgiveness of Your Lord. He is Forgiving and will send the rain on 
you in torrents, support you with wealth and sons, appoint gardens for you, and 
make rivers flow for you."] 



Chapter Twenty: On what to do when someone is at 

the point of death and on washing the dead, 

shrouding them, embalming them, carrying them 

and burying them 

20.1 Attendance at death 

20. 1a. Turning the person towards qibla 

When someone is at the point of death, it is recommended to turn them so 
that they face qibla and to close their eyes after they have died. 

[When the signs of death appear in a person and it is certain that he will die, he is 
turned: that is when the eyes become fixed. It is disliked to do that before. What 
is meant by facing qibla is to put him on his right side with his chest towards the 
qibla. It is said that that at that point one says, "In the name of Allah and on the 
sunna of the Messenger of Allah and peace be upon the Messengers and praise 
belongs to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. Let those who work, work for the like of 
this (i.e. death) The like of this is not denied." It is also recommended to tie the 
jaw with a bandage, bind the limbs gently, lift him from the earth, cover him with a 
cloth, place something heavy on his abdomen like a sword, and to recount the 
shahada to him.] 

20.1 b. Saying the shahada 

The shahada should be said in the presence of the dying person so they 
will be reminded of it. 

[This is done before he actually dies. The previous things are for the person who 
has died. This instruction is that someone sitting with his says so that he can 
hear, "La ilaha illa'llah. Muhammadun rasulullah."Jh\s is done when the signs of 
death appear. He is taught so that he will remember them in his mind and die 
acknowledging them in his consciousness. When the dying person says them, 
they are not repeated to him unless he is speaking a foreign language and then 
they are repeated to him so that that will be the last of his words and he will enter 
the Garden by what is related: "If the last words of a person are 'la ilaha illa'llah,' 
he will enter the Garden." One does not say, "Say: 'la ilaha illa'llah' because he 
might be in a conflict with Shaytan who says, 'Die on the deen of the Jews or 
Ghristians,' and he says 'No,' and then people will have a bad opinion of him.] 

20.1 c. Purity of the body 

It is better than the body and what it is on are free of impurity. It is better 
that menstruating women or anyone in a state of janaba do not come near 
someone who is dying. 

[It is desirable that what is on and under the body and the body itself be pure, if 



that is possible. Tiie reason is tiiat tiie angels will be present with him. It is 
recommended that menstruating women or those in janaba do not come near the 
dying person because the Prophet said that the angels do not enter a house in 
which there is a menstruating woman or someone in janaba. It is desirable that 
no dogs or images or anything that angels dislike be brought near him.] 

20.1 d. Reading Sura Yasin 

Some of the 'ulama' recommend reading Surat Yasin at the bedside of the 
dying person although according to Malik this was not the usual practice. 

['Some' means Ibn Habib. It is read at his head or feet or elsewhere. Surat Yasin 
is read because it is related that the Prophet said, "There is no one who dies who 
has Surat Yasin read at his head but that Allah makes it easy for him." This 
recitation is not mentioned by Malik. He considers it disliked, and that Yasin is 
not singled out. He considers it disliked to recite Yasin or any other sura when a 
person is dying, after his death or at his grave. It is also disliked to instruct him 
after he has been placed in the grave. ] 

[Khalil says it is disliked to recite Our'an beside a dying person and to recite it 
beside the dead person or at his burial. It is also disliked to burn aromatic 
substances.] 

20. 1e Weeping 

There is no harm in weeping when someone dies although self-control and 
patient endurance are better if that is possible. 

[There is no harm in weeping when the person is dying or after his death. Self- 
control in what has happened is good and better if possible. He is helped in that 
by looking at the reward for afflictions in ayats and hadiths which are related 
about that. One is them is the words of the Almighty, "But give good news to the 
steadfast: those who, when disaster strikes them, say, 'We belong to Allah and 
will return to Him.' Those are the ones who will have blessings and mercy from 
their Lord." (2:155-156) The blessings and mercy of Allah are not equal to any of 
the things connected to this world. In hadith: "Whoever says that and says with it, 
'O Allah, reward me for my loss and replace it with better than it,' Allah will do 
thatforhim."] 

20. 1f. Wailing is forbidden 

and crying out and wailing are forbidden. 

[Based on the words of the Prophet, "The one beats his cheek and tears his 
garments and calls out with the call of the Jahiiiyya is not one of us." In a variant 
of Muslim, "When the wailer does not repent before she dies, she will be raised 
up on the Day of Rising with trousers of pitch and a shirt of mange.] 

20.2 Washing the body 



20. 2a. Number of times 

There is no fixed limit to the number of times you wash a dead body. The 
body should be thoroughly cleaned and the number of times it is washed 
should be odd. 

[Except for the martyr in battle according to IVIalik, but what is desired is that the 
body be clear and that it be washed an odd number of times. The reply is that the 
limit is that which should not be exceeded or decreased, and the odd is three, 
five or seven. In short, the cleaning defined by the number three does not have 
the limitation of a particular number since it is known that the odd contains three, 
five, etc. It is recommended that the washing be odd except not only one time, 
which is not desirable. The principle of the sunna washing is based on what is 
well-known and it does not need an intention. It is also said that it is obligatory 
and confirmed, i.e. on society as a whole, which is preferred, and it is done as an 
act of worship, not for cleanness in the well-known position. It is is said that it is 
for cleanness. It is clear that the result of the dispute is that when a Muslim man 
dies, and there is no Muslim with him but there is a dhimmi with him, according to 
the statement that it is worship, the dhimmi does not wash him because he is not 
one of the people of worship. According to the second one, that it is for 
cleanness, the dhimmi washes him.] 

20. 2b. What is used for washing 

It should be washed with water and sidr (lote tree leaves) and in the last 
washing camphor should be added to the water. 

[Al-Fakhani says that it means that all of the scholars say that crushed lote 
leaves should be dissolved in water and then the body of the corpse rubbed with 
it. It is like that in every washing except the first. In it there must be clear water 
for the obligatory ghusl. In the last washing it is recommended to add camphor 
because the Prophet commanded that if there is no camphor, then another 
perfume takes its place. When there is no lote, then saltwort and the like is used 
instead.] 

20. 2c. Covering the private parts 

During the washing the body's private parts should be kept covered. 

[When the dead person is stripped to be washed, the private parts should be 
covered. What al-Lakhmi understands from the Mudawwana are the actual 
private parts in particular. The accepted position is that it is what is between the 
waist and the knees, as is transmitted from Ibn Habib. Al-Baji transmitted from 
Ashhab that the chest and face are covered, fearing change which could give 
rise to bad opinion.] 

20. 2d. Cutting nails and hair 

The nails should not be cut nor should the hair be shaved off. 



[If it is done, it is disliked to do this and they are included with him in his shroud.] 

20. 2e. Squeezing the stomach 

The stomach should be gently squeezed. 

[It is recommended to do this before washing if it is needs. It is done gently lest 
any thing of it come out and soil the shroud.] 

20.2f. Wudu' 

It is good if wudu' is done for the dead person although this is not 
obligatory. 

[It is recommended and does not require an intention because he is doing it for 
someone else. It is not obligatory, which indicates that there are two positions in 
the question. It indicated the first when he say it is good, and he rejected the 
second by saying that it is not obligatory, even if something impure issues from 
him after washing. It is removed and he is not washed again nor is wudu' done 
for him. Only the place is washed.] 

20. 2g. Position of the corpse 

It is better if the body is turned on its side for washing although it is 
acceptable to wash it in a sitting position. 

[It is better than sitting it up because it is easier to clean and kinder to the corpse. 
He first puts him on his left side and then washes the right side, and then turns 
him on the right side and washes the left side. This is recommended although 
sitting is allowed. 'Abdu'l-Wahhab prefers it because it he more able to wash 
throroughly.] 

20. 2h. It is good for a spouse to wash 

It is good for a husband or wife to wash their dead partner although it does 
not necessarily have to be them that do it. 

[There is no harm here if another is chosen. Either of the couple has priority in 
the washing of the one who has died over other relatives so that he is adjudged 
to be able to do it if the relatives dispute about it. The basis for it is what is 
mentioned about 'Ali washing Fatima and Abu Bakr being washed by his wife.] 

20.21. Who washes a woman without relatives or other women 

If a woman dies on a journey and there are no other women present nor 
any men of mahram status then a man should do tayammum for her, 
wiping her face and hands. 

[If a Muslim woman dies and there are no Muslim women or male relatives 



present, but there are unrelated men, a man does tayammum for her, wiping the 
hands only to the wrists because they are not part of 'ai/i/ra and so it is permitted 
to look at them without lust. Az-Zurqani said, "It is permitted for a unrelated man 
to wipe her when she is lifeless because of the rarity of pleasure here. The one 
who prays only does tayammum after finishing the tayammum of the corpse 
because it is the time of the prayer."] 

20. 2j. Who washes such a man 

Similarly if the dead person is a man and there are no other men present 
nor a woman of mahram status, then a woman should do tayammum for 
him, wiping his face and his hands and arms to the elbows. If there is a 
woman of mahram status present she should wash his body, keeping his 
'arwa covered. 

[When there is a woman who is a relative present, she washes him, covering the 
'awra according to one of two interpretations in the Mudawwana. It is sound 
because his body is not forbidden for them to see. So it is permitted for her to 
look at a male relative except for what is between the waist and knees. Touching 
is analogous with looking by necessity. The other interpretation is that his entire 
body is veiled.] 

20. 2k. When a woman's mahram is present 

If a woman has died and there is a man of mahram status present he 
should wash her through a cloth covering her whole body. 

[When there is no woman with her, a relative or in-law washes her according to 
what is in the Mudawwana. Ashhab says that he does not wash her, but performs 
tayammum. The form of washing is that water is poured on her and he does not 
touch her body with his hand either above or under the cloth.] 

20.3 Shrouding 

20. 3a Number 

It is recommended for the body to be shrouded in an odd number of 
lengths of cloth, either three, five or seven. Any waist-wrapper, shirt or 
turban that is put on the body is counted as one piece of cloth. The 
Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. was shrouded in three 
lengths of white sahuli cloth, each layer being well wrapped round him, 
may Allah bless him and grant him peace. 

[This is with the exception of the martyr in battle. He is silent about what is 
obligatory, which is a garment which covers the entire body. It is clear from his 
words that seven is recommended for both men and women. It is in al-Mukhtasar 
and it is what is accepted. Seven is recommended especially for woman, and 
more than five for a man is disliked. Since he feared that that would be limited to 
what is used to wrap the body, he removed the possible misconception by saying 



that that includes garments. Then he indicates the recommendation of the odd 
number based on the Prophet's example. "Sahuli" refers to a type of cotton which 
is washed or it refers to a town in Yemen.] 

20. 3b. Just a shirt and turban 

There is no harm in a dead man being dressed in a shirt and a turban. 

[No harm here means it is better to not to do it. There is a text in the Mukhtasar 
that it is recommended, i.e. each of them is recommended, not that it is one 
recommendation. The turban is recommended for a man, and one leaves the end 
of it an arm's length to put over his face. A woman has no turban. A head 
covering is put on her head and the end of it left to put on her face. The best 
shroud is white cotton or linen. But cotton is better because it is more concealing 
and because the Prophet was shrouded in it. It is disliked to use yellow or green 
scent and every colour except white. The place of dislike is when it is posssible 
to have white. Otherwise it is not. Shrouding, the perfume and preparing it is 
advanced before the debt - except for the pawn and bequest. However, if there is 
a pledge against the debt, it is permitted to the pledgee. The pledged debt is 
advanced over the cost of preparation.] 

20. 3c. Use of perfume 

The body should be perfumed, with the perfume being put between the 
layers of cloth that make up the shroud and also directly on the body and the 
places which touch the ground in sujud. 

[It is recommended to perfume the corpse with perfume which is not forbidden 
and is customary. It is recommended to dry the body with a clean rag before it is 
perfumed, and it is recommended that its clothes be fumigated an odd number of 
times, three, five, or seven and the like. Hanut, which is perfume like musk, 
amber or camphor is put between the shrouds, i.e on each layer except the top, 
and on the body, like the eyes, ears, nose, mouth and nostrils by spreading it on 
cotton and putting it on his eyes, ears, nose and orifices without putting it in, and 
also on the places of prostration: brow, neck, knees, hands and toes of the feet.] 

20.4 Marytrs, suicides and executed criminals 

20. 4a. Martyrs 

A shahid on the battlefield is not washed nor is the prayer done for him. He 
is buried in his clothes. 

[A martyr is anyone who dies by weapons in battle against the unbelievers when 
there is a battle. Similar to being killed by actual weapons is dying because of 
being trampled by a horse, falling from a camel, or attacking the enemy and 
falling into a well or falling from a precipice. The apparent meaning of his words 
is that he is not prayed over if he is killed by the enemy in the land of Islam. That 
is the well-known position. Opposite it is that he says if he is in the land of Islam, 



he is washed and prayed over because his degree is less than that of the martyr 
who has entered enemy territory. If he is carried live from the battle and then 
dies, the well-known position is that he washed and prayed over, even if the 
fighter is wounded when he is removed, unless he is on the point of death and 
does not eat or drink. This is the summary of the words of some of the 
commentaries of Khalil. But the School is that the one who is wounded is not 
washed whether he is removed unconscious or not, except the one who has 
fainted. 

As he is not washed or prayed over, he is buried his clothes with leather socks 
and a cap and a belt of little value and it is permitted, or a ring of little value. But 
not the armour and weapons: they are taken from him. He does not have 
anything else. If his clothes are not enough to cover him, they are increased so 
that he is will covered as obligatory. Similarly it is obligatory to shroud him when 
he is found naked. The martyr is not washed by the words of the Prophet, "Wrap 
them in their garments. The colour is the colour of blood and the scent is the 
scent of musk," meaning that with Allah the smell of blood is pleasing like the 
smell of musk. For that reason, he is not washed and the blood is not removed 
from him. He is not prayed over by what was said to Malik, "Do you convey that 
the Prophet prayed over Hamza and said 50 takbirs?" He replied, "No, and he 
did not pray over any of the martyrs." It was in the Muwatta' that the Prophet led 
the people in prayer over him as individuals and did not lead anyone in the 
prayer.'lyad said the sound position which the majority hold is that the prayer of 
the Prophet was a real prayer, not only supplication. It is said that what is meant 
by the prayer over him is supplication only. Al-Baji said its reason is that the 
Prophet was better than every martyr whose excellence dispenses with the 
prayer over him. The martyr cannot be washed since that would remove the 
blood which must remain because of its goodness and because it is a token of 
his martyrdom in the Next World. [ 

20.4b. Suicides 

If someone l<ills himself, the prayer is done for him. 

[This is whether it is suicide or an accident. His wrong action is his. The people of 
virtue pray over him when it is accidental, but not when it is deliberate. ] 

20. 4c. Those who have executed 

The prayer is also done for someone killed by the imam as a hadd 
punishment or because they have killed someone. The imam himself does 
not participate in the prayer. 

[When someone has been killed by obligation, as for abandoning the prayer on 
account laziness and the highwayman, and those who have to be stoned for 
sodomy or adultery, or whom the Imam has killed for a hadd or in retaliation, 
neither the Imam nor the people of virtue pray over him. The Imam and the 
people of virtue do not pray over him so that that will be a deterrent to others 



against doing tiie like of wiiat iie did wiien tiiey see tiie Imams and people of 
virtue refuse to pray over him.] 

20.5 Bringing the dead to the grave 

20.5a. No incense and wall<ing in front 

Incense should not be burned during funeral processions and it is better to 
walk in front of the bier. 

[Incense is not used because it involves fire and the Prophet forbade that. It is 
better for men to walk in front than to walk behind. If they ride, it is recommended 
for them to go behind the bier. The evidence for the first is what is related by the 
people of the Sunan from the hadith of Ibn 'Umar who said, "I saw the Messenger 
of Allah, Abu Bakr and Umar walk in front of the bier." The evidence for the 
second is what Abu Dawud related that the Prophet said, "The rider travels 
behind the funeral."] 

[Khalil: It should not be too slow. Women go at the very end. The bier should not 
be brought into the mosque. 

20.5b. The body is placed on its right side 

The body should be placed in the grave on its right side 

[It is recommended that the corpse be placed on its right side facing qibla 
because it is the noblest of positions. The right hand is extended over his body 
and the head put level with earth. Earth is put behind and in front of it so that it 
does not move. The binding of the shroud is undone. If he cannot be put on his 
right side, then he is put on his back with his face towards qibla. If that is not 
possible, then however is possible, If his direction shifts in the burial, as when it 
is put not to qibla or on the left side and not too long has passed, that is 
remedied and he is moved. A long time means when the burial is complete.] 

20.5C. Clay and straw placed over the corpse 

and slabs made of clay and straw should be laid over it. 

[After the dead person is placed in the grave, then bricks are put over him. That 
is based on the transmission that the Prophet made the grave of his son Ibrahim 
and put bricks on the grave. It is recommended to plug the gaps since he 
commanded that about his son.] 

20.5d. What is said 

When this is done you should say, "O Allah, our companion is now with 
You. He has left this world behind him and is in need of what is with You. O 
Allah, make his speech firm when he is questioned and do not test him in 
his grave beyond what he can bear. Grant that he may be in the company of 



the Prophet, Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. 

[When the corpse is in the grave or those present have buried him, and the 
bricks are in place then this is said. ] 

[Khalil says that those who are next to the grave throw in handfuls of earth) 

20.6 Monuments 

It is disliked to build anything on graves or to whitewash them. 

[It appears that this is absolute, but that is not the case. There are details about 
this. In short, what is disliked is when it is in wasteland or owed so that the 
people of corruption cannot resort to it nor is pride intended by it and so 
distinction is intended by it. It is also unlawful in waqf land absolutely, like al- 
Oarafa. He said in at-Tahqiq, "It is obligatory for the governor to command that it 
be demolished." Whitewashing is also disliked because it is found in Muslim that 
the Prophet forbade that the grave be whitewashed and that it be built on or sat 
on. ] 

[Khalil: the tumulus should not be raised more than one hand above the trench 
and should be shaped like a camel's back although some dislike this and say it 
should be flat. There should be no fence around the grave. A tombstone is 
permitted as a market or a piece of wood, but this must not have any writing with 
the name, date or death, qualities of the person, etc.] 

20.7 Burylng an unbelieving father 

A muslim should not wash his father if he is not a muslim nor should he 
put him in his grave unless he is afraid that his body will remain unburied 
in which case he should cover the body and then bury it. 

[Because washing is only done for the one over whom the prayer is said. An 
unbeliever is not prayed over and so there is no point in washing him. The 
prohibition is one of forbidding, and applies even more so to others than his 
father. Nor does he put him in his grave because his filial duty is removed with 
the death of his father. This is unless he fears that he will be left unburied. Then it 
is a duty to bury the body, and there is no difference between a unbeliever with 
whom we are at war and others. This does not only apply to the father, but the 
obligation is general, extending even to the stranger. He is not made to face qibla 
because he is not one of its people.] 

20.8 Niche in the grave 

According to the people of knowledge the lahd-type (niche) grave is better 
than the shaqq-type (a simple trench). A lahd-type grave is one in which, 
after you have dug the basic trench, you dig out a place for the body at the 
bottom of the side which faces qibla so that the body is protected by an 



overhang. This should be done provided that the earth is firm enough and 
will not crumble or cave in. This was how the grave of the Prophet was dug, 
may Allah bless him and grant him peace. 

[This is based on tiie tradition, "Tiie laiid is for us and tiie sliaqq for otiiers" and 
because Allaii Almighty chose it for His Prophet. If the ground is too soft or 
sandy, then the shaqq is better. 

[Khalil: Graves should not be too deep, not more than a cubit.] 



Chapter Twenty-One: On the Funeral Prayer and the Supplication 

for the Dead 

[Ibn 'Arabi says that the position of Khalil is that jinaza is the bier mdjanaza is the dead person. Ibn 
al-Asma'i said the opposite. Al-Farra' said that they mean the same. Ibn Qutayba said jinaza is the 
corpse. Al-A'rabi said that jinaza is the bier. It is derived from janaza, when something becomes 
heavy, or from covering something and so it is appropriate. 

The chapter also clarifies the judgment of the prayer on the dead person which isfard kifaya. He can 
be prayed over at any time, day or night, except sunrise and sunset: it is forbidden at those times. It is 
disliked in the disliked time. In the first case it is repeated as long as he has not been buried. It is not 
repeated in the second at all. The place of that is when change is not feared for him. Otherwise the 
prayer is permitted without dispute. 

Every dead Mushm is prayed who was not a martyr in battle. There is no prayer over someone who 
has already been prayed over already. The prayer over him is led by the one he commanded to do it. 
Such a person is preferred to the local authority if he is known to be good and the blessing of his 
supphcation is hoped for unless it is know that there was enmity between him and the deceased. Then 
it is not permtited to designate him.] 

21. 1 The Pillars of the Funeral Prayer 

[The pillars of the janaza prayer are five: 

1. Standing. If they pray sitting, it is not allowed except on account of a vaHd excuse (Uke illness). 
This is according to the position that it is obHgatory. The evidence for the obHgation is 
understand from His words, "Do not ever pray over any of them who dieE" (9:84) based on the 
understanding which is opposite thhe judgement of what is said: it is that the obHgation of 
praying over the behevers is not contrary to the judgement articulated, which is lack of respect of 
the prayer over the beHevers. 

2. The ihram, i.e. the intention 

3. The salam. 

4. SuppHcation. 

5. The takbirs.] 

21.2 How to do the prayer 
21.2a. Four takbirs 

The janaza (funeral) prayer contains four takbirs. 

[Since the Prophet did that. That is since it was confirmed that in the last prayer that the Prophet 
prayed, he said four takbirs. If he says the salam after three out of forgetfulness and then remembers 
soon after, he returns with only the intention, and he does not say that takbir since that would increase 
the number. He says that the takbir and count it as one of the four. Ibn 'Abdu's-Salam said that. If the 
Imam does an extra fifth,the foUowers says the salam and do not wait for him. Ibn al-Qasim related 
that. Ibn Harun opposed that, saying that when the Imam stands for the fifth out of forgetfulness, they 
wait for him so that they say the salam with his salam. Al-Mawwaq said that he heard Ibn al-Qasim 



say that if the Imam is one of those who say the takbir five times, the followers stop after the fourth 
and do not follow him in the fifth. It is understood that if he is one of those who do not say five 
takbirs, but he says a fifth inadvertantly, then the follower does not stop, but he remains still. When 
the Imam says the salam, the follower says his salam. Mahk says that in al-Wadiha as does Ashhab.] 

21.2b. Lifting the hands for the first takbir 

You lift your hands for the first takbir and there is no harm in doing so for each of the others. 

[This is one of four statements and it is made by Ashhab. He said that he raises his hands in the first 
and can choose in the rest. If he wishes, he raises them. If he wishes, he does not raise them. The 
second position is that he raises them in every takbir. This is in the Mudawwana and Ibn Habib 
preferred it. The third, which is also in the Mudawwana, is that he raises them only in the first takbir, 
and raising them in the others is contrary to the first. At-Tunisi preferred it. The fourth is that he only 
raises them in the first and not others. It is more well-known than raising them in all. 

[It was already stated that the supphcation is one of the pillars of the prayer, and so the prayer is 
repeated if it is omitted. There is disagreement about the suppHcation after the fourth. Sahnun affirmed 
it by analogy with the rest of the takbirs. The rest of the people opposed him by making an analogy 
with lack of recitation after the fourth rak'at because the four takbirs take the place of the four rak'ats, 
i.e. the social form of the four takbirs with what they contain of suppUcation takes the place of the four 
rak'ats, and as there is no recitation after the fourth rak'at, so there is no suppHcation after the fourth 
takbir. It does not mean that each takbir is in the position of a rak'at, which it observed alone or with 
the suppHcation. The probable meaning of the Shaykh is that he can choose.] 

21.2c. Supplication after the fourth rak'at 

If you Uke you can make a du'a after the fourth takbir before the salam or if you like, you can 
say the salam directly after the takbir. 

[ A third position.] 

NOTE: The shaykh did not speak about the intention, which is one of the pillars. It is that he intends 
with his heart to pray over this deceased persob while remembering that it is afard kifaya. There is no 
harm that he neglects the final point. It is vaHd as it is vaHd if he prays over him beHeving that it is 
praises and there is remembrance, and the reverse. That is also the case if he thinks it is someone and 
then it becomes evident that it is someone else because his intention was the person present before 
him. This is not the case when there are two or more on the bier and beHeves that there is only one. It 
is repeated by all since the one was not specific. Otherwise, it is repeated over the one who was not 
specified whom he intended. If he intends one particular one and then it becomes clear it is two or 
more, and the one he named was not of them the one, then it is repeated over all. If he intends the 
prayer on whoever is in bier while he beHeves it to be a group and then it is clear that it is one or two, 
it is sound because one or two are part of a group. 

21.2d. Where the Imam stands 

The imam stands opposite the middle of the body if the dead person is a man and opposite the 
shoulders if it is a woman. 



[It is recommended that the Imam stand here, and it is the same for the one alone. These details are 
known in the Mahki School. Ibn Sha'ban said that for a man and woman he stands wherever he Hkes.] 

21.2e. The salam 

The salam for this prayer is said once quietly both by the imam and those foUowing him. 

[In the well-known position. One position has 'quietly" and so one combines and says it qmetly. This 
is for both the Imam and follower. This differs from what is in the Mudawwana that the Imam says the 
salam of the janaza so that the one next to him can hear it. The one following says the salam so that 
only he can hear. If the one next to him hears it, there is no harm.] 

21.3 Reward for the prayer and attendance 

There is a great reward to be gained from doing the prayer and for being present at the burial. 
This reward is equivalent in size to Mount Uhud. 

[This is clarified in the words of the Prophet in the Sahih, "Whoever follows a janaza of a MusHm in 
behef and expectation, and remains with it until he prays over it and leaves after it is buried returns 
with a reward of two qirats. Each qirat is Hke Uhud. Whoever prays over it and then returns before he 
is buried he returns with a qirat."] 

21.4. The first three supplications 

21.4a No specific formula 

There is no specific formula for the du'a to be made when doing the funeral prayer. 

[There is nothing specific because there are various suppHcations related from the Prophet and the 
Companions in that. Ibn al-Hajib and others relate the agreement that no specific supplication is 
recommended. That is followed by the fact that in the Muwatta ' Malik recommends the supplication 
of Abu Hurayra which is: "O Allah, he is Your slave and the son of your slave and the son of your 
woman slave. He used to testify that there is no god but You alone with no partner and that 
Muhammad is Your slave and Your Messenger and You know him best. O Allah, if he is good, then 
increase his goodness. If he did evil, overlook his evil actions. O Allah, do not deny us his reward and 
not tempt us after, him."] 

21.4b. AU are possible 

AU the things which have come down are acceptable. 

[Any suppHcation is permissible, so say what you Hke.] 

21.4c. One excellent form 

One good thing to say after doing the takbir is: Praise be to AUah who makes dies and brings to 
Ufe and praise be to AUah who beings the dead to Ufe. To Him belong Greatness, Sovereignty, 
Power, Exaltedness and He has power over all things. O AUah, bless Muhammad and the family 
of Muhammad as You blessed and were merciful to and poured goodness on Ibrahim and the 



family of Ibrahim. In all the worlds, You are Praiseworthy, Glorious. 

O AUah, he is your slave and the son of Your slaves. You created him and provided for him. You 
made him die and You will bring him to Ufe and You know best about his outward and his 
inward. We have come to You as intercessors on his behalf so please accept our intercession. O 
AUah, we seek safety for him by Your bond of protection with him. Certainly You keep Your 
word and promise. O AUah, protect him from the trials of the grave and from the torment of 
Jahannam. O AUah, forgive him, have mercy on him, pardon him and grant him weU-being. Be 
generous to him when he arrives and open the way wide for him to come in. Wash him with 
water, snow and ice and cleanse him from his wrong actions as a white garment is cleansed of 
dirt. Give him a home better than the home he had, a family better than the family he had and a 
wife better than the wife he had. O AUah, if he was right-acting, increase him in right-actions 
and if he was wrong-doing, then overlook his wrong actions. O AUah, he has come to You and 
You are the Best that anyone can come to. He is in need of Your mercy and You have no need to 
punish him. O AUah, make his speech firm when he is questioned and do not rest him in his 
grave beyond what he can bear. Do not deprive us of our reward for doing this on his behalf and 
do not test us after him. 

21.5 The fourth prayer 

You say this after each takbir and then after the fourth takbir you say, '0 AUah, forgive those 
who are aUve and those who are dead, those present with us and those absent, those who are 
young and those who are old, those who are male and those who are female. You know 
everything that we do and where we wiU end up - and forgive our parents and those who have 
gone before us with iman and aU the musUms both men and women and aU the muminun both 
men and women, the Uving and the dead. O AUah whoever of us You keep aUve, keep him aUve 
in iman and whoever You take back to Yourself take him back as a MusUm. Make us glad when 
we meet You. Make us pleasing at the time of our death and make death pleasant for us. Make it 
a source of rest and happiness for us,' After this you say the salam. 

21.6 If the dead person is a woman 

If the dead person is a woman you say, "0 AUah, she is your slave and the daughter of Your 
slaves.E" and you go on making the object of the du'a feminine rather than mascuUne. The only 
difference is that you do not say, "Give her a husband better than her husband. . ." because in 
the Garden she can be the wife of the man who was her husband in this world and the women of 
the Garden are attached only to their husbands and have no desire for anyone else. A man may 
have many wives in the Garden whereas women only have one husband. 

[NOTE: If you do not know whether the dead person was male or female, you intend the prayer over 
the one who is present, as when you do not know whether it is one or several. You say in your 
supplication, "O Allah! They are your slaves and the sons of your slaves," and use the mascuhne 
plural.] 

21.7 Praying over several at once 

There is no harm in having one funeral prayer for several dead people. 

[This means it is recommended by a group of scholars as opposed to the one who said that they are not 



put together and that one prays over every dead person on his own. According to the statement that 
there are several in the same prayer, in what form are the corpses are laid out: is the best put near the 
Imam and others towards qibla or are they put in one row with the best of them near the Imam? The 
first is indicated.] 

21.7a. The best arrangement of the bodies 

If there are both men and women among the dead, the men are placed next to the imam. If there 
are only men, the best of them is placed next to the imam. If there are women and children as 
well, they are placed behind the men in the direction of the qibla. 

[What he mentioned of putting women before children is based on the position of Ibn Habib. Its 
opposite is well-known: it is that free adult men are near the Imam, the best and then next best, and 
then young free men and then hermaphrodites, then male slaves, then free women, then young girls, 
then female slaves.] 

(Khahl puts male slaves ahead of hermaphrodites) 

21.7b. Second arrangement: placing them in a row 

There is no harm in a number of bodies being placed in a row in which case the one nearest the 
imam should be the best of them. 

[This is when they are all the same type, hke all men, all women, or all children. When there are men, 
women and children, the men are put in the row in front of the Imam, then children in a row, then 
women in a row. This is in respect to the corpses. As for the imamate, the one with the most 
knowledge is put first, then the best, then the oldest. Then he discussed when multiple burial is 
necessary.] 

21.7c. Multiple burial 

If a number of people are being buried in one grave the best should be nearest the qibla. 

[Based on what is in the four Sunan that Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah that the 
Prophet said on the day of Uhud, "Dig and make it wide and deep and good, and bury two and three in 
the same grave. Put the one with the most Qur'an first." At-Tirmidhi said that it is sahih hasan. It is 
clear from the words of the shaykh that it is absolutely permitted to put them together in one grave in 
case of necessity or otherwise. That is not the case. If necessity demands it, it is permitted. Otherwise, 
it is disHked. The permission is based on necessity and that is disHke when it is not necessary when 
they are buried at the same time. If we want to bury a corpse on top of another after he has been 
buried, that it is forbidden because the grave holds the dead and he is not disinterred unless there is a 
necessity in which case it is not forbidden.] 

21.8 Making up a missed prayer 

21.8a When someone has been buried without the prayer 

If someone has been buried without the funeral prayer having been done for him and the grave 
has already been filled in, then the prayer should be done over his grave. 



[According to Ibn al-Qasim. Ashhab says that there is no prayer over him. Al-Qarafi, who is the 
better, said, "As for what is related that the Prophet prayed on the grave of the poor woman, that was 
special for her or because he had promised her that he would pray over her."According to the 
statement that there is a prayer at the grave, it is said that the prayer is said over someone who 
probably would not have decomposed. It is said that it is not permitted after two months. It is 
understood by his words that if the grave has not been filled in it, he is brought out and prayed over. 
Even if it has been filled in and buried, he must be brought out and prayed over as long as it is not 
feared that he has decomposed.] 

21.8b No second prayer 

You do not do the funeral prayer a second time if it has already been done once. 

[This is disliked, whether the one who wants to pray the second time is the one who prayed the first 
time or not.] 

21.8c. The prayer over most of the body 

The funeral prayer is done for a person as long as the majority of the body remains. 

[Meaning two-thirds or more because the judgement of the majority is the judgement of the whole. He 
intends the prayer over all the dead person, what is present of him and what is absent. One does not 
pray over half of a body according to Ibn al-Qasim. That is the accepted position, even if it is more 
than a half and less than two-thirds because it would lead to prayer on the absent. A small absence is 
overlooked because it is inconsequential.] 

21.8d. When only a Uttle of the body is left 

There is a difference of opinion about whether you do the funeral prayer for, for example, 
someone's hand or foot. 

[The example is applied to the thing itself. So he mentioned the disagreement about the hand and foot. 
Malik said that one does not pray over it because its owner may be alive. Ibn Maslama said that one 
prays over the hand or foot and intends the dead person by it, i.e. when it is probable that its owner is 
dead.] 

[Khalil: It is permissible to visit burial places and there are no limitations upon acts of remembrance. 

The place where the dead are buried is legally a kind of habs (non-conveyable land). It cannot be sold 
or alientated or used for any other purpose, It is censurable to walk on or pass over a grave. 

Graves should not be opened as long as there are any bones left. They can be opened in certain cases: 

1. where the shrouds were stolen; 

2. where the burial was on someone's property without his person and the owner reclaims his 
property; 

3. where articles of value were overlooked at the time of burial. 

The dead should not be buried in silks, impure garments, or in green, blue, black or carthamine. 



The bier should not be unusually large or silken things put on it. Lights should not follow the convoy. 
The name of the dead should be announced in a loud voice in the mosque or at its door. Private 
invitations can be sent. You do not have to stand when a convoy passes. 

When a believer dies at sea, he is tlirown into the sea after having been shroud when there is no hope 
of making land before decomposition sets in. 

A Mushm may not follow an unbehever to the grave or help to lower him in.] 

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Chapter Twenty-two: On the Supplication done for a Dead Child, 

how the funeral prayer is done for them 
and how they are washed 

[This chapter deals with judgements particular to children, meaning a child who has at least cried out. 
He begins with the supphcation which is made for him:] 

22.1 The first three prayers 

You praise AUah tabaraka wa ta'ala and ask for blessing on His Prophet Muhammad, may 
AUah bless him and grant him peace, and then you say, "O AUah, he is your slave and the son of 
Your slaves. You created him and provided for him. You made him die and wiU bring him to 
Ufe. Make him a forerunner and a stored-up treasure and a reward for his parents. Make their 
balances heavy through him and make their reward greater because of him and do not deprive 
either us or them of their reward through him and do not test either us or them after him. O 
AUah, give him the company of the right-acting muminun who have gone ahead and place him 
under the guardianship of Ibrahim. Give him a house better than the one he had and a family 
better than the one he had. Save him from the trial of the grave and the torment of Jahannam." 

[This is said after each takbir except the fourth.] 

22.2 The fourth intercession 

You say this after each takbir and after the fourth you say, "0 AUah, forgive our forbears and 
predecessors and those who have gone before us. AUah, whoever among us You make Uve 
make him Uve in iman and whoever You take back to YourseUtake him back as a musUm. 
Forgive aU the musUms both men and women and aU the muminun both men and women, the 
Uving and the dead." Then you say the salam. 

[Just as the salam for the prayer.] 

22.3. Still-borns 

22.3a No prayer 

You do not do the funeral prayer for a stiUborn baby. 

[The still-born is the one who does not cry. Nor is he washed, even if he moves, urinates, sneezes or 
suckles for a httle, but not a lot. It is the sign a hfe. This prohibition is one of disHke. As for the one 
who cries, he has all the judgements of the Uving, even if he dies immediately, without dispute.] 

[Khahl: it is not buried with perfumes or given a name.] 

22.3b. Legal consequences 

Such a baby does not inherit and cannot be inherited from. If a baby is prematurely stiUborn, it 
is disUked for its body to be buried inside a house. 



[Inheritance is a branch of confirmation of hfe. So any gifts made to him before his birth are returned. 
He is not buried in the house because it is feared that if the house is destroyed, the bones will be 
disinterred.] 

[Khahl: if a stillborn child is buried in the house, that does not prevent sale of the house.] 

22.4 Who should do the ghusl 

22.4a. Women washibng boys 

There is no harm in women washing the body of a young boy of six or seven years old, 

[They do not wash them when they are old At such an age, it is not obhged for them to cover the 
private parts because it is permitted for the women to look at the body. ] 

22.4b. Men do not wash girls 

but men do not wash the bodies of young girls. There is a difference of opinion regarding young 
girls who have not reached an age when they might be desired but the former judgement is the 
one preferred by us. 

[The prohibition against men washing a girl is one of forbidding by agreement if she is one of those 
who might be desirable, Hke six or seven. They can wash her if she is still a small baby by agreement, 
i.e. less than three years. There is some disagreement about those who have not reached the age of 
desirably, Ashhab permits it by analogy with the women washing a young boy, but Ibn al-Qasim 
forbids it. It is the position of the Mudawwana.Tht accepted position is that of Ibn al-Qasim because 
the female is generally desireable. ] 

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Chapter Twenty-Four: On Fasting 

{This also deals with things connected to it hke the Tarawih prayer. LinguisticaUy "siyam" means to 
restrain and abandon. Whoever forgoes something is said to be fasting. AUah Almighty says in the 
story about Maryam, "I have vowed a fast to the All-Merciful," (19:26) meaning a silence, which is 
withholding from words. In the Shari'a, it is to restrain the appetites of the stomach and genitals from 
dawn to sunset with an intention before or at dawn except in days of menstruation, lochia and 'ids. 
Fasting is divided into the obhgatory and non-obhgatory.] 

[KhaHl: tobacco is also avoided in the fast.] 

23.1 Its Ruling 

Fasting the month of Ramadan is obUgatory. 

[It is obHgatory by the Book, the Sunna and consensus. Whoever denies that it is obHgatory to fast 
Ramadan is an unbehever by agreement. Whoever affirms its obHgation and refuses to fast it is a rebel 
and is compelled to do it. 

It is affirmed that the fast of Ramadan begins by one of two things, either by the month of Sha'ban 
lasting 30 days or by sighting the new moon.] 

23.2 Beginning the Fast 

23.2a. When the fast begins 

You start fasting when the new moon is sighted and you stop fasting when the new moon is 
sighted, whether this is after thirty or twenty-nine days. If the new moon cannot be seen because 
of clouds you count thirty days from the beginning of the preceding month and then begin 
fasting. The same applies to ending the fast. 

[His Hteral words are whether the sighting is exhaustive, when a group sight it so that impossible to 
accuse them of lying because their report gives information, or with two witnesses of good character 
only, with clouds or clear skies, meaning there is no difference between the large and small town. 
Similar to the two witnesses of good character is one whose report is trusted, even if a slave or a 
woman, when the place does not pay attention to the business of the new moon in respect of the 
people of the seer and others. If the place is concerned with the business of the new moon, the seeing 
of one does not affirm it, even for his family, and even if they beheve him, but he must present his 
business to the ruler. It is not permitted for him to break the fast. If he breaks it, he disbeHeves, even if 
by interpretation because the interpretation is unHkely. The fast is also broken by seeing the moon of 
Shawwal. If there are clouds, then you count from the beginning of the month of Sha'ban. The basis 
for this is what is in the two Sahih collections that he said, "Fast when you see it and break the fast 
when you see it. If it is cloudy, then complete the number." 

There are seven preconditions for the fast.] 

23.2b. 1. The intention 

You should make an intention to fast the whole month at the beginning of the month and it is 



not necessary to make a new intention every night for the rest of the month. 

[He should formulate the intention with his heart the first night of Ramadan after sunset and before 
dawn or at dawn as an act of nearness to Allah Almighty by performing what is obliged of him during 
the day of refraining from eating, drinking and intercourse. It is not an obligation to make the intention 
on the rest of the days. Malik says that the intention is must be made at night, and that is stated by ash- 
Shafi'i and Abu Hanifa, because the days of the month are individual acts of worship separate from 
one another. The invalidation of one does not invalidate another, and they are not impaired by what is 
contrary to them at night, hke eating, drinking and intercourse. So the days become Hke the five 
prayers during the day. It is obHged to give day an intention for the fast as it is obHgatory to have an 
intention for every prayer. The evidence of the Mahki School is the words of the Almighty, "So every 
one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting.." (2:185) This 
command is transferred to one fast, which is the fast of the month. The intention is made in the night 
based on what the authors of the Sunan reported of the words of the Prophet: ""Whoever does not 
intend the fast before dawn has no fast." Advancing it is overlooked in the fast because of the 
difficulty. Ibn Naji said, "The hteral words of the shaykh is that it is not obHged for someone who 
breaks the fast, Hke the menstruating women, to renew the intention. That is the case according to 
Ashhab and others. There remain the sick person and traveUer when they continue to fast. They are 
obHged to make the intention every night beause it is not oblgiatory for them to continue. When the 
sick person becomes weU and the traveUer arrives, the intention for what is remains is enough for 
them, hke the menstruating woman who becomes pure, the child who reaches puberty in the fast, and 
the kafir who becomes a MusHm during the month. 

The other preconditions are: 

2. Islam. 

3. Sanity. 

4. Being free of menstruation and lochia. 

5. Refraining from things that break the fast. 
6.The abiHty to fast. 

7. AduHhood.] 

23.2c. Duration of the fast 

You fast until night comes 

[Based on the ayat and because the Prophet said in the Sahih, "When night advances from there and 
the day retreats from here and the sun sets, the faster breaks the fast."] 

and it is sunna to break the fast as soon as possible 

[When you are certain the night has come. There is disagreement about continuing after sunset. Some 
say that it is unlawful as it is unlawful on the Day of the 'ld. Some say it is permitted and he has the 
reward of the faster. The fiqh of the question that he he has the reward of the faster is weak. The 
statement that it is unlawful is more Hkely unless his intention is that it is obHged for him. Otherwise, 
it is disHked when it is without necessity.] 

23.2d. Delaying suhur 



and to delay your suhur.{D If you are not sure if the time of fajr has come or not you should not 
eat. 

[Sahur means what is eaten and suhur is the act of eating. The amount of the best delay after finishing 
eating and drinking there remains until Fajr the amount of time it takes to recite 50 ayats. The basis for 
this is the words of the Prophet, "My community will continue to be all right as long as they hurry to 
break the fast and delay the sahur." (Ahmad) If he is unsure of the time of Fajr, he should not eat or 
drink or have intercourse. This can mean prohibition or dishke. The well-known position is that it is a 
prohibition. If he is unsure about sunset, it is unlawful to eat and otherwise break the fast by 
agreement.] 

23.2e. Not fasting the Day of Doubt 

You do not fast the 'day of doubt', [21 fasting on the grounds that it might be part of Ramadan. 

[This prohibition is one of dislike according to the probable text of the Mudawwana. Ibn 'Abdu's- 
Salam said, "What is probable is that it is a prohibition based on what at-Tirmidhi related in a hasan 
sahih hadith: 'Ammar ibn Yasir said, "Whoever fasts the Day of Doubt, has rebelled against Abu'l- 
Qasim (the Prophet)." 

We consider the Day of Doubt which is forbidden to fast to be the day when it was cloudy on the night 
of the 29th and vision was not established, and so the morning of that night is the Day of Doubt.] 

23.2f. Its judgement when it is fasted 

ff you do this it is not counted even if it turns out to have been Ramadan. 

[If you fast the Day of Doubt out of caution and then it is estabhshed to be Ramadan, it is not counted 
because the intention was not firm.] 

ff you want to fast that day as a voluntary fast, however, you can do so. 

[i.e. this is when it is his custom to fast.] 

23.2g. When you discover it is Ramadan in the morning 

If you get up in the morning and discover, before having eaten or drunk anything, that 
Ramadan has begun you must fast the rest of the day but you cannot count it as one of the days 
of your Ramadan and you have to make up a day. 

[If this happens, you have to make it up by the lack of the intention. Nevertheless you must avoid food 
and drink and anything that would invahdate the prayer for the rest of the day. It is also obUgatory for 
him to fast if he has eaten or drunk or the hke. He makes it up, but there is no kaffara since he forgot 
or it was intentional by interpretation. If it is something else, then he must do kaffara.] 

23.2h. When someone returns from a journey or stops menstruating 

ff someone returns from a journey and they are not fasting or if a woman finishes menstruating 
during the day then in both these cases it is alright for them to eat and drink during the 



remainder of that day. 

[This in the daytime. It is not recommended for them to refrain. It is the same in the case of the child 
who reaches maturity, the madman who recovers his senses, the sick person who starts out not fasting 
and then becomes well. It is the same for the one who faints and then regains consciousness, the one 
compelled by the necessity of hunger or thirst, and the nursing woman whose child dies in the day. It 
is the same for an unbeliever who becomes Muslim, although it is recommended for him to refrain 
which is not the case with the others. As for the one who breaks his fast by forgetfulness or on the Day 
of Doubt or is forced to break it, and their excuse is removed, then it is obhgatory for them to refrain. 
When the one forced breaks his fast after the compulsion is removed, he must make it up with kaffara 
unless there was a valud interpretation.] 

23.3 The ruling on breaking a voluntary fast 

23.3a. Breaking it intentionally 

If you are doing a voluntary fast and break your fast intentionally, or if you start off on a 
journey and break your fast because of it, you must make up that day. 

[Without compulsion or excuse, or because you set off on a journey while observing a voluntary fast 
and then break it because of it: it is obHgatory to make it up in both cases. Ibn 'Umar said that there is 
disagreement about when he breaks it intentionally : is it recommended to fast for the rest of it or is 
that not recommended as al-Uhjuri said? ] 

23.3b. Breaking it unintentionally 

If in a voluntary fast you break your fast unintentionally you do not have to make up a day but 
if this happens in the obligatory fast you have to make up a day. 

[There is no disagreement that it is not obHgatory to make it up if it is unintentional, but there is a 
disagreement about whether it is recommended and there are two positions. Ibn al-Qasim heard that it 
is recommended. When the obHgatory fast is unintentionally broken, it must be made up. Zarruq said, 
"The literal meaning of his words is that the obUgatory is in Ramadan or elsewhere."] 

23.4 Things which break or do not break the fast 

23.4a. Siwak 

There is no harm in using a siwak at any time during the day while you are fasting 

[This is stated in the Mudawwana. It means it is permissible, as Ibn al-Hajib stated, "The siwak is 
permitted every day as long as nothing spHts off from it. It is disHked to moisten it." Some of them 
said that it is permitted after midday for the one who does not have a legal requirement. As for a legal 
requirement Hke wudu', the prayer, recitation and dhikr, it is recommended. That is correct as the 
hadith shows in the words of the Prophet, "If it were not that it would be hard on my communtiy, I 
would comamnd them to use the siwak for every prayer." So this includes the person who is fasting. 

When he says, "during the day while you are fasting" that alludes to the words of ash-Shafi'i and 
Ahmad ibn Hanbal that it is preferred before midday and disHked after it based on what is in the Sahih 



where the Prophet said, The odour of the the mouth of the faster is sweeter with Allah than the scent 
of musk." That is because of Allah's pleasure with him and His praise for the faster.] 

23.4b. Blood-letting 

and blood-letting is not disliked except if doing it will cause over-exhaustion. 

[i.e. illness. In the dictionary, it means to expose oneself to death.Therefore cupping is only disliked 
when illness is feared because he is unsure about health and its absence. If he knows it is safe, there is 
no dislike.] 

23.4c. Vomiting 

If you vomit involuntarily while fasting in Ramadan you do not have to make up a day 

[If it is in Ramadan or another day, there is no obligation or recommendation to make it up, whether it 
is for a reason or simply on account oif fullness, and whether the food has been altered or not. This is 
when he knows that none of it went back to his stomach after reaching his mouth. If he knows that 
some of it went back after it reached his mouth, then he must make it up when it is unintentional. 
Otherwise he owes kaffara. He must also make it up if he is unsure about that. Undigested food is like 
vomit. It is what emerges from the mouth of the intestines when they are full. As for phelgm which 
reaches the end of the tongue and he swallows it dehberately, there is no making up. It is the same 
with spit which he collects in his month and then swallows. He does not have to make anything up.] 

23.4d. Swallowing vomit 

but if you make yourself vomit you have to make up a day. 

[There are two statements about whether this is obHgatory or recommended. Ibn al-Hajib says that the 
first is well-known, and it is preferred. Ibn al-Jallab preferred the second. The Hteral words of the 
Shaykh is that there is no kaffara for the one who makes himself vomit in Ramadan. There is some 
disagreement in the question about whether or not there is kaffara. 'Abdu'1-Mahk said that he makes it 
up and does kaffara. Ibn al-Majishun says that the one who makes himself vomit intentionally without 
illness must make it up and do kaffara. Abu'l-Faraj says that if MaHk had been asked about the Hke of 
it, he would have obHged kaffara. It is related from Ibn al-Qasim that he just makes it up. 

Know that breaking the fast in Ramadan is obHgatory in certain cases and permitted in some. The first 
category is when a woman menstruates during the day: she must break the fast for the rest of the 
days.] 

23.5 Pregnant and nursing women 

23.5a. Pregnant women 

If a pregnant woman is afraid on account of the child in her womb she should break the fast. 
She does not have to feed anyone in expiation. It has also been said that she should feed people. 

[If she fears for her child or herself or that she will become ill, she breaks the fast and that is 
obHgatory. According to the well-known position, she does not feed people, but simply makes it up. It 



is said that she should feed as related by Ibn Wahb. What is understood from his words is that it is 
when she does not fear, she does not break it even if the fast exhausts her. That is not the case. If the 
fast exhausts her, she can choose to break it. What is derived from what Ibn 'Arafa says is that the 
pregnant woman, nursing woman and sick person can break the fast when fasting if it is difficult for 
them, even if they do not fear illness or its increase. The healthy person cannot break the fast when it 
is difficult. There are two statements about whether he breaks the fast out of fear of illness. Part of the 
second, which is that illness permits it in some cases, is when he fears increased or continuing illness. 
If he fears death or great harm, then he must break it. In the fear which permits breaking the fast, the 
person relies on the the doctor's statement, or his own personal experience, or the experience of 
someone with a constitution hke him. Travel has its preconditions which will be discussed.] 

23.5b. Nursing women 

Similarly, if a nursing mother fears for her child and cannot find a wetnurse, or if the child will 
not accept to be fed by anyone else, she can break the fast but she must feed people in expiation. 

[This is permission if she fears for her child or herself on account of fasting. In such a case she must 
feed people. It is also said that it is an obHgation to break the fast and feed people.] 

23.6. The old 

If an old man cannot fast, it is recommended for him to feed people. 

[If he is unable to fast at any time, he is permitted to break the fast by the words of Allah, "No self is 
charged beyond what it can bear,"(2:233) and "He has not placed any constraint on you in the 
deen." (22:78) The Hteral text of the Mudawwana is contrary to what he mentioned of the 
recommendation to feed. He says that there is no fidya. However, the Mudawwana relates that he is 
not obHged to feed and so that is not contrary to the recommendation.] 

23.7. Feeding people (Fidya) 

23.7a. Its amount 

Feeding people in this context consists of giving away one mudd for each day which has to be 
made up. 

[Feeding is done by the pregnant woman fearful for what is in her womb, the nursing mother who fear 
for her child, and the very old man who cannot fast is a mudd, by the Prophet's mudd.] 

23.7b. Its ruUng 

Someone who fails to make up missed days before the foUowing Ramadan should also feed a 
poor person for each day they still owe. 

[The ruUng varies because the feeding done by an old person, as was said, is recommended. The 
feeding of a nursing woman is obhgatory. The hteral sense of his words is that making up Ramadan is 
at leisure, and it is what is indicated by the hadith of 'A'isha in the Muwatta'. She said, "I used to have 
to make up days from Ramadan and not be able to fast them until Sha'ban came because I was busy 
with the Messenger of Allah." So it is evident that it it permissible to delay it until Sha'ban, even if 



what was delayed becomes immediately obligatory. That shows that the obhgation is wide. Mahk said 
that it should be immediate, but that is weak. According to the first statement, he is considered to be 
lax in Sha'ban when he is healthy and at home, and so they must feed. When he owes 15 days, then 
residence and health are considered at the last half of Ramadan and feeding is obHgatory if he is sound 
and resident. If he is ill in it or on a journey, there is no feeding. According to the second, laxity is 
considered in Shawwal according to what he owes of fasting based on analogy with what we said 
about Sha'ban. If Ramadan is 30 and he fasts a month to make it up and it is 29, then he completes the 
30. It is permitted to make it up at any time in which it is permitted to fast voluntarily. It is not made 
up in days when it is forbidden to fast.] 

23.8 Children 

Children are not obUged to fast until such time as a boy has his first wet dream or a girl her first 
menstrual period because it is when children reach physical maturity that all the physical acts of 
worship become obligatory for them. AUah ta'ala says, "When your children reach physical 
maturity they should seek permission (to enter)." (24:59) 

[One of the preconditions for the fast is being an adult. It is neither obHgatory nor recommended for 
children to fast. Maturity is by ejaculation or age which is 18 in the well-known position. This is 
different from the prayer. It is recommended to command them to do it. Maturity is what brings the 
person from childhood to manhood and sense. All acts - prayer, fasting, hajj and raiding - are 
obHgatory for them, as well as actions of the heart, like the obUgation of intentions which are 
obHgatory because the intention is one of the actions of the heart, and creeds like the belief that Allah 
is One, for example. Evidence that obHgations become incumbent children when they reach maturity 
is in the words of Allah Almighty. Asking permission is obHged then and is connected to maturity.] 

23.9 Defilements 

If someone who has not done ghusl wakes up after fajr in a state of janaba or if the period of a 
woman who has been menstruating finishes before fajr and she does not do ghusl till after fajr, 
then fasting that day is vaUd in both these cases. 

[This is either from intercourse or an intentional or unintentional wet-dream in an obligatory or 
voluntary fast, or a woman has her period stop and sees that she is pure before fajr. If they do not have 
a ghusl until after dawn, even if they are able to do, their fast is still allowed and they owe nothing. 
The validity of the fast of the person in janaba is that it is confirmed that the Prophet was in janaba at 
fajr in Ramadan and he had a ghusl and fasted. As for the vaHdity of the menstruating woman whom 
becomes pure before fajr in Ramadan, it is agreed that that is when she is pure before fajr with the 
amount in which she could wash. According to the well-known position that also applies to the 
amount of time in which it is not possible to wash. If she becomes pure after fajr, her fast is not vaHd.] 

23.10 On Feast days 

23.10a. Not allowed on the 'id 

Fasting is not permitted on the day of 'ld al-Fitr or the day of the 'ld al-Adha nor should anyone 
fast the two days after the 'ld al-Adha unless he is doing Hajj Tamatt'a and does not have an 
animal to sacrifice. 



[As it is not permitted, it is not valid since it is forbidden by the Propliet to fast them.] 

23.10b. The fourth day 

There should be no voluntary fasting on the fourth day either but if someone has vowed to fast 
or has previously broken off a consecutive fast, they should fast that day. 

[The fourth day after the Day of Sacrifice is not made a voluntary fast. It is fasted by someone who 
has fasted Shawwal and Dhu'l-Qa'da for kaffara for a dhihar divorce or murder and then becomes ill 
and regains his health in the fourth night. He can fast it.] 

23.11 Making up the fast 

23.11a. Breaking the fast out of forgetfulness 

If you break the fast in Ramadan out of forgetfulness you only have to make up that day. 

[You are obliged to continue to fast and to abstain through the rest of day of Ramadan. You are 
obliged to continue to fast when you break it by forgetfulness in an obligatory fast other than 
Ramadan. There is no making up in the well-known position. One should be careful about forgetting. 
When you break it intentionally you owe kaffara as well as making up. That is why he says "only" 
since he has he owes no kaffara because which differs from Ibn al-Majishun and Ahmad who say that 
there is kaffara if he breaks it through intercourse based on the hadith of the bedouin who came to the 
Prophet beating his chest and pulhng his hair, saying, "I am destroyed! I am destroyed!" The Prophet 
asked him, "What is the reason for this?" He repHed, "I had intercourse with my wife in Ramadan" He 
commanded him to do kaffara. The reply to that by the Mahki masters is that the circumstances of 
striking himself and pulHng his hair indicate that the intercourse was intentional.] 

23.1 Ib. Breaking the fast because of illness 

The same applies if you are forced to break the fast due to illness. 

[When the fast is too difficult with it, or when he fears that the illness will continue longer, or 
increase, or heahng will be delayed, he only has to make it up without kaffara. If it is an illness in 
which it is not difficult to fast or in which increased illness or delay of health is not feared, and he 
breaks his fast, then he must make it up and do kaffara.] 

23.12. A traveller 

23.12a. Length of journey 

If you are on a journey for which you can shorten the prayer you are permitted to break the fast 
even if there is no particular need to do so, making up any days missed later, but according to us 
it is better to fast. 

[If you go on a journey at the time of the intention such that you will reach a Hmit where shortening 
the prayers begins before dawn. So the distance is four or more mail stages of a return journey, and it 
should not be a journey involving disobedience of Allah. You are permitted to break it, eat, drink and 
have intercourse. This is even if the journey is not necessary. There is no disagreement that he must 



make up the fast by the words of the Almighty, "the prescribed number should be made up from days 
later," (2:184) The Malikis prefer that the one one who is strong enough should fast because the 
Almighty says, "It is better for you if you fast."] 

23.12b A journey of less than the minimum 

If anyone travels less than four mail stages (48 miles) and breaks the fast thinking it is 
permissable to do so, they do not have to do kaffara although they must make up the day. 
[Anyone who breaks the fast through an interpretation does not have to do kaffara.] 

[Because he followed an interpretation. He is only obhged to make it up without dispute. The Hteral 
words about the one who uses interpretation not owing kaffara are unrestricted, but there is a well- 
known disagreement. The interpretation must be a hkely one. There is no kaffara because he is 
excused by relying on a strong reason. If the interpretation is unHkely, which is when its reason is not 
strong, then there is kaffara. One of the cases in which is the reason is strong is the case we mentioned 
about the old man, and the one who breaks the fast out of forgetfulness and then breaks it intentionally 
that it is permitted: he owes no kaffara. There is also the case of the person in janaba or menstruating 
before dawn who only had a ghusl for that after fajr and thought that the fast for that day was not 
obHged and dehberately did not fast: he has no kaffara. There is the case of someone who who has 
suhur at fajr and thinks that the fast for that day is not binding and so he breaks it after that 
intentionally: he owes no kaffara. There is the one who arrives after a journey at night in Ramadan and 
thinks that he does not have to fast the morning of that day and that one of the preconditions of the 
obHgation of the fast is that he come from the journey before sunset. and so he breaks it deHberately: 
he owes no kaffara. 

UnHkely cases are those in which the cause is weak. If he sees the moon of Ramadan and his 
testimony is not accepted and he thinks that the fast is not binding for him and so he breaks it - he 
owes kaffara. Part of it is the person who normally has a fever every three days and so when the day 
he comes he breaks the fast and then the fever comes to him on that day. He is obHged to do kaffara, 
and even more so if it does not come. One is the woman who normally menstruates on a particular day 
and so she does not fast that day and then she menstruates later in the day. One of them is the one 
slanders a person in Ramadan and thinks that that invahdates his fast because he ate the eat of his the 
flesh of his brother and so he breaks it intentionally. He must do kaffara, and make it up.] 

23.13 Kaffara 

23.13a. Who owes kaffara 

Kaffara only applies to people who break the fast dehberately either by eating, drinking, or 
sexual intercourse. 

[If he resolves to eat and drink or have intercourse, but does not do it, he owes nothing, either making 
it up or kaffara. It is same for someone who resolves to break wudu' by breaking wind, for instance, 
and does not do it- he does not have to do wudu'. 

In the case of intercourse, one distinguishes the deHberate from the forgetful and the ignorant, i.e. the 
one who was ignorant of the prohibition and the one who did not rely on anythng, Hke someone who 
is a new MusHm who beHeves that fasting does not forbid intercourse, for instance, and so does it -he 
owes no kaffara.] 



23.13b. Making up the day 

The actual day when the kaffara was incurred must also be made up on top of the kaffara itself. 

[Making it up is obliged as well as the kaffara.] 

23.13c. What kaffara consists of: 

[The kaffara on account of eating, drinking, or intercourse deliberately in Ramadan by abuse or 
unlikely interpretation is one of three things from which one can choose.] 

23.13d. 1. Feeding sixty people 

The kaffara for breaking the fast consists of feeding sixty poor people with one mudd 
for each person using the mudd of the Prophet, may AUah bless him and grant him 
peace. This is the preferred way of doing kaffara according to us. 

[It is taken from the normal food of the one who expiates or from the dominant food of the 
people: there is disagreement on that. Al-Lakhmi said: "That proceeds according to the 
disagreement about kaffara," i.e. the kaffara of the oath, and the zakat al-fitr. The preferred 
position is that it is the food of the people of the land. It is understood from in his words 
about 'sixty', as in the Mudawwana, that it is not satisfied by giving 30 poor people two 
mudds each. If he gives to less than sixty, he takes back from each of them what is more 
than a mudd if it is in his possession and completes the sixty. If that has been consumed, he 
cannot take it back because he is the one who gave them power over that. What is meant by 
the poor person here is not what is meant by it in zakat, i.e. the one who does not have 
anything. What is meant is the one in need of it and the poor person who does not have 
food for that year. There disagreement about which of the three types is best. The well- 
known position is that it is feeding and that is what is stated here. It is preferred by some of 
the people of Mahk because it has more benefit.] 

23.13e. 2. Freeing a slave 

However, it is also possible to carry out kaffara by freeing a slave 

[The second is freeing a slave. It is a precondition that it be a behever free of defects - Hke 
bUnd, dumb, or mad.] 

23.13f. 3. Fasting two months 

or fasting for two consecutive months. 

[The third is to fast for two consecutive months. Kaffara is counted by the days.] 

23.13g. Eating while making up 

Someone who breaks the fast deliberately while making up a day of Ramadan does not have to 
do kaffara. 

[This is because kaffara is one of the special things of Ramadan, and there is no disagreement in what 



we mentioned according to Ibn Naji. The disagreement is whether one or two days are made up. It is 
preferable that he makes it two, as ibn 'Arafa said. 

NOTE: Making up Ramadan is valid on separate or consecutive days, but doing it consecutively is 
better.] 

23.14 Unconsciousness 

23.14a. When someone regains consciousness after fajr 

If someone becomes unconscious during the night and recovers consciousness after fajr he 
should make up a day. 

[Ibn Habib said he is not commanded to refrain from eating for the rest of the day. Loss of 
consciousness is the removal of sense by an illness which afflicts him, as stated in at-Tahqiq. That 
which he rehed on is the commentator of KhaHl. The rehed-on position is that if he is unconscious for 
all or most of the day, he must make it up, whether he is sound at the beginning of it or not. If he is 
unconscious for less than half of it, and is sound in the beginning of it, it is allowed. Otherwise it is 
not. We said 'sound at the beginning,' meaning conscious at the time of the intention, even if it he was 
unconscious before it and recovers before fajr for the amount of time in which he could do it, even he 
did not, according to the rehed on position. This is when he made the intention in the night before it so 
that it is included in the intention for the month. Otherwise it is not, because there must be an intention 
since it is not vaHd without the intention. The one intoxicated by something lawful is Hke the 
unconscious person in the details mentioned, but the one who becomes intoxicated by something 
unlawful at night and remains drunk must make it up. If a sleeper makes the intention at the beginning 
of the month and then sleeps for the entire mouth, his fast is vahd and he is free of responsibiUty .] 

23.14b. Prayers which must be made up 

He only has to make up a missed prayer if he comes to during the time it is due. 

[If he fainted at night and wakes up after dawn. This was covered in the Chapter of Prayer. He repeats 
it here to point out that the fast is different from the prayer. The menstruating woman makes up the 
fast but no the prayer because of the difficulty of repeating it.] 

23.15 Other Prohibitions in the Fast 
23.15a. Guarding the tongue and limbs 

When you are fasting you should guard your tongue and limbs 

[That is recommended, and some say it is obHgatory, and there is no contradiction between the two 
positions. The one who says it is obhgatory appHes to to refraining from the forbidden, and the one 
who recommends it appHes it to refraining from what is not forbidden, Hke excessive permissive 
speech. 

He mentions the Hmbs which are seven: hearing, sight, tongue, hands, feet, belly and genitals. The 
tongue is mentioned specifically because it results in the greatest calamities. It is said that there is not 
a morning but the Hmbs complain to the tongue, "We ask you by AHah, go straight and we wiH be 



straight. If you are crooked, we will be crooked. 'Umar visited Abu Bakr and found him pulling his 
tongue. He said, ' What, Abu Bakr!" He said, "Leave me. It has brought about things." People should 
curtail what they say in Ramadan.] 

23.15b. Honouring the month of Ramadan 

and honour the month of Ramadan as AUah has honoured it. 

[Allah says "the month of Ramadan in which the Qur'an was revealed." (2:185) It is honoured by the 
recitation of Qur'an, dhikr, fasting, praying, sadaqa, and other acts of worship. It is dishked to esteem 
it by decorations and delegations and the hke.] 

23.15c. Avoidance of sexual pleasure in the day 

A fasting man may not have sexual intercourse during the daytime in Ramadan nor may he 
touch a woman or kiss her to gain pleasure. 

[Intercourse is forbidden by agreement. Other things are said to be haram or disUked. It is possible to 
say that there is no contradiction, and it is possible that the ilUcitness is apphed when he does not 
know that there is security and disHke when he knows it. In short, it is dishked for the old and young, 
male or female, to kiss his spouse or slavegirl while he is fasting, or to touch or dally. It is the same 
for looking or remembering when he knows that he is safe from sperm and prostatic fluid. If he knows 
that he is not safe or is unsure about it, it is unlawful. It is not unlawful for him in the night unless he 
is doing i'tikaf or fasting for the kaffara of a dhihar-divorce. In such a case the day and night are the 
same. If he does any of that while fasting and is safe, he owes nothing. If he ejaculates, he must make 
it up and do kaffara.] 

23.15d. Sexual pleasure allowed at night 

None of these things, however, is haram for him during the night. 

[This is because the Almighty says: "Lawful to you on the night of the fast is going to your 
wives..." (2:187) Night and day are the same for the one doing i'tikaf and fasting the kaffara for 
dhihar.] 

23.15e. Waking up in janaba 

It does not matter if you wake up in the morning in a state of janaba because of having had 
sexual intercourse. 

[Here he repeats this point to clarify that the fast is valid if you are in janaba.] 

23.15f. Emission of madhy in Ramadan 

If you do get sexual pleasure during the daytime by touching or kissing and this results in the 
emission of madhy (prostatic fluid) you must make up that day. 

[Or through looking or thinking, then he must make up the day for the emission of madhy, whether it 
lasts or not. For the emission of madhy for any reason, there is only making up, which is obUgatory. If 



there is no madhy, there is no making up, even if there is an erection. It is what Ibn Wahb, and Ashhab 
related from Malik in al-Mudawwana. It is the preferred position.] 

23.15g. Emission of sperm in Ramadan 

If you do it deliberately and the result is the ejaculation of many (semen) you have to do the 
kaffara. 

[According to the well-known position. He is silent about looking and remembering. Al-Fakhani say 
that if he continues to look until he ejaculates, then he must make it up and do kaffara. If he does not 
continue to do it, then he must only make it up according to the well-known position Al-Qabisi says 
that if he looks once deliberately, he must make it up and do kaffara. Al-Baji said that it is sound and 
gave remembering the same judgement as the glance. If he continues to remember until he ejaculates, 
then he must make up and do kaffara. If he does not continue to do it, then he makes it up without 
kaffara.] 

23.15h. The reward for fasting 

Anyone who fasts Ramadan with beUef and with awareness of the reward for doing it is forgiven 
all his previous wrong actions. 

[He believes in the reward if he fasts with the awareness that its reward has been stored up for him by 
Allah in the Next World and he does not fast in order to show off or for reputation. The wrong actions 
forbidden are the minor ones between him and his Lord. Major wrong actions are only expiated by 
repentance or Allah's forgiveness. ] 

23.16. The Tarawih Prayer 

23.16a. The reward for praying at night 

If you stand up in prayer during the night, to the extent that you able to do so, you can expect 
great good from it and pardon for your wrong actions. 

[The reward for standing in prayer is not limited to all the night, but is obtained by anyone who stands 
for part of it according to his state without hmit.] 

23.16b. Tarawih are performed with an Imam in a group 

These night prayers are done with an imam in mosques where the prayer is normally done in 
jama'a. 

[It is permitted to do these prayers in the mosque in groups with an Imam. This is an exception from 
the dishke of praying the nafila in group which is indicated by the words of Shaykh Khahl, added to 
the dishke of gathering for nafila or in a known place since the action to gather for them continued 
from the time of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab. Part of his sunan is to do this and the time they are done is 
after 'lsha' ] 

23.16c. They can be done at home 



ff you want to you can do these night prayers at home. Indeed this is considered better if your 
intention is strong enough for you to do them by yourself. 

[It is considered better to do them at home on you own if you are not too lazy.] 

23.16d. How the Salaf first did them 

The righteous people of the first community used to do these prayers in the mosque. They did 
twenty rak'as foUowed by three rak'as - two for shaf'i and one for witr with a salam in between. 

[These are the Companions, peace be upon all of them. They did them in the time of 'Umar ibn al- 
Khattab in the mosque with 20 rak'ats. That is preferred by a group, including, Abu Hanifa, ash-Shafi'i 
and Ahmad, and the action now does that followed by the shaf'i and witr. Abu Hanifa says that there is 
no salam between the two, and ash-Shafi'i says that there is a choice.] 

23.16e. The later practice of the Salaf 

Later they began praying thirty-six rak'as not including the shaf'i and witr. Both of these are 
acceptable. 

[Then the Salaf other than the first Salaf, namely the Tabi'un, increased it. 'Umar ibn 'Abdu'l-'Aziz 
commanded that to do that since it contained benefit because they were making the recitation long 
which caused boredom and weariness, and so he commanded them to shorten the recitaiton and 
increase the rak'ats. That which 'Umar ibn 'Abdu'l-'Aziz did was preferred by Malik in the 

Mudawwana.] 

23.16f. Done in groups of two rak'ats 

You say the salam after each two rak'as. 'A'isha, may AUah be pleased with her, said that the 
Messenger of AUah, may AUah bless him and grant him peace, never did more than twelve 
rak'as foUowed by a single rak'a of witr, either in Ramadan or out of it. 

[Then he explains how the Messenger of Allah did them according to 'A'isha which differs from what 
is in the Muwatta' where she says that he did not exceed twelve at any time, Ramadan or not. It also 
differs from what is related from her that he prayed 15 and 17. Other things are related from his wives 
and they can be combined if the Prophet first prayed two to greet the msoque and then stood to do 
tahajjud with two quick ra'kats to start. When he left for the Subh prayer he prayed the two rak'ats of 
Fajr. So they can be added together.] 

1. Suhur is the meal eaten before fajr prior to a day's fasting. 

2. Thirtieth of Sha'ban if the new moon has not been seen the previous night. 

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Chapter Twenty-Four: On I'tikaf 

[This comes after fasting because it is prescribed as a result of fasting. He begins with its ruling:] 

21.1 Its Ruling 

I'tikaf is a meritorious voluntary act. It derives from a word meaning 'to stay in one place'. 

[It is best done in the last ten days of Ramadan since the Prophet did that. Linguistically it means 
means devotion to a thing and sticking to it. In the Shari'a, it means that the Mushm cHngs to the 
mosque for dhikr, the prayer, recitation of the Qur'an while fasting and refraining from intercourse and 
things which lead to it for a day or more with an intention. This definition includes its pillars which 
are: Islam, discrimination and being in a mosque, and what was mentioned of dhikr, prayer, etc, and 
refraining from intercourse and things leading up to it. Its pillars designate that on which the reahty of 
the thing is based. It is an act of devotion with those quaUfications.] 

24.2 Preconditions 

24.2a. Fasting 

You can only do i'tikaf if you are fasting 

[In the well-known position. It is not vaHd for someone who is not fasting, even on account of a vaHd 
excuse, as opposed to the one who says that the i'tikaf of the old man who cannot fast is vaHd and the 
physically weak and that fasting is not a precondition of i'tkaf in the school. Another precondition is:] 

24.2b. Consecutive 

and if it is consecutive and 

[As long as he has not vowed it separately. If he does vow that, then consecutiveness is not obHged.] 

24.2c. In a mosque 

in a mosque, as in the words of AUah ta'ala, 'While you are doing i'tikaf in mosques.' 

[It is not vaHd in houses, shops and other such places. I'tikaf is vaHd in any mosque, even if there are 
only three mosques in a town.] 

24.3. Concerning the mosque 

If the town is one where there is a Jumu'a, then i'tikaf must be done in the jama'a mosque, unless you 
are fulfilHng a vow to do a certain number of days in i'tikaf and these do not include the day of 
Jumu'a. 

[If there is a Jumu'a and he is someone who is obHged to go to Jumu'a and vows some days of which 
Jumu'a is one. So it must be in the Jama'a mosque in which Jumu'a is sound. It is not vaHd on the roof 
of the mosque nor in an adjoining house or washing place, nor in a storehouse since they enclose him 
and so resemble shops. ] 



24.4. Its length 

24.4a The best length 

According to us it best to do at least ten days. 

[In the Maliki school at least ten are recommended. Its most complete form is a month and it is 
disliked to do more. There is an opinion that its minimum is a day and a night and most complete is 
ten days and more than that is disliked, or different to what is best.] 

24.4b. Other lengths 

However, if someone makes a vow to do i'tikaf for one day or more, they must fulfil their vow. If 
the vow was just for one night, they must do i'tikaf for a day and a night. 

[The literal meaning would be that if he vowed a day, the night is not necessary. That is not the case. 
The school of the Mudawwana is different. If he vows a day, a day and a night is obhged. If you said 
this is unclear since how can he be obHged with what is disHked because the Mudawwana makes it 
clear that it is disUked for less than ten days according to the position that the minimum of what is 
recommended is ten days, the answer is that he is speaking about what he vows. It is obHged it even if 
it is disHked. Al-Uhjuri mentioned it. The well-known position is that he must do a day and a night if 
he vows a night. Sahnun says it is invaHd because if someone vows i'tikaf in the night without the 
precondition, it is not vaHd.] 

24.5 Breaking the fast while in i'tikaf 

24.5a. Deliberately 

If someone in i'tikaf deliberately breaks their fast, they have to begin their i'tikaf all over again 

[This is by eating or drinking. There is a difference between what is deHberate or forgetful as stated in 
the Mudawwana. Illness and menstruation are in the same category as forgetfulness. So when he eats 
out of forgetfulness or becomes ill or a woman menstruates, they do not have to begin again since it is 
not invaHdated and he makes it up after the excuse which broke the retreat no longer exists.] 

24.5b. Intercourse in i'tikaf 

and the same appUes to someone who has sexual intercourse while in i'tikaf whether during the 
day or the night and whether it is through forgetfulness or deUberate. 

[He adds in the Mudawwana "or kisses, has contact or touches." Ibn Naji says, "even if there is no 
pleasure." Abu'l-Hasan quaHfies it by experiencing or intending pleasure even if he does not feel it.] 

24.5c. FaUing ill while in i'tikaf 

If you fall ill in i'tikaf you can return home but you should complete your i'tikaf when you are 
well again. 

[If the illness prevents the person from remaining in the mosque or fasting rather than remaining in the 



mosque, he must return home with the illness which prevents remaining in the mosque, and is 
permitted to do so there is an impediment to fasting only. According to ar-Rajraji he is obhged to 
remain in the mosque. When he is healthy he returns the mosque and resumes the i'tikaf, rather than 
making up.] 

24.5d. Menstruating in i'tikaf 

The same applies to a woman who starts to menstruate in i'tikaf. 

[Or has bleeding from childbirth. She leaves and resumes it later.] 

24.5e. Restrictions which continue to apply 

The restrictions of i'tikaf continue to apply to both sick people and women who are 
menstruating during the time they are away from the mosque. When the woman regains her 
purity she should return immediately to the mosque whether this happens by night or by day. 

[So they are not permitted to do outside the mosque what is incompatible with i'tikaf except not 
fasting. When the menstruating woman becomes pure and has a ghusl, or the sick person recovers, 
whether it be night or day, they return to the mosque immediately. If they do not return at that time, 
they restart according to the well-known position. If they return, that day is not counted because of the 
impossibihty of fasting it.] 

24.6. Not leaving the mosque 
24.6a. Only to go to the lavatory 

People doing i'tikaf should not leave the mosque except for normal needs. 

[It is all that compels him to leave: urine, faeces, the ghusl for Jumu'a, the 'id, wudu', ghusl for janaba, 
eating and drinking provided that he does not go beyond the near place to the further place. Otherwise, 
his i'tikaf is invahdated. Another precondition that he does not engage in conversation with anyone. 
Otherwise his i'tikaf is invahdated. Then he clarifies the time in which i'tikaf begins :] 

24.6b. When you enter the mosque 

You should enter the mosque where you are intending to do your i'tikaf before sunset on the 
night you intend to start. 

[This is recommended. Compare it with what is in the two Sahih collections of the hadith of 'A'isha. 
She said, "When the Messenger of AUah wanted to do i'tikaf, he prayed Fajr and then entered into his 
i'tikaf." The answer is that he entered at the beginning of the time. He isolated himself in the place in 
which he intended to do i'tikaf after Subh. What what meant by his place of i'tikaf is the tent 'A'isha 
had set up for him, and he prayed Subh and then entered it.] 

24.7. What to avoid in Ftikaf 

While in i'tikaf you should not visit the sick, follow funeral processions or go out to transact any 
business. 



24.7a. Visiting the sick 

[While somone is in i'tikaf, he is forbidden to visit the sick, as long as it is not one of his parents or 
both of them. In such a case, he is obliged to go out to show filial devotion since it is an obligation in 
the Shari'a and his i'tikaf is invalidated.] 

24.7b. Funerals 

[He is not permitted to come out for the funeral prayer of both his parents. If he goes out, his i'tikaf is 
invalidated. He must go out to the funeral prayer for one of them since not going out is disobeying the 
living. That is not the case when they are both dead. His i'tikaf is invalidated. This apphes to his 
parents, even if they are unbehevers. He does not join the funeral prayer, even if it is placed adjacent 
to him, and if it is the funeral or a neighbour or righteous person.But if he does visit a sick person in 
the mosque or prays in a funeral prayer in it, his i'tikaf is not invahdated.] 

24.7c. Business 

[As for business, Ibn 'Umar asked, "Do his words, "does not go out to transact business" mean the 
usual going out because business takes in the markets and so it is prohibited to trade in the mosque or 
outside it, or do we say that he does not go out in the usual way and so it is permitted to trade inside 
the mosque? What is preferred is the first probabHty which coincides with what al-Aqfahasi said: "If 
he makes a contract on a sale inside the mosque, his i'tikaf is not invahdated." That is the case if the 
transaction is put in front of him. If he exceeds that, then his i'tikaf is invahdated unless it is through a 
broker and so it is prohibited without dispute. If it is without a broker and it is something sHght, it is 
permitted without disHke. If it is a lot, it is disHked, but it does not invaHdate the i'tikaf in two aspects, 
i.e. whether by a broker or not, as the sale is not invahd without disagreement i.e. whether it is 
forbidden or disHked. That is not imagined in the form of permission. He is permitted to go out for 
other than trade for what he cannot dispense with, even if he goes far outside, as long as he does not 
pass a closer place where he can buy, but with the precondition that he does not find anyone to sell to 
him.] 

24.7d. No preconditions 

You cannot make your i'tikaf conditional in any way. 

[It is not permitted to stupulate a condition in it. Its Hteral meaning it is forbidden, as "I will do i'tikaf 
for ten days. If I think I should leave, then I will leave," or he says, "I will do i'tikaf for the days rather 
than the nights," or the reverse. It is Hke that if he makes a precondition that if something occurs to 
him which obhges him to make it up, he wiU have to make it up. There is no difference in that 
between making a precondition before beginning it or afterwards. If any of that occurs, the 
precondition is invaHd and the i'tikaf is vahd.] 

24.8. Lack of impediments 

24.8a. The Imam can do it 

There is no harm in the imam of a mosque doing i'tikaf. 

[But it is better if he leaves it, meaning it is disHked for the Imam of the mosque. Or he indicates 



someone who says that the Imam of the mosque cannot do it. Ibn Waddah related from Sahnun that he 
did not permit the person in i'tikaf to act as Imam of the obligatory or nafila prayers. It is permitted 
that he be the Imam of the mosque with an equal balance on each side according to what Ibn Naji 
says, or it is recommended that he be the regular Imam. It is rehed upon. He reported the permission 
without his aim being refutation. Abu 'lmran reported that it is permitted. There is a text in the 
Mukhtasar that he is dishked it for the regular Imam. You that it is confirmed that the Prophet did 
i'tikaf while he was the Imam. It is not concealed from you that it weakens what is in the Mukhtasar 
and what is rehed on is the recommendation which is in agreement with the hadith.] 

24.8b. Marriage 

It is permissible for someone in i'tikaf to get married and for him to officiate at someone else's 
marriage. 

[It is quaUfied in the Mudawwana that he does it while he is in place. If it is elsewhere, it is disUked if 
it is in the mosque and forbidden if it is outside of the mosque and then his i'tikaf is invaUdated. It is 
also quaUfied by it not taking up a lot of his time. Otherwise it is disUked, whether he is the husband 
or the guardian. If it is said that the one in ihram is forbidden to contract a marriage, so what is the 
difference between him and the one in i'tikaf since they are both involved in a form of worship in 
which intercourse is forbidden, there are various answers, one of which is that the basic position is the 
permissibiUty of marriage for everyone. The person in ihram is removed from this by the statement of 
the Messenger of Allah that the person in iliram does not marry or give in marriage. The rest remands 
on its original basis which is permissibiUty.] 

24.9 Leaving i'tikaf 

24.9a When he leaves outside of Ramadan 

If you go into i'tikaf at the beginning of the month or in the middle of the month, when you leave 
from your i'tikaf you should do so after the Maghrib of its last day. 

[This is any month outside of Ramadan. He is permitted to leave his i'tikaf after Maghrib without 
dispute in the school. Tliis is outside of Ramadan.] 

24.9b. When he leaves in Ramadan 

However, if the period of your i'tikaf continues until the day of the 'ld al-Fitr then you should 
spend the night before the 'ld in the mosque and leave from it in the morning to go to the place 
where the 'id prayer is going to be held. 

[If his i'tikaf is in Ramadan, then the end is sunset on the day of the 'ld al-Fitr and so he is 
recommended to spend that night in the mosque until morning and go to the place of prayer since that 
is what the Prophet did, i.e. he connects one act of worship to another.] 

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Chapter Twenty-Five: On the zakat of money, crops, 

livestock and what comes out of mines; jizya and what 

should be taken from dhimmi merchants and merchants 

who come from the Dar al-Harb 

[In this chapter he also mentions mines and the zakat on merchandise. Linguistically zakat means 
growth and increase and it is used for the increase in crops and property. In the Shari'a it is a term used 
to designate the amount of money or goods taken from specific property when it reaches a specific 
amount at a specific time which must be spent in specific categories with specific ways. It is called 
zakat because the one who gives it grows by doing it with Allah Almighty, i.e. his rank with Him is 
raised by that. It is attested to by the words of the Almighty, "Take sadaqa from their wealth to purify 
and cleanse them" (9:103)] 

25.1 Its Ruling 

It is obligatory to pay zakat on money, crops and livestock. 

[Money consists gold and silver and is mentioned in respect to the tradition. What is mentioned of 
gold and silver is called "specie" ('ayn) by its honour. Crops consists of food groups used for life in 
general. Livestock refers to camels, cattle, and sheep and goats. 

Zakat became an obligation in the second year of Hijra. The evidence for its obligatory nature is the 
Book, Sunna and consensus. Whoever disputes its obhgatory nature is an unbeHever. If someone 
affirms that it is obhgatory but refuses to pay it, he is beaten and it is taken from him by force and that 
is enough: he is not an unbeHever. Ibn Habib says he is an unbeUever, but this is unhkely. 

There are preconditions for the obHgation and preconditions for the vaHdity. As for the first, they are 
seven in general because Islam is one of the preconditions of the obhgation since the unbeHevers are 
not responsible for the ruHngs of the Shari'a. The soundest position is that they are addressed to them, 
and so Islam is a precondition for its vahdity.] 

25.2. Its preconditions 

[The preconditions of the obHgation are: 

L Islam, 

2. Freedom, 

3. The nisab, 

4. Ownership, 

5. A year for other than treasure-trove and tenths, 

6. Lack of debt in money, 

7. The coming of the collector to the herds if there are collectors and they can reach them. 

The preconditions for its vahdity are four: 

1 . Intention, 

2. Its distribution in the place of its obHgation, 



3. Paying it after it is becomes obligatory, 

4. Paying it to a just Imam to take it and spend it if he exists or to its people, who are the eight 
classes indicated by the words which are indicated by the words of the Almighty: "Sadaqa are for 
the poor and the needy" (9:60)] 

25.3. The time of the obligation 

25.3a. On crops 

Zakat on crops must be paid on the day they are harvested. 

[There are two statements about grains and three about fruits. The first is by Malik who says that when 
the palms are appraised, the grapes are good, the olives are black or near to it, the crop was begun to 
ripen and does not need water, then zakat is due on it . Ibn 'Abd's-Salam said that it is the well-known 
position. The second is by Ibn Maslama is that it is only obhged on crops when they are harvested and 
only obUged on dates when they are cut. His evidence is the words of the Almighty, "Render the dues 
that are proper on the day that the harvest is gathered." (6:141)This is the meaning "harvest and 
cutting". The third is particular to dates which is that they are only obHged by estimation, which is 
made by al-Mughira. There is an order to these things: first soundness, then estimation and then 
cutting; and ripening is first and then harvest.] 

25.3b. On money and Uvestock 

Zakat on money and hvestock is paid once a year. 

[Money is other than mines and treasure-trove. Zakat is obliged on money and Hvestock once a year, 
after the end of a full year. Zarruq said, "The precondition of livestock after a year is that the collector 
comes in the well-known position if he exists and arrives. Otherwise it is obHged after the year by 
agreement. According to the well-known position, if it is paid before he comes, then it does not satisfy 
the requirement.] 

25.4 On farm produce 

25.4a. The minimum amount 

No zakat is due on any amount of dates or grain less than five wasqs. 

[Since it is sound that the Prophet said, "No zakat is due on grain or fruit until it reaches five 
wasqs." (Muslim) Ibn 'Umar said, "See whether legumes are included with grain, raisins and oHves 
with fruits or not. Some commentaries include it in grain and make grain include other things than 
fruits. There are 19 types: wheat, barley, sult-barley, rice, millet, sorghum, and Arabian wheat, and 
seven legumes: lentils, beans, broad beans, chick-peas, lupines, peas, grass peas, and oil seeds, which 
are the seeds of red radishes, sesame designated as sesame and cartham (safflower), and oHves and 
raisins. So there are twenty types of fruits. No zakat is obHged on others like cotton seeds or rape and 
the like. 

They mentioned two rules for the five wasqs: one is by measure and the other by weight.] 

25.4b. What the measure of the wasq is 



Five wasqs is the same as six and a fourth qafizes. (609.84 kg.) One wasq is sixty sa'as measuring 
by the sa'a of the Prophet, may AUah bless him and grant him peace. One sa'a is four mudds. 

[Wasq linguistically is joining one thing to another. The Almighty says, "and the night and all it 
shrouds (wasaga)," (84:17) i.e. joins and gathers the darkness and the stars. It is 60 sa's by the sa' of 
the Prophet. So he states that the nisab in the year is 747 mudds with the mudd of the Prophet. Then he 
goes on to explain the categories which are joined together and when they form the nisab, there is 
zakat due, and the types which are not joined since not all of the categories are combined to reach the 
nisab.] 

25.4c. The case of certain grains 

Wheat, barley and sult barley are considered as one category for zakat purposes 

[Wheat, barley and sult barley are combined as a single category of grain as is stated in the School. 
They are also a single category in sales according to the well-known position and so disparity in 
selling one for the other is forbidden. They are combined when they are cultivated and harvested in 
the same year. When they are cultivated in two or more years, it is said that one considers what is 
grown at the same time and they are added to each another, and what is grown at one time is not added 
to what is grown at another time. It is said that what is considered is the crop. If he plants the second 
before harvesting the first, it is added to it. Otherwise it is not. The first is from Malik in the book of 
Ibn Sahnun and the second by Ibn Maslama.] 

25.4d. When zakat is due on them 

so that if together they add up to five wasqs you have to pay zakat on them. 

[Ibn 'Umar said that he pays from each grain what is representative of it and so he pays the highest 
from the highest, the lowest from the lowest, and the middle from the middle. If he chooses to pay the 
highest grain for the lowest, that is allowed. If he pays the lowest for the highest, that is not allowed. 
So there is agreement regrding grains that he pays from every type what is representative of it. There 
is agreement regarding animals that he pays the middle. There is disagreement about dates: it is said 
that they are like livestock, and it is said like grains.] 

25.4e. Pulses are combined 

In the same way different kinds of pulses are added together 

The Maliki School considers that pulses are considered as a single category for zakat, but not for 
selling. Pulses includes various types: peas, chickpeas, lentils, grass peas, broad beans, lupins, beans 
and sesame seeds. The commentator on the Muwatta' said that radish seeds are included with them.] 

25.4f. Dates and raisins 

and this also applies to different varieties of dates and raisins. 

[The same is for dates and raisins when they reach five wasqs.] 
25.4g. Rice, sorghum and millet are different categories 



However rice, sorghum and millet are each considered to be in a different category and are not 
added together when calculating zakat. 

[Each of these are a separate category and according to the School they are not added together because 
they are clearly separate and their form differs. He says this is in reference to zakat to indicate the the 
person who says that they are all one category in usury, i.e. disparity is not allowed between them. 
That is the position of Ibn Wahb. The well-known position differs from that.] 

25.4h. What is done with the various types of dates 

If there are various types of dates in a date-garden you use the middle quahty when paying zakat. 

[So they are good, middle and poor. In the well-known position, the middle variety are used. If there is 
one type, it is taken from it, be it is good or poor. He does not have to bring the middle or the best of 
it. If there is both excellent and poor, he takes each from its share, even if the poor is few, because the 
basis is that zakat is taken from its source by the words of the Prophet: "The zakat of every property is 
from it." The sunna is makes certain requirements in livestock. So the sunna is that it is paid from the 
generahty of Hvestock because it is taken from the middle and the rest remains on its root.] 

25.4i. Olives 

You pay zakat on oUves when the amount of them reaches five wasqs, paying the zakat in oil. 

[i.e. measured in dry ones. Ibn Wahb says that there is no zakat on them nor in anything which has oil. 
The sound position in the basis of the School, i.e. sound and current according to the rule of the 
School is that that which is not a foodstuff has no zakat paid on it. We read in at-Tahqiq, "Even it is 
not a comestible, it is included in it if it is sound for food." According to the statement that there is 
zakat, its zakat is given from its oil, not from its grain in the well-known position. There is no 
precondition that oil reach the nisab in weight. The precondition is the grain reaching the nisab, as was 
clearly stated by the Shaykh. Ibn al-Hajib reported the agreement on that. If it is paid from its grain, 
that is not allowed.] 

25.4J. Zakatable seeds 

You also pay zakat on sesame seeds and radish seed in oil for them. If you sell this produce, it is 
possible to pay the zakat owed using the money you have received, if Allah wills. 

[And other things which are pressed for oil when that reaches the nisab. if the oHves are sold, then it is 
paid from the price whether the price reaches the nisab or not. The nisab of the grain itself is only 
considered, not the price. One of them said that he said, "If Allah wills" because of the weakness of 
this position, and some say that it is because of the strength of the disagreement regarding it. That 
which is in the Mukhtasar and its commentary is that if olives and their like have oil, it is paid from 
their oil. If they have no oil, Hke olives of Egypt, it is paid from their price. It is Hke that with what is 
it not dried, Hke the fresh dates and grapes of Egypt and green broad beans. Zakat is paid from their 
price, even if they are sold for a lot less than that on which zakat is obliged if it is estimated to be five 
wasqs. If it is less than that, nothing is obHged on it, even if he sells it for many times more than what 
would incur zakat.] 

25.5.k. Fruit and vegetables 



You do not pay zakat on fruit and vegetables. 

[Like apples and apricots, nor vegetables based on what is reported by Mu'adh ibn Jabal: the 
Messenger of Allah said, ""There is a tenth ('ushr) on land watered by the sky or springs or running 
springs.There is half an 'ushr (5%) on land which is irrigated," i.e. that which is transported from a 
river or well to water crops by some device. That is about dates, wheat and grains. As for cucumbers 
and watermelons, they are exempt as the Messenger of Allah exempted them.] 

25.6. On Money 

25.6a. The nisab on gold 

There is no zakat on gold if you have less than twenty dinars. If the amount reaches twenty 
dinars you pay one half of a dinar, in other words, one-fortieth of the total amount. Any more 
than that is calculated on the same basis, however small the additional amount is. 

25.6b. The nisab on silver 

There is no zakat on silver if you have less than two hundred dirhams, which is five uqiyyas - 
one uqiyya being forty dirhams. This is based on seven dinars being of the same weight as ten 
dirhams. If you have two hundred such dirhams you pay one-fortieth, that is five dirhams. 
Anything more than that is calculated on the same basis. 

[By the legal dirham, which is the Makkan dirham. Its weight is 555 grains of middle barley corns. 
Each dinar weighs 72 grains. It is said that it is the dirham of measure because by the legal measures.] 

25.6c. Gold and silver are a single category 

Gold and silver and considered as one category for the purposes of zakat. So if, for example, 
someone has one hundred dirhams and ten dinars they should pay one-fortieth of each. 

[Since that is what the Prophet did in that. It is clarified in at-Tahqiq: "It is related that Bukayr ibn 
'Abdullah ibn al-Ashajj said, 'The sunna is that the Prophet joined gold to silver and silver to gold and 
took zakat from them." 

He goes into a subcategory of that. The joining is by parts and not by value. The opposite would be to 
make each dinar equal to ten dirhams, even if its value is many times over, as when he has 100 
dirhams and ten dinars, or 150 and 5 dinars. If he has 180 dirhams and 1 dinar equal to 20 dirhams, he 
does not pay anything. It is permitted to pay one of the two types for the other according to the well- 
known position.] 

25.7. On Merchandise 

25.7a. Only on trading merchandise 

There is no zakat on goods unless they are for trading purposes. 

[Goods comprises slaves, real estate, land, clothes, wheat, and all grains, fruits and animals when they 
are less than the nisab. As for private property, there is no zakat on it by agreement. As for 



merchandise, there is zakat on it by agreement. As for hoarding which is what is kept from the 
markets for a large profit, zakat is obhged on it. ] 

25.7b. Preconditions 

[There are preconditions for the obUgation of zakat on it. 

1. One of them is the intention , which is indicated by "unless they are for trading purposes." This 
means he only intends them for commerce, or commerce as well as private ownership, or revenue. He 
is careful about the lack of intention so when there is an exchange of goods which is not intended for 
commerce, as when it is simply for ownership or just for revenue or both, then there is no zakat. 

2. The second precondition is that he keeps thegoods from the markets until a time when there is a 
good profit.] 

25.7c. Sale income 

If you sell goods after one year or more from the day you bought them or paid zakat on their 
price, 

[3. The third precondition is that he owns them by paying for them. This precludes goods possessed 
through inheritance, gifts or the Hke. There is no zakat on them except after a year from the day their 
price is received, even if he delays receiving it to avoid zakat. 

4. The fourth is that he sells them for money , not that he sells them at all or sells them for other than 
money, unless selHng them not for money is out of the intention to evade zakat. There is no difference 
in selUng between it being real or metaphorical in that a person consumes the item and the merchant 
takes his price. What is sold must reach the nisab because stored goods are not evaluated as opposed 
to the situation where there is a constant turnover. So simple selHng in respect of it is enough for the 
existence of zakat, even if the price of what he sells is less than the nisab because he must value the 
rest of his goods. This precondition is taken from his words:] 

25.7c. Length of time 

then you only have to pay one year's zakat on the proceeds of the goods whether these goods 
were in your possession for one year or more than one year before you sold them. 

[To exclude the one who sells it for goods. He does not pay zakat. 

5. The fifth precondition is that a year passes from the day the zakat was paid on the capital or he 
acquires it. He is silent about the precondition, which is that the basis of those goods be money by 
which he bought them. If it is less than the nisab or was by barter, even private property which he then 
he sells and uses to buy those goods for the sake of trade. If he sells them before the end of the year, 
there is no zakat on them until the year has passed. 

Then he moves to speaking about the merchandise which has a constant turnover, which are goods 
which he buys for trade and sells without waiting not wait for a favourable market or a slack market 
Uke all owners of shops with a constant turnover. This is an exception to the previous statement.] 



25.7d. The case of constant turnover 

However, if you are a merchant with a constant turnover so that you never keep money or goods 
in your possession for any length of time then you should assess your goods every year and pay 
zakat on them and on whatever cash you have in hand at that time. 

[He sells for current price and replaces it and does not wait for a good market to sell or a slack market 
to buy. Then you assess your goods of every category for what they are normally sold at that time time 
for a price equivalent to the common sale rather than the forced sale because the forced sale is at a 
great reduction. Brocade and similar cloth, hke fine cotton garments, dehcate cloth, and real estate, are 
assessed in gold, and coarse garments and daily wear are assessed in silver. He begins the assessment, 
i.e. the tax year, according to Ashhab from the day he begins to trade. Al-Baji said that it is from the 
day the zakat of the price is taken or from the day he has profit. After assessment, zakat is paid on the 
merchandise provided some have been sold, even a dirham. There is no difference between selHng 
something at the beginning or the end of the year. When he does not sell anything or has a sale a 
month after the year, for instance, he assesses it at that point, and transfers his year to that month and 
voids the extra over the year. It is Hke that the one who deals in money if it is with him. It is hke that 
with the zakat of his debt when it is immediately taken.] 

25.7e. Zakat on investments 

Zakat is due on invested wealth when that wealth has been in your possession for one year. 

[It would Hterally mean whether there was a nisab or not. That is the case in the well-known position. 
For example, he has a dinar which remains with him for 1 1 months. Then he buys goods with it which 
he sells after a month for 20. He pays zakat now, when he sells them after a month, relative ot the fact 
that it was with him for 1 1 months, and it becomes the second year when it is completed.] 

[If he enters the zakatable level in the year, he pays for the entire year.] 

25.7f. Zakat on the offspring of Uvestock 

Similarly zakat is due on the offspring of Uvestock if the mother animals have been in your 
possession for a year. 

[The basis for that is the statement of 'Umar for them to count the lambs with their mothers but not to 
take them. The profit is Uke the lambs, and lambs include the male and female young sheep and young 
goats at the moment which they are born.] 

25.8. Debts 

25.8a. Debts cancel out wealth 

If you have wealth on which zakat is due but you also have a debt of the same amount or one 
which will reduce your wealth to less than the amount on which zakat is due then you do not 
have to pay zakat. 

[So i f you have 20 dirhams and owe a debt in goods, for instance, or food, Hvestock or something 
else, immediate or deferred, equal to the amount or one which will reduce it below the minimum on 



which zakat is due (as when he has 20 dirhams and owes half a dinar) there is no zakat in both cases. 
The apparent meaning of the words of the Shaykh is that the debt cancels zakat, even if it is the mahr 
of this wife who is in his care, and even more so if she is divorced and he owes her the mahr. It is the 
preferred from the two well-known positions. In the other well-known position, it is not cancelled. 

Acording to the well-known position, the debt cancels zakat, even the debt of the zakat, as opposed to 
the debts of vows and expiations which do not cancel zakat. The difference is that the debt of zakat is 
sought by the just Imam, and zakat is taken, even by force, which is not the case with vows and 
expiations. Then there is an exception from that generality.] 

25.8b. If you have other assets 

If, however, you have other assets on which zakat is not due such as personal effects or slaves or 
domestic animals or private property which could be used to pay off your debt, then you do pay 
zakat on your wealth. 

[This is when someone has wealth on which zakat is due and has a debt equal to it; or one which 
reduces the zakatable property. If he has goods like slaves, real estate, residences, garments, grains, 
dates and animals less than the nisab, or even if he has grains, dates or animals on which there is 
zakat, he puts that against the debt he owes and pays zakat. Real estate means that which has no 
lintels, like open land, houses is property with a lintel hke houses. If the wealth on which zakat is not 
obHged of his personal goods is enough to discharge the debt, it is put opposite the debt he owes with 
the precondition that he has had it for a year. The year of everything is according to it. This appHes to 
things that can be sold to settle the debt.] 

25.8c. The difference 

If your assets are not sufficient to pay your debt, then you calculate the difference between the 
debt and your assets and subtract the difference from the wealth on which zakat is due. If there 
is still enough left for zakat to be due you must pay the zakat. 

[It is assessed according to what is left. So if he has 30 dinars and owes 20 and has goods which could 
be sold for ten to settle the debt and has had them for a year, ten are be taken from the 30 and and put 
opposite the debt. What is meant is not acutal taking and giving since it is permitted to delay the term 
of the debt. So 20 remain free of the debt and zakat is paid on them. 

Then he clarifies zakat which is not cancelled by debt.] 

25.8d. Debt does not affect zakat in kind 

Debt does not, however, affect the obUgation to pay zakat on grain, dates or Uvestock. 

[Nor does it affect the zakat of mines or treasure. For instance, he may have some of these things and 
owe a debt which would absorb all he has. He still must pay zakat on it and the debt does not cancel 
what is due on it. The difference between that and money is that the sunna has come that the debt 
affects money. As for Hvestock and fruits, the Messenger of Allah and the khahfs after him sent 
assesors and agents and they estimated for the people and took the zakat of their Hvestock from them 
and did not ask whether they had a debt or not. 



Similarly the debt does not cancel Zakat al-Fitr according to Ashhab, and it is the preferred position. 
According to 'Abdu'l-Wahhab it cancels it.] 

25.9 If one has claim to a debt 

25.9a No zakat on money owed until it is received 

You do not have to pay zakat on money which is owed to you until after you have received it and 
if the debt has been outstanding for a number of years you only pay one year's zakat on it after 
it is repaid. 

[Whether it is money or goods, until he receives it, meaning the loan and unpaid sales when it is 
hoarded. An example of that is when he has some money and lends it to a man or buys goods with it 
and then sells it with a debt. It does not matter how many years pass: the zakat of its owner is due one 
year after it it received if it is the minimum or is added to money he has and it reaches the minimum. It 
is evident he pays for just one year, even if he delays it to evade zakat. Ibn al-Qasim said that if he 
leaves it to evade zakat, then he pays for the past years.] 

25.9b. The case of goods sold 

This is the same as when you own goods. You only pay zakat on them after you have sold them. 

[These are goods stored up for trade. They are the same as the debt since their source is money. He 
pays zakat for one year even if they remain for many years.] 

25.9b. Claims which are inherited 

If the debt owing to you on the goods has been inherited by you, you wait for one year after 
receiving payment before paying the zakat due. 

[If there is an inheritance which he does not receive for some years, or the goods which he sells are 
from inheritance, i.e. he inherited goods and sells them but does not receive that price for some years, 
or the debt is from a gift or sadaqa in the possession of the giver or a brideprice in the hand of the 
husband or khul' which he pays, or the fine of a tort in the hand of the perpetuator or his guardian, 
there is no zakat on it except after a year from when he takes it, even if he delays it out of avoidance. 
If the gift remains in the possession of its giver before giving and taking for two years, there is no 
zakat on it for previous years from either the giver or receiver according to Sahnun because the 
ownership is clear when the recepient takes it on the day of the sadaqa and that is why he had its 
proceeds from the day it is given.] 

25.10 Minors and slaves 

25.10a. Minors 

Zakat must be paid on wealth belonging to minors whether it is in the form of money, crops or 
livestock. 

[Based on what is in the Muwatta' from 'Abdu'r-Rahman ibn al-Qasim from his father. He said, 
"'A'isha used to look after me and one of my brothers in her house. We were orphans. She used to pay 



the zakat from our property." (17.6.13) In it 'Umar said, "Trade with the property of orphans and then 
it will not be eaten away by zakat." (17.6.12) The like of this is not stated out of opinion. The guardian 
of orphans does not pay zakat for them until the matter has been presented to the Imam or Qadi. The 
gist of the fiqh of the question is that what is considered is the school of the trustee because disposal 
depends on him and not on the school of the father of the children since he is dead and the property 
has moved on from him, nor the school of the child because he is not responsible for it. So the trustee 
does not pay its zakat if his school is that it is cancelled for the child. Zakat is also paid on the 
property of the insane.] 

25.10b. Zakat al-Fitr of Minors 

Zakat al-fitr must also be paid on their behalf. 

25.10c. Slaves 

Slaves, including those who are partially but not completely freed, do not have to pay zakat on any of 
these categories. 

[Slaves of any category do not pat zakat. That applies to all the categories and to zakat al-Fitr.] 

25.10d. After slaves are free 

If they have been completely freed they do not pay zakat on any wealth in their possession until a 
whole year has passed from the day when they were freed. 

[It is a precondition that they own it for a year: cash or livestock.] 

25.11 Property for personal use 

25.11a. No zakat on personal property 

No zakat is payable on slaves, servants, horses, your house nor on any private property or goods 
which are for your own personal use nor on jewellery which in regular use. 

[There is no zakat on such property as indicated by the hadith in the two Sahih collections where the 
Prophet said, "There is no zakat owed by the Muslim on his slaves or horses." It is not due on 
jewellery which is worn by women even if it belongs to a man. From this it might be assumed that 
jewellery which is rented must have zakat paid on it. The evident text of the Mudawwana is that there 
is no zakat, and that is the accepted position. As for jewellery for the purpose of trade, there is zakat 
on it by consensus whether it belongs to a man or a woman, and its zakat is a year from the time when 
it is intended to trade in it. It is weighed every year and if it reaches the minimum, or he has gold and 
silver which will complete the nisab. ] 

25.1 Ib. Inheriting that on which zakat has been paid 

If you inherit or are given any goods or take any produce, on which zakat has already been paid, 
from your land and then sell any of these things, no zakat is due on the proceeds until a year has 
elapsed. 



[The literal meaning of 'selling' is whether it is sold for money or on credit, and its literal meaning is 
also whether or not he leaves it to avoid zakat. 'Produce' is what is normally produced since its 
judgement is the same when it comes from land which is not his, as when he rents land and grows 
crops in it. So he pays zakat on it when the crop is produced, and it is like that if he did not pay zakat 
on it on. ] 

25.12 Mines 

25.12a. The zakat on mines 

Zakat is due on gold or silver extracted from mines as soon as the weight of gold amounts to 
twenty dinars or the weight of silver to five uqiyyas. One-fortieth must be paid on the day it is 
extracted. 

[By his hteral words, this would apply to nuggets found without mining or with Uttle work. The 
famous well-known is that there is a fifth on mines and that fifth is paid to the Imam if he is just. 
Otherwise it is distributed to the poor MusHms. There is no zakat on mined things other than gold and 
silver - hke lead, copper, iron, and arsenic. This zakat is due when it reaches the minimum weight. 
One-fortieth is due on that, not a fifth by the generahty of the statement of the Prophet, " And there is 
no zakat on what is less than 5 awqiyyas." This impHes that when there is five awqiyyas, there is zakat 
on it, and that includes ore. It is due the day it is extracted and the year is not a precondition for it. al- 
Aqfahasi said that the Shaykh means the year is not a precondition and he means after it is extracted 
because the obHgation is only connected to it after it is extracted. It is one of two statements. The 
famous one is how al-Aqfashasi appHed the Risala as meaning after extraction. So the obHgation is 
connected to its mining and not its extraction.] 

25.12b. Further payment of zakat 

After this zakat is due on all gold and silver continuously extracted from the same deposit, 
however small the amount until such time as that deposit has been worked dry. If work is begun 
on another deposit, no zakat is due until the amount extracted reaches the amount on which 
zakat is due. 

[This continuity is probably in obtaining and or work or in both together, and so there are three 
possibHties, and he prefers the first. When he begins a new work, then there is no zakat until the nisab 
is reached as was the first case. ] 

25.13 Jizya 

25.13a. Who pays jizya 

Jizya is taken from the men of the people of dhimma status provided that they are both free and 
adult. It is not taken from their women, their children, or their slaves. 

[Ibn Rushd defines it thus: what is taken from the people of disbeHef in repayment for their security 
and sparing their Hves while they remain unbeHevers. It is derived from jaza' (repayment) which is 
exchange, because they receive security in exchange for the money they pay. We offer them security 
and they offer money. It is not taken from three categories: women, children and slaves because Allah 
Almighty has obhged it on those who can fight, and generally that is men rather than women and 



children.] 

25.13b. Its Preconditions 

[The author implies that there are four preconditions for paying jizya: male, adulthood, freedom and 
disbelief. There is also a precondition that he mix socially with the people of his deen. Jizya is not 
taken from someone alone in a monastery or hermitage. It is a precondition that the unbeliever remain 
an unbeliever. It is not taken from the apostate because he is not confirmed in his disbehef. Sanity and 
the abihty to pay it are two preconditions. It is not taken from the madman nor from the pauper who 
has nothing.] 

25.13c. Magians and Christian Arabs 

It is taken from Magians and from Christian Arabs. 

['Abdu'l-Wahhab said it appHes to both Arabs and non-Arabs. He means universahty by that to refute 
the one who opposes that.] 

25.13d. Its amount 

For people who use gold the jizya is four dinars and for people who use silver it is forty dirhams. 

[This apphes to people conquered by force who are people of the unbehevers whose lands have taken 
by force. It is Hke that for the people of truce who are unbehevers who protected their land by making 
peace in exchange for something which they paid of their property. If something particular is 
determined from them, it is taken, be it httle or a lot. ] 

25.13e. Its reduction 

It can be made less for people who are poor. 

[It can be lessened for the poor according to what the Imam relates. If someone does not have the 
abiUty to pay something, it is cancelled for him. Ibn Habib said that it is not taken from the poor and 
al-Lakhmi recommended that.] 

25.13f. Impost on trading goods 

Those among them who are engaged in long-distance trading should pay one tenth of what they 
receive when they sell their goods even if they come and go several times in on year. 

[Meaning the people of dhimma, men or women, free or slaves, or children. It is from a place where 
jizya is not paid to one where jizya is paid. Ibn al-Qasim said it is a tenth of the sale price. Ibn Habib 
said it is a tenth of what they bring, Hke the harbis. According to the position of Ibn al-Qasim, if they 
want to return before they buy or sell, it is not due from them. It is the evident meaning of the words 
here. According to the position of Ibn Habib, it is obliged on them. The source of the dispute is 
whether what is taken from them is connected to benefit or to arrival in the region. It is understood 
from the words that the tenth is not taken from them when they trade in their land, and that is the case. 
Then he continues about a tenth of the price which is taken even if they come and go several times in 
the year. Abu Hanifa and ash-Shafi'i say that it is only taken from them once a year. We have what 



'Umar did. The use and judgement are repeated when the cause is repeated.] 

25.13g. Food for Makka or Madina 

If they are carrying food destined specifically for Makka or Madina only one-twentieth of what 
they sell it for should be taken. 

[If the people of the dhimma carry food, meaning wheat and oil, or it is said that it means all food 
products. As for things other than food, hke goods, the full tenth is taken from their price.] 

25.13h. Harbi traders paying a tenth 

A tenth is also levied from traders who come from Dar al-Harb (the land of war - beyond the 
frontiers of Islam) 

[This is on what they bring whether they sell or not, and whether they sell in one land or all of the 
lands of Islam. It is the position of Ibn al-Qasim. His position was given about the people of dhimma 
that it is not taken from them until there is a sale. There is a difference between them is that the people 
of harb obtain security while they are in the land of Islam, and all lands of Islam are Uke one land. As 
for the people of dhimma, it is taken from them by their benefit and they are not forbidden our lands. 
So when their benefit is repeated, taking from them is repeated. The apparent meaning of the words of 
the shaykh is that the tenth is not decreased, even if the Imam thinks that should be done. That is that 
position of MaHk and Ashhab. In short, if it before ahghting, an agreement can be made with them for 
more than a tenth. If it is after they camp, only a tenth is taken from them. Ibn al-Qasim said, 'Tt is 
taken from them according to the opinion of the ruler." There may be stipulation for more than that 
when a safe conduct has been previously agreed.] 

25.13g. When other terms have been agreed 

unless they have agreed to terms demanding more than that. 

[It is permitted to take the greater amount which is stipulated. Ibn Naji said: they cannot sell wine to a 
MusHm by agreement. The well-known postion is that they are able to sell it to others. There is the 
text of the words of Ibn 'Umar, " When they bring wine and pigs and there are people of dhimma who 
buy that from them,they are left, and the tenth is taken from them after selling. If there is no one there 
to buy that from them, they return with it and are not allowed to to import it.] 

25.14 Treasure-trove 

25.14a. What treasure-trove is 

If someone comes upon treasure (rikaz) that was buried in the time of the JahiUyya (before 
Islam) 

[Ibn Habib added in al-Wadiha that it is (rikaz) in particular. Kanz is appHed to what was buried in the 
Jahiliyya and buried in Islam. There is disagreement about whether it is particular to gold and silver or 
general, including other things Hke pearls, copper and lead. There are two positions reported by Malik. 
The author of the Mukhtasar confines himself to the second, and says that it is appHed to treasure- 
trove. If he doubts whether it is jahiH or not, then the signs are studied. If there are none, that was 



mostly done by them. Al-Fakhani said it is known to be part of tlie scliool which Malik preferred it. 
Ibn al-Qasim reported that it is particular to gold and silver and its judgment is obliged on it.] 

25.14b. What is paid on it 

he must pay the fifth. 

[The apparent meaning would be even if it is less than the minimum, and this is the case in the well- 
known position because the Prophet said, "There is a fifth on treasure" and that is general to a lot and 
a httle. It is also clear that Islam and freedom are not preconditions. It also appears that there is a fifth 
in it, even if it is found by a lot of expense or work in extracting it. There is zakat on it according to 
what is in the Mudawwana and Muwatta'. 

It also appears that it is absolutely belongs to the one who finds it. Ibn 'Umar affirmed that, but that is 
not always the case. If it is found in the wilds of the land of Islam, it belongs to its finder. If he finds in 
it in someone's property, then it is his by agreement. This is the judgement of treasure. 

As for what the sea throws up to the shore, Uke amber, pearls and other jewellry which he finds, they 
belong to the one who finds them and there is no fifth. Al-Fakhani said unless prior protected 
ownership is proven by a Mushm or dhimmi. There are two statements: Ibn al-Qasim heard that 
someone who discards his goods out of fear of drowning takes them from the one who appropriated 
them. It is Hke that what he leaves due to constriction and is unable to take. There are two positions.] 

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Chapter Twenty Six: On the Zakat of Livestock 

26.1. Its judgement 

Zakat on camels, cows, sheep and goats is obligatory. 

[Zakat is obliged on what was mentioned. That is stated by Mahkis since the Prophet said, "There is 
no zakat owed by a Mushm on his horses or slaves." The apparent words of the author is that zakat is 
obHged on Hvestock absolutely, foddered or work animals. It is the School. According to Abu Hanifa 
and ash-ShafiOi, there is no zakat on work animals since he said, "There is zakat on grazing sheep." 
He begins with the obHgation of zakat on camels to foUow the hadith since the Prophet did that in the 
letter on zakat written for OAmr ibn Hazm. There are 1 1 obhgations in its zakat, four of which are 
taken from a different species, sheep, and seven which are taken from camels.] 

26.2. On Camels 

26.2a. Five to nine camels 

There is no zakat on less than five camels but on five to nine camels you must give either a sheep 
or a goat which is in its second year depending on which of the two animals is most commonly 
kept by the people of the area. 

[When it reaches this number, one owes a sheep which has been ahve for one year and begun the next. 
There is no difference between the male and female sheep or goat. The judgement is based on what is 
common. If it is sheep, it is taken from sheep. If it is goats, it is taken from them. If the owner of the 
property gives a camel instead of the obHged sheep, it is permissible because it is of the same type of 
property and is worth more than is what is obHged of him. The hmit for a single sheep is nine. So the 
shortfall (waqs) is four, which is the smaUest waqs. ] 

26.2b. Ten to twenty-five 

You must give two sheep or goats for ten to fourteen camels and three sheep or goats for fifteen 
to nineteen camels. For twenty to twenty-five camels you must give four sheep or goats. 

[The shortfaU in each of these categories are four.] 

26.2c. Twenty-five to thirty-five 

For twenty-five to thirty-five camels you must give a female camel in its second year (bint 
makhad) or if there is not one available a male camel in its third year (ibn labun). 

[It appears that it has completed two years, and elsewhere it states that it has begun the second year. It 
is caUed bint makhad because its mother has given birth because the camel is pregnant for a year and 
cares for the young for a year. If there are none available or it is damaged, then it is necessary to take a 
male which has completed the second year and begun the third. If there is neither, the collector 
charges him for a bint makhad, whether he Hkes it or not, and then makes the judgement of the 
absence of both of them Hke that of their existence. Then he comes with a ibn labun at that point, it is 
up to the collector to do what he thinks best. If he thinks it right, he takes it. Otherwise he obHges him 
the bint makhad.] 



26.2d. Thirty-six to forty-five 

For thirty-six to forty-five camels you must give a female camel aged between two and five years 
(bint labun). 

[The shortfall in this is ten. What is meant is not having lived three full years, but what has two full 
years and begun the third. The shortfall at the end is 9.] 

26.2e. Forty-six to sixty 

For forty-six to sixty camels you must give a female camel in its fourth year capable of carrying 
loads and bearing children (hiqqa). 

[If he pays it with two bint labuns, that does not satisfy it, even if they are equal in their value to its 
value as opposed to the view ash-Shafi'i. What is meant is what has completed its third year and begun 
its fourth. The shortfall in this obhgation is 14.] 

26.2f. Sixty-one to seventy-five 

For sixty-one to seventy-five camels you must give a female camel in its fifth year (jadh'a). 

[Then after this the obHgation changes. What is meant is one which has completed its fourth year and 
begun the fifth. It is the last of the categories taken for paying the zakat of camels. The shortfall is 14.] 

26.2g Seventy-six to ninety 

For seventy-six to ninety camels you must give two female camels in their third year (bint 
labun). 

[The shortfall is 14.] 

26.2h. Ninety-one to 120 

For ninety-one to one hundred and twenty camels you must give two hiqqas. 

[The shortfall is 29. ] 

26.2i More than 120 

For any more than this you give one hiqqa for every fifty camels and one bint labun for every 
forty. 

[For more than 120, the obHgation is this.] 

26.3. Zakat on cattle 

26.3a. The nisab 

There is no zakat on less than thirty cattle. 



[Its nisab is 30. Forty and more are su bject.] 

26.3b. Thirty to forty 

ff there are thirty you must give one in its third year (tabi'). 

[30 to 40 have a calf in its third year, which is called that because it follows its mother. It is would 
appear from the words that it is a precondition that it be male, but that is not the case. The well-known 
position is that it is not a precondition. It must have completed two years.] 

26.3c. Forty 

This applies up to forty. If there are forty you must give a cow in its fourth year (musinna or 
thaniyya) - only females are acceptable. 

[When the number reaches forty, the obligation changes. One owes a cow in the fourth year, and it is 
only taken in females. If there is no four year old cow, its owner is compelled to bring it unless he 
gives better than it, which is a five year cow. The musinna has full four years according to Ibn Habib 
and 'Abdu'l-Wahhab.] 

26.3d. Third nisab: More than forty 

If there are more than that you must give a musinna for every forty and a tabi' for every thirty. 

[If there are five more than forty, there is nothing on it. If it reaches 50, there is nothing on the ten in 
our view. When it reaches 60, there are two tabi' on them. If it reaches 70,there is a tabi' and a 
musinna. If it reaches 80, there are two musinna. What is more goes according to its rule.] 

26.4. Zakat on sheep and goats 

26.4a. Nisab and up to 120 

There is no zakat on sheep and goats until their number reaches forty. If you passes forty you 
must give one in its fifth year (jadh'a) or one in its fourth year (thaniyya). This applies up to one 
hundred and twenty animals. 

[Neither male or female is specified. Ibn 'Umar said that it was clarified in the nisab of camels.] 

26.4b. Second nisab: 120 to 200 

If you have between one hundred and twenty and two hundred sheep and/or goats you must give 
two. 

[So the shortfall is 80. Then he indicates the second obhgation and its shortfall here is 79.] 

26.4c. Third nisab: 200 to 300 

For two hundred and one to three hundred you must give three and for every additional 
hundred you give one animal. 



[He said in al-Jallab, in what is more than 300, there is a sheep for every 100. For 399 there are three 
sheep and for 400 there are four sheep and for 500 there are five sheep and so forth. ] 

26.5. Computation of zakat on animals 

26.5a. No zakat on shortfalls 

Zakat is not required on any number of animals between the figures mentioned and this ruUng 
appUes to all the types of animals mentioned above. 

[Then he explains the judgement of the shortfall between the obligations, saying that there is no zakat 
on the shortfalls. The shortfall is what falls short of the nisab. It is a technical term for all the types of 
livestock.] 

26.5b. Sheep and goats are one category 

Sheep and goats are considered as one category for zakat purposes 

[This is by consensus. That is what he said in at-Tahqiq because the name of the species includes both 
of them in the words of the Prophet. So there is a sheep for every forty goats.] 

26.5c. Cattle and buffaloes are one category 

as are cattle and buffaloes 

[This is by agreement because the generic name includes them all, as the Prophet said, "There is a tabi' 
in every 30.] 

26.5d. Bactrian and dromedary camels are one category 

and also Bactrian and dromedary camels. 

[These are the camels of the people of Khorasan since camel is used for both of them in the words of 
the Prophet.] 

26.6. The zakat of joint owners 

26.6a. How it is paid 

The owners of herds which are inixed together pay zakat jointly and settle between themselves 
the share each must pay. 

[This is according to the number of animals. That partnership on which it is obliged has the following 
preconditions: it is taken from the two owners as it is taken from one owner in amount, age, and 
category as was mentioned. If each of three has forty sheep, then one sheep is obliged, each owing a 
third. The example of the second is that when each has 36 camels and then a jadh'a is obliged and each 
owes a half. The third is that one has 80 sheep and the other 40 goats, and one sheep is obliged, two 
thirds from one and one-third from the other. 



The benefit of partnership can be lightening as when each has forty sheep. On their own, they would 
each owe one sheep, and together they owe only one sheep. It could make it heavier as when each has 
120 sheep and each of them would only owe one sheep, but they owe three sheep when they are 
together. Or it may have no benefit, as when each has 100 sheep and each alone would owe one, and it 
is the same together. A precondition for the two owners being like one is that each of them has a 
nisab.] 

26.6c. Settlement is according to the state of herd 

When the zakat of the year is due, animals which were mixed together are not to be separated 
nor those which were separate to be mixed out of fear of paying the zakat. 

[That is when the end of the year approaches. Ibn Shash said that that is when joining or separaing 
would reduce the zakat. ] 

26.6d. If the zakat is less because of mixing 

If the zakat paid is less because the two herds were separated or mixed, the herds should be 
restored to their prior condition. 

[When it is done to avoid more zakat. As when two men each have a hundred, and so they separate at 
the end of the year and two sheep are obliged. The obligation on them is three. It is the same for 
joining: three men each has forty and they join at the end of the year so that one sheep is obliged on 
them: the obligation on them is three sheep.] 

26.6b. Those who do not have to pay 

There is no zakat due from someone whose share does not reach the number subject to zakat. 

[Because of the words of the Prophet, "There is no zakat on less than five camels." They must be 
liable for zakat (and so they are not slaves or unbelievers) and the animals have the same stud, 
shepherd, resting place at night, pasturage, watering-place and milking place, and the partnership is by 
friendship, not avoidance of zakat.] 

26.7. Prohibited forms of payment 

26.7a.Baby animals 

A baby sheep or goat is not taken to pay zakat. However, it is counted in numbering the owner's 
flock. Baby calves or camels are not taken, but they are counted in numbering the herd. 
Similarly, exempt from being taken as zakat are young billy goats, thin old females, pregnant 
females, a ram used for stud, a sheep or goat fattened for slaughter, a female nursing its young, 
nor the best of a man's property. 

[Zakat is not taken from the best or worst of a man's property. One is to protect the rights of the 
wealthy and the other to protect the rights of poor. If the owner gives the best cheerfully, it is 
permitted. If he gives the worst, it is not acceptable. If all the property is good or bad, he is obliged the 
middle. If he refuses, he is forced to pay it.] 



26.7b. Not taking cash or goods in lieu 

For zakat on animals, one may not coUect goods or the price of the animal in place of the animal. 
If the coUector forces the owner into giving the price of the animal or something else, that 
satisfies it, AUah wiUing. 

[Something else would be like grains. Ibn al-Hajib states that paying the price voluntarily does not 
satisfy it. But it is taken by force, then it satisfies it in the well-known position.] 

26.7c. Debts do not cancel this duty 

A debt does not cancel one's obUgation to pay zakat on grain, fruit or animals. 

[It was mentioned earher.] 

SUPPLEMENT about a number of important questions: 

[1. He must pay it with the intention of paying zakat. If he pays it without the intention of paying 
zakat, it does not satisfy it unless he is forced, and then the intention of the forcer is enough. 

2. It is not transferred from the place in which it is obhged unless there is no one there to pay it to. 
Then it is transferred to the closest place to it. 

3. It is paid at the time when is obUged. If it is delayed, it is aUowed but he commits something 
unlawful. 

4. He pays it in its eight categories which Allah Almighty mentioned when He says, "Collected 
sadaga isfor: the poor, the destitute, those who collect it, bringing people's hearts together, freeing 
slaves, those in debt, spending in the way ofAllah, and travellers. " (9:60)] 

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Chapter Twenty-Seven: On the Zakat al-Fitr 

27.1. Its ruling 

The zakat al-Fitr is an obligatory sunna which the Messenger of AUah made compulsory for all 
MusUms, whether old or young, male or female, free or slave. 

[It is a confirmed sunna. It seems that is is obligatory in the School. There is disagreement about the 
words "the Messenger of Allah made it compulsory". It is said that it means he stipulated it and so it is 
sunna, and that does not contradict his words, "On all, whether old or young." The shaykh uses the 
terms for what is less than obligatory. The Messenger of Allah said, "Zakat al-Fitr after Ramadan 
obligatory for the Muslims - slave or free, male or female, young or old, being a sa' of dates or a sa' of 
barley." It is said that it means that he made it compulsory. That what the author of Mukhtasar thinks.] 

27.2. Its amount 

27.2a. Its measure 

Its amount is one sa'a measuring by the sa'a of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him 
peace. 

[It is four mudds by the mudd of the Prophet. A sa'a is a measure of volume equivalent to 4 mudds. A 
mudd is the amount contained by a man's cupped hands.] 

27.2b.What it is paid in 

It should be paid in kind using the staple food of the people of the region, which might be wheat 
or barley or sult barley or dates or dried cheese or raisins or millet or sorghum or rice. It is also 
said that if the staple food of the people is al-'alas, which is a small grain similar to wheat, that 
the zakat al-fitr can be paid with that. 

[The land where the zakat is paid, whether their food is like his food or better or worse. If his food is 
better than their food and he pays the zakat in it, that is allowed. If it is less valuable than their food, 
and he pays it with it out of avarice, then the apparent words of Ibn al-Hajib mean that it does does not 
satisfy the requirement by agreement. 

If he pays it from other than these nine types, it is not allowed in the well-known position. This is 
when some or all of them exist as foods. If they do not exist, all or some, and other things are used as 
food, they satisfy the requirement.] 

27.3. Who pays the zakat of children and slaves 

The zakat al-fitr of a slave is paid by his master and that of a young child, who has no personal 
wealth, by his father. A man has to pay the zakat of every Muslim for whose maintenance he is 
responsible, and he should also pay for his mukatab (partially freed slave) because even if he is 
not responsible for his maintenance, the mukatab is nevertheless still his slave. 

[The father pays for the child who has no wealth. It is understood from this that he does not pay for an 



adult. It is not absolute: if he is male, adult and wealtliy, lie does not pay for liim. If he becomes adult 
within the time it is due, he prays for him. He pays for the female, even if she is adult, until she 
marries. What is understood by "no personal wealth" is that if he has wealth, he does not pay for him. 
That is the case. It is paid by Mushms, but not unbeHevers.] 

27.4. When it is paid 

It is recommended to pay the zakat al-fitr at daybreak on the day of the 'ld al-Fitr. 

[In MusUm it reports that the Prophet used to command that the zakat al-fitr be paid before people 
went out to the place of prayer. This is the time of recommendation and not the time of obUgation. 
There are two well-known statements about that. One is that it becomes obHgatory at sunset of the last 
of the day of Ramadan and ends at the rising of dawn on the day of the 'id. It is permitted that it be 
paid a day or two before the day of fitr. It is not cancelled when its time passes because it is a right of 
the poor for which Habihty remains. He does not sin as long as the day of Fitr still remains. If he 
delays it when he is able to pay it, he sins. He gives to a free poor Mushm. He does not give it to an 
unbeHever, nor to a wealthy man.] 

27.5 Other things about 'ld al-Fitr 

27.5a. Breaking the fast before the prayer 

On the morning of the 'ld al-Fitr, it is recommended to break your fast before leaving for the 
prayer-place, whereas on the morning of the 'ld al-Ad-ha it is recommended not to do so. 

[Break it with anything, but it is best that it be broken with dates, an odd number, based on what the 
Prophet did. It is not recommended to break it on the morning of 'ld al-Adha. Then it is recommended 
to refrain until you return from the prayer so that you can eat from the sacrifice since that it what the 
Prophet did.] 

27.5b. Varying the route 

On both 'ids, however, it is recommended to go to the prayer by one route and return from it by 
another. 

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Chapter Twenty-Eight: On Hajj and 'Umra 

28.1 The obligation of the Hajj 

28. la. The meaning of hajj 

[Each word has a hnguistic and technical meaning. Linguisticahy, hajj means to aim for something 
once or to do something time after time or a simple intention. This usage is Hke the words of the 
Almighty, "And when We made the House a place to return to, a sanctuary for mankind." (2:125) Its 
technical usage designates an act of worship which contains ihram, standing, tawaf, sa'y and other 
things. 

Linguistically 'umra means to visit. Linguistically it designates an act of worship which has ihram, 
standing, tawaf, sa'y which begins Hke the hajj. ] 

28.1b. The word Bakka 

Going on hajj to the Sacred House of AUah, situated in Bakka, 

["Bakka" is used used to honour it. ] 

28. lc. Preconditions of its obUgation 

is an obUgation for every free aduU MusUm, who is able to find a way to do it, once during his 
Ufetime. 

1. Ability 

[It is obHgatory when five preconditions are meant. He indicates on of them: who is 'able to 
find a way to it', i.e. to the House of AUah. 

2. Islam 

Islam is a precondition for the obHgation. That is what Ibn al-Hajib and the author of the 
Mukhtasar say. It is a precondition for its vaHdity. According to the first, disbehef is a 
barrier to its obHgation, and according to the second, to its vaHdity. 

3. Freedom 

The third precondition is freedom.] 

4. Adulthood 

The fourth is adulthood. The precondition of adulthood is not confined to the hajj. ] 

5. Sanity 

The final precondition remains, which is sanity. The hajj is not obHged for someone who is 
insane.] 



[Hajj is obligatory for the one who is legally responsible and meets the preconditions. If someone who 
is not legally responsible makes the hajj, his hajj is valid but the obligatory hajj is not achieved for 
him. 

Its obligation is indicated by the Book, Sunna and consensus. Whoever denies that it is obligatory is 
an unbeliever. If anyone affirms its obligatory nature but refuses to do it, will be called to reckoning 
by Allah. Hajj is obligatory on the one who meets the preconditions once in his lifetime by 
consensus.] 

28. Id. The meaning of "way" 

What is meant by "way" is a safe route, sufficient provisions to reach Makka, sufficient strength 
to be able to get to Makka and a good state of health. 

[This expression covers four things: 

1 . It must be a safe route. If he fears for himself, it is agreed that the obligation is cancelled. 
If he fears for some of his property and injury, it is cancelled for him. If he would not be 
injured, it is cancelled for him by one statement. 

2. Provisions . Apparently he only considers what will enable him to reach it. That is what 
al-Lakhmi said. He qualified that by saying, "Unless he knows that if he remains there, he 
will die and he fears for himself. Then he considers what is adequate for the return journey 
to the nearest place he can stay in it and sell to buy provisions and other things. 

3. Physical ability . The third is the strength to arrive on foot or riding. When the bhnd 
person finds someone to guide him and there is no enormous difficulty, then it is obUged 
for him. 

4. Health . Some say it is a part of strength and some say it is a fourth precondition. Hajj is 
not obHgatory for the sick person, even if he has what can find something to ride. 

The hajj has obHgations, sunnas and excellent parts. The shaykh did not clarify them. He described the 
hajj in the actual order in which it is performed. We will , Allah willing, point the various parts. One 
of the obHgations is ihram. ] 

28.2 Ihram 

28.2a Its miqat$ 

You should go into 'ihram' at the appropriate miqat. 

[It has two miqats: one in time and one in place.] 

1. The Miqat of time 

[The miqat of time was not mentioned by the shaykh: that is the months of Shawwal, Dhu'l- 
Qi'da, and all of Dhu'l-Hijja in the famous position. It is said it is only the first ten days of 
Dhu'l-Hijja. Disagreement arises when the the Tawaf al-Ifada is delayed. In the famous 



position, sacrifice is not obliged for him unless it is delayed to Muharram. In the other 
position, it is when it is knowingly delayed to the 1 Ith. The defined time is the time of the 
hajj, including entering ihram and ending it, not only ihram only. If he goes into ihram 
before Shawwal, that is disliked.] 

2. TheMiqatofplace 

[If he goes into ihram before that, it is dishked. It is recommended not to delay going into 
ihram because hastening to obey is better. It varies according to the different states of those 
going into ihram. The miqat of the Makkan is Makka. It is recommended for him to go into 
ihram from inside the mosque. His miqat for 'umra and for qiran is coming out ot ihram 
because every ihram must must combine being both in and out of ihram. The miqat of 
someone from outside Makka varies and it is one of five places with the differences of fiqh, 
about whether he goes into ihram for hajj or 'umra.] 

28.2b Physical miqats 

The miqat for the people of Syria, Egypt and North Africa is Juhfa, but if they come via 
Madina, it is better for them to go into ihram at the miqat of the people of Madina which is 
Dhu'l-Hulayfa. The miqat of the people of Iraq is Dhat Irq and that of the people of Yaman, 
Yalamlam. The people of Najd go into ihram at Qarn. If any of these go via Madina they too 
should go into ihram at Dhu'l-Hulayfa since they will NOT be passing their own miqat again. 

[Juhfa is a town about 7 stages from Madina and 3 or 5 from Makka. If people of these regions come 
via Madina, they adopt the miqat of the Madinans. Dhu'l-Hulayfa is about 6 miles from Madina. It is 
the furthest of the miqats from Madina. There is about 10 stages from Makka. Iraq also includes 
places further on Hke Iran. Dhat 'Irq is a ruined town two stages from Makka. Yalamlam is a mountain 
of Tihama two stages from Makka. Qarn is a small mountain apart from the mountains opposite 
Makka and two stages from it. Those who make hajj by sea from the Egypt and the hke go into ihram 
when they are opposite Juhfa.] 

28.2c How to go into ihram 

When going into ihram you should do so straight after praying, whether that prayer is fard or nafila. 
You start by saying, "Labbayk Allahumma Labbayk, Labbayk la sharika lak inna'l-hamda wa ni'mata 
laka wa'l-mulk, la sharika lak. " (At Your service, O Allah, at Your service. At Your service, none can 
be associated with You, at Your service. All praise and blesssing is due to You as is the Kingdom. 
None can be associated with You.) 

[It is sunna to say this. In short,the talbiyya is obHgation intself. So if you were to omit it, you are 
obHged to sacrifice. It is sunna that it accompany going in ihram. "Labbayk " means is answer after 
answer, The answer is in response the words of the Almighty, "Am I not your Lord?" They said, 
"Yes" (bala). It also refers to the fact that when Ibrahim asked permission for people to make hajj and 
he called out, "O people! Allah has a House so make hajj," they answered him from the east and the 
west of the earth and from the wombs of the women and the loins of the men. Some people prefer to 
stop at "mulk" and start a new sentence with "la sharik".] 

28.2d The intention 



You say this and make the intention to do Hajj or 'umra according to what you are intending to 
do. 

[Ibn 'Umar said according to the position of Ibn Habib ihram begins by the intention and the word, i.e. 
the talbiya. He considers the talbiya a precondition for its vahdity and so it has the same position as 
the takbir al-Ihram in the prayer. KhaHl says that the reahty of ihram is to enter with the intention into 
one of the two practices with the word connected to it, Hke the talbiya, or an action connected to it, 
Uke turning to the road. Ihram does not begin simply by the intention. There must be the word, hke the 
talbiyya, or an action, Hke turning to the road. One of the special quaHties of the talbiyya is is not that 
it is a preconditon for the vaHdity of ihram as Ibn Habib stated. It revolves around the existence of one 
of two - word or deed. It is recommended to confine onself to the talbiyya mentioned because it was 
the talbiyya of the Prophet.] 

28.2e Performing a ghusl 

Then you should have a ghusl 

[Even if a woman is menstruating or bleeding after childbirth since it is sunna. This is based on what 
at-Tirmidhi reported: the Prophet stripped for ihram and performed a ghusl before he assumed ihram. 
There is no sacrifice for omitting it either dehberately or out of forgetfulness. That is also the case 
with the rest of the ghusls of the hajj. The evidence that it is sunna for the woman in menstruation or 
bleeding is what comes in the Muwatta' that Asma' gave birth and when Abu Bakr mentioned that to 
the Messenger of Allah he said, "Tell her to perform a ghusl and then enter ihram." It is recommended 
for the one who wants to assume ihram for hajj or 'umra to cHp his nails, shave his private parts and 
trim his beard, but he does not shave his head since dishevelment is desirable.] 

28.2f Removing stitched clothing 

and remove any clothes containing stitching before actually entering the state of ihram. 

[It is sunna for men to remove any stitched garments and to wear a wrapper, cloak and sandals.] 

28.2g A ghusl when entering Makka 

It is also recommended to have a ghusl when you enter Makka. 

[This is for the one in ihram, who is not menstruating or in lochia. It is best that it be at Dhu Tuwa 
since that is what the Prophet did.] 

28.2h Continuing the talbiya 

You should continue to recite the talbiya (as mentioned above) after all prayers, at the summit 
of every rise and every time you rejoin your traveUing companions. 

[The muhrim does the talbiya after the obHgatory and nafila prayers, and at every high place and in the 
valleys. His 'travelHng companions' are those he camps and travels with. He also says it when he 
wakes up from sleep. The one saying the talbiya does not return the greeting until he finishes. He is 
recommended to raise his voice in the talbiya to a medium level. The woman should only be able to 
hear herself. It is not disHked for a woman in menstruation or lochia to say the talbiya.] 



28.2i Not being excessive in the talbiya 

However, you should not go to excess in it. 

[This is not recommended or obligatory. Indeed, it is disliked by Malik. This means doing it a lot 
constantly so that he does not cease that. When he does not cease, he is not silent so that he misses the 
cermony.] 

28.3 Entering Makka 

28.3a Stopping the talbiya and restarting it 

When you enter Makka you stop reciting the talbiya until after you have completed your tawaf 
and sa'y. Then you start doing it again until midday on the Day of 'Arafa, if you have got to the 
place of prayer on 'Arafa. 

[It is related that he stops it at the Jamra al-'Aqaba. Al-Lakmi inclined to what is in Muslim that the 
Prophet continued to do the talbiya until he stoned the Jamra al-'Aqaba.] 

28.3b. Where to enter Makka 

It is recommended to enter Makka through the pass of Kada' in Upper Makka and to leave it by 
Kuda, but it does not matter if you do not do this. 

[This is because the Prophet did that and the Companions after him did so as well. It is recommended 
to enter it in the day since the Prophet did that. If someone enters before sunrise, he does not do tawaf. 
If he does tawaf, he does not pray until sunrise. Nafila prayers are lawful. When a woman arrives in 
the day, she is recommended to delay tawaf until night. When someone leaves, it is recommended that 
he go by Kuda,which is the bottom of Makka. There is no sin if he does not do this, because he has not 
omitted something obligatory.] 

28.3c. The first thing done after entering Makka 

MaUk said that all those entering Makka should first of all go straight to the Masjid al-Haram, 
which it is recommended to enter by the door of Bani Shayba. 

[And no where else unless it is unavoidable - like tying up one's mount and having a little food. Delay 
is bad manners. This is now known as the Door of Peace. That is because the Prophet did that. After 
someone enters, he should do tawaf by making the intention and make for the Black Stone.] 

28.4. The Tawaf 

28.4a Greeting the Black Stone 

You should greet the Black Stone by kissing it, if possible, or if you cannot then by touching it 
and putting your hand to your mouth without kissing it. 

[If he cannot touch it with his hand, he touches it with his stick and then places it to his mouth without 
kissing it. A stick is not adequate when the hand is possible and nor the hand when kissing is possible. 



This kissing is a sunna at the beginning of the tawaf and recommended in the rest of it. The evidence 
for kissing is in the two Sahih collections that 'Umar kissed it and said, 'T know that you are a merely 
a stone which can bestow neither harm nor benefit. If it had not been that I had seen the Messenger of 
Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, kiss you, I would not have kissed you."] 

28.4b The Tawaf of Arrival 

Then you do tawaf keeping the House on your left, going round it seven times. 

[After kissing the Black Stone, you perform Tawaf of Arrival. It is obligatory for every one who 
assumes ihram, whether he is one of the people of Makka or elsewhere. When he goes into ihram from 
the Haram, he does not do the Tawaf of arrival since he is not arriving. 

Tawaf, whether it is a pillar, obligation or desirable practice, has obhgatory parts, sunan and 
recommended parts.] 

28.4c The ObUgatory parts of Tawaf 

[It has six obhgatory parts, the first ones being the preconditions for the prayer: 

1 . Purity from ritual impurity and uncleanness, and covering the private parts . If he breaks 
wudu' while performing it, he purifies himself and begins again, based on the famous 
position. Speech is permitted in it since the Prophet said, "Tawaf of the House is prayer 
although Allah has allowed speech in it, so one should only speak good." 

2. Tawaf is done inside the mosgue . 

3 . He puts the House on his left. If he puts it on his right, his tawaf is not vaHd and he must 
repeat it. He should take care when he begins the tawaf and stand a Httle before the corner 
so that the Stone is on his right of where he stands. That is what al-Fakhani said. If he does 
not completely encompass the Stone, he has not completed the first circuit. He should take 
note of that: the ignorant often err in that. His tawaf is outside the House, and the one who 
kisses the Black Stone must only walk after he had stood upright as before. He is not 
permitted to kiss it and then walk with bowed head or his hand so that he does not achieve 
some of the tawaf. All his body would not be outside the House because part of his body is 
on the buttress, which is part of the House and thus his tawaf would not be vahd. 

4. Seven circuits. He begins from the Stone and ends at the Black Stone. If he begins from 
the Yemeni corner, he ends with it and must sacrifice. 

5. Continuity. If he forgets a circuit and then remembers soon after and has not broken 
wudu', he returns to it, as he would to the prayer. If it is a long time, then the tawaf is 
invahd by analogy with the prayer. 

6. Praying two rak'ats after it. ] 
28.4d Its sunan 

Three times at a fast pace between walking and running and four times at a normal walking 



pace. 

[Its sunan are four: 

1. One is the fast pace three times , which is going faster than walking but not running. It is 
sunna for the man and not the woman, even if he is ill. He owes no sacrifice for omitting it, 
even if he able to do it. Then four circuits are done walking. The evidence for all of this is 
that the Prophet did it. 

2. Supphcation . which is not defined. 

3. Kissing the Black Stone at the beginning of the tawaf as was said. 

4. Kissing the Yemeni Corner in the first circuit.] 

28.4e Recommended parts 

Every time you pass the Black Stone, you greet it in the way we have already mentioned and say 
'AUahu akbar'. You do not kiss the Yamani corner but you greet it by touching it with your 
hand which you then raise to your mouth without missing it. 

[Its recommended parts are four: 

1 . Kissing the Black Stone in the beginning of every circuit except the first if you are able 
to do so. Otherwise you place your hand on it and then on your mouth without kissing it. 
You do this while saying the takbir. 

2. Kissing the Yemeni corner at the beginning of every circuit other than the first. 

3. Going close to the House for men rather women. 

4. Supphcation at the Multazam after finishing the tawaf. The Multazam is between the 
Yemeni corner and the door. He hugs it and makes intense suppHcation.] 

28.4f Two rak'ats at the end 

When you have finished your tawaf you pray two rak'as at the Maqam Ibrahim. Then if you are 
able to you greet the Black Stone once more 

[His words include an obhgation and two recommended parts. The obHgation is to do two rak'ats after 
tawaf . The two recommendations are doing it at the Maqam and connecting them to tawaf. It would 
mean that there is no sacrifice at aU on account of not connecting them: but that is not the case. There 
is a sacrifice in some instances.Nor is te recomendation absolute: it is recommended for some and 
obHgatory for some in which case there is a sacrifice as a consequence of omitting it. 

So someone who does not do two rak'ats until he is far away or has returned home must absolutely 
perform them. If they are part of an obHgatory tawaf he owes a sacrifice. If they are from another 
tawaf, then no sacrifice is obHged for that. If he has not gone far or returned to his land and has not 
broken his purity, then he only performs two rak'ats. If his purification is broken deHberately, he does 
the tawaf and two rak'ats, even if they are not obHgatory and repeats the tawaf, the two rak'ats, and 



sa'y. In other than that he repeats it. Does he repeat the tawaf or not? The apparent meaning is to 
prefer the second, and he does not kiss the Yemeni corner. After Kissing the Black Stone it is 
recommended to go to Zamzam and drink from it.] 

28.5. Sa'y at Safa and Marwa 

28.5a. Beginning sa'y 

and then go off to Safa where you stand and make du'a. 

[Al-Aqfahasi and Ibn 'Umar said that it is recommended to leave by the door of Safa since it is closest 
to Safa. Zarruq transmitted from Ibn Habib that the Prophet went out by it. ] 

28.5b. Going to Marwa 

From there you walk to Marwa going faster across the bottom of the valley. When you reach 
Marwa you stand for a time making du'a and then walk back to Safa. You do this seven times, 
standing four times on Safa and four times on Marwa. 

[He should walk quickly in the bottom of the valley, particularly when going to Marwa: this is the 
sunna for men rather than women. The valley is what is between the two green markers which are on 
the wall of the Masjid al-Haram to the left going to Marwa. The first of them is at the corner of the 
mosque under the minaret and the second is opposite Ribat al-'Abbas. The supplication made on 
Marwa and Safa is not specified. Stopping there is sunna. 

This sa'y is one of the pillars of the hajj and 'umra which is necessary and no sacrifice or anything else 
can compensate for its omission. Its obligatory nature is indicated by the Book and Sunna. It has 
preconditions, sunan and recommended parts. 

Its preconditions are four: 

1. The proper order , which is that sa'y is done after tawaf. If he begins with sa'y, he returns 
and does sa'y . 

2. Continuity , If he sits for a long time and becomes like someone who stops, he must begin 
the sa'y again. If it is a short stop, it does not impair it. If he is afflicted by incontinence he 
does wudu' an d builds on what he has done. Speech in it is less than speech in tawaf, i.e. he 
should only speak softly. 

3. Completing the number : seven. If anyone omits a circuit of hajj or 'umra, whether the 
hajj or 'umra are sound or unsound, he should return for that from his land. If anyone omits 
omits a cubit of the sa'y, that is not adequate. 

4. It should be preceded it by a sound tawaf . It is not a precondition that it be an obligatory 
one. Any tawaf is enough according to Ibn al-Hajib and that is what Khalil understood from 
the Mudawwana, but is preferred, Zarruq said that the famous position is that it is a 
precondition that it is obligatory like the Tawaf al-Ifada and Tawaf of Arrival. 

Then after he finishes the sa'y the time of Standing is near.] 



28.6. At Mina 

On the Day of Tarwiya (8th Dhul Hijja) you go to Mina where you pray Dhuhr, 'Asr, Maghrib, 
Tsha' and Subh 

[It is called Mina because Ibrahim wished (tamanna) in that the command to sacrifice his son would 
be taken from him. It is said that it is because the blood is shed (amna) there. It is 6 miles from it 
Makka. It is recommended to go out to it so that when you reach it, the time of prayer will be near. It 
is recommended to spend the night there. The basis for this is that the Prophet did it. Ahmad related 
that the Prophet prayed 5 prayers at Mina: Dhuhr and Subh and what is between them. If someone 
fails to spend the night there, that is disliked, but he does not owe a sacrifice for it.] 

28.7 At 'Arafat 

and then you go to 'Arafat. 

28.7a Its time 

[When you have prayed Subh on the ninth day at Mina, it is recommended not to leave it until after 
sunrise. Then you go to 'Arafat, which is the place of standing. When you reach Arafat, it is 
recommended that the camp at Namira, which is at the end of the Haram and the beginning of the non- 
Haram. ] 

28.7b Leading up to the Standing 

During this time you continue to recite the talbiya ceasing when the sun has passed its zenith on 
the Day of ' Arafat and you have reached the place of prayer there. You should have a ghusl 
before going off to do the prayer on ' Arafat 

[From the time you leave from sunrise you continue talbiya. The place of prayer is the mosque of 
Namira. You should perform a ghusl after midday before going out. You do not rub thoroughly in the 
ghusl, but only pass the hands over. This is the last of three ghusls of hajj. It is for standing, not for 
prayer, and the woman who is menstruating or in lochia should do it as well.] 

28.7c Joining Dhuhr and 'Asr 

where you join Dhuhr and ' Asr with the Imam. 

[They are joined and shortened. He adds in the Mudawwana, with two adhans and two iqamas and 
recitation is silent, not aloud, even if it coincides with Jumu'a because he is praying Dhuhr and not 
Jumu'a. If someone misses joining with the Imam, he joins the prayers wherever he is. Shortening at 
'Arafa is for the sunna.] 

28.7d The standing 

Then you accompany him to the standing place at 'Arafat and stay there with him till the sun 
has set. 

[This shows that the Standing of 'Arafa is not its prayer place. It is valid to stand in every part of it 



although it is recommended to stand at the large boulders lying at the base of the Mount of Mercy, the 
mountain in the middle of 'Arafat. That because it is where the Prophet stood. The standing begins 
after midday. 

He stands with him until sunset according to what al-Fakhani and others said and others which would 
not include any part of the night. The School is that it must include a part of the night. Ibn al-Hajib 
said, "The minimum obligation in the pillar of standing is to be present part of the night in a part of 
'Arafa wherever he wishes except for the bottom of 'Uruna. In short, the fiqh is that standing at 'Arafa 
after midday is obhgatory which can be remedied by sacrifice. The standing part of the pillar is a part 
of the night after sunset. What is considered as standing is the the most perfect meaning. If he passes 
through 'Arafat at night and does not stand, that is adequate with two conditions: he knows that this 
place is 'Arafa and that he intends to be present at 'Arafa. This does not include the one who passes not 
knowing that this place is 'Arafa. It is recommended to stay there mounted since the Prophet did that. 
It is recommended to glorify and praise Allah, say the shahada and the prayer on Sayyiduna 
Muhammad, and make suppHcation. It is recommended to not fast so as to be strong in worship.] 

28.8 At Muzdalifa 

28.8a Going to Muzdalifa 

Then when he moves off to go to MuzdaUfa you go after him, praying Maghrib, 'lsha and Subh 
with him at Muzdalifa. 

[After sunset on the day of 'Arafa when the night is well advanced, you set out with the Imam for 
Muzdahfa. If you go before him after sunset, then you abandon the best course. When you arrive 
there, the first concern is to perform the prayer shortly after stopping. You pray the prayers with the 
Imam at MuzdaHfa joined and shortened, except for the people of MuzdaHfa. The School is that this 
joining is sunna. When dawn comes, it is recommended for him to pray Subh with the Imam at the 
beginning of the time. So it is recommended to spend the night at MuzdaUfa, as is stated in the 
Mukhtasar. Dismounting is obHgatory. It is not enough to make the camel kneel: you must dismount. 
Whoever fails to dismount without excuse until dawn owes a sacrifice. Whoever omits it for an excuse 
owes nothing.] 

28.8b Standing at Mash'ar al-Haram 

After that you stand there with him at the Mash'ar al-Haram 

[It is recommended in the well-known school to stop with him facing the House. Mash'ar is a 
mountain at MuzdaHfa. It is called that because in the JahiHyya they used to mark their sacrifices 
there. This is the day of Sacrifice. He prays Subh or stops at MuzdaHfa until the sun has risen.] 

28.9 Back to Mina 
28.9a Crossing Muhassir 

and shortly after sunrise, you go to Mina hurrying your mount across the Valley of Muhassir. 

[Its apparent meaning, as the Mukhtasar, is that it is permitted to continue standing at the Mash'ar 
until the whitening of the sun. In the Mudawwana, no one stays at the Mash'ar until sunrise or 



whitening, but moves on before that. The Sahih indicates the first. It says that the Prophet "came to the 
Mash'ar al-Haram, faced qibla and praised Allah, proclaimed Him great, unified Him and prayed to 
Him. He remained standing until it was very bright." The one riding is recommended to make his 
mount hurry. Muhassir is a valley between Muzdalifa and Mina. The path is between them. If he is 
walking, he walks quickly. A woman does not hurry. This hurrying is an act of devotion.] 

28.9b Stoning the Jamrat al-'Aqaba 

When you get to Mina you stone the Jamrat al-'Aqaba using seven small pebbles 

[i.e. you begin to stone them first when you reach Mina in whatever state you are, riding or otherwise. 
It is the end of Mina on the Makkan side. It is called Jamra from the name of what is thrown at it: 
stones. Stoning is done from dawn to sunset on the Day of Sacrifice and the time of making it up 
covers all of the days of sacrifice. Indeed, the night after every day is for making up for that day. 
There is no disagreement that sacrifice is obliged for missing it. Missing it occurs at sunset of the 
fourth of the days of Mina. They disagree about its obligation whether the hajj is invalidated by 
missing any of the jamras. 

Stoning has preconditions for its validity. One of the preconditions of validity is that he puts the stone 
between his thumb and forefinger. It is said that he holds it with his thumb and middle finger. They 
are thrown one after the other, Less than that is not adequate, even if he throws seven pebbles at once 
reckoning each of them to be one of the stones he throws. Mud is not acceptable nor are minerals like 
iron. There is disagreement about the size of what is thrown. That which most shaykhs say is that it is 
like a date stone.The very small, like gravel is not enough.] 

28.9c What is said during the stoning 

and saying "AUahu akbar" with each pebble as you throw it. 

[This is recommended. If he does not say that takbir, the stoning is enough, and he continues to throw 
the pebbles. It is disliked for him to take a stone and break it and to make pebbles. It is desirable to 
pick them up from the earth and that they be pure. The stoning should be from the bottom of the 
valley, Stoning the Jamra al-'Aqaba makes everything lawful except women and hunting. It is called 
the lesser coming out of ihram. The Tawaf al-Ifada makes everything lawful for him, even women and 
hunting. It is called the greater coming out of ihram.] 

28.9d Sacrifice 

Then, if you have a sacrificial animal with you, you make sacrifice. 

[He stands with it at 'Arafa and Mina. All are places for sacrifice except what is beyond the Jamra al- 
'Aqaba and the Imam does not wait there since the 'id prayer is not there.] 

28.9e Shaving the head 

Then you shave your head. 

[After the sacrifice. Or you can shorten it if a a man's hair is not matted or plaited. If it is matted or 
plaited, then it is shaved. Shaving is only obliged in those two cases. The entire head must be shaved. 



Doing part of it is like not doing it. If someone has something wrong with his head so that he cannot 
shave, he sacrifices. As for the woman, the sunna for her is to shorten her hair.] 

28.10 Back to Makka 

After that you go the House and do Tawaf al-Ifada going round seven times and finishing with 
the prayer. 

[It is the last of the four pillars of hajj which is not mended by sacrifice and by it all that was 
forbidden becomes allowed, even women and hunting. Taken from his words is that it is better to go 
to do it soon on the Day of Sacrifice. That is indeed the case. But if you delay it past the days of 
tashriq, sacrifice is not obhged. Sacrifice is obHged if you leave it until Dhu'l-Hijja is over in the 
famous position. A counter statement is that if he delays it to the llth, then he is obHged to sacrifice. 
The explanation of "going around" is that he does not hurry in this tawaf or do sa'y because he did sa'y 
after the Tawaf of Arrival. This in respect of the one who is not pressed for time. As for the one who 
was pressed for time so that it was not feasible for him to do the Tawaf of Arrival, it is desirable that 
he trots in the Tawaf of Ifada .] 

28.11 Back to Mina 

28.1 la Staying for three days 

You then stay for three days at Mina. 

[Three days and nights if he is not in a hurry. If he omits most of the nights, he is obhged to sacrifice. 
Shortening of the prayer is not prescribed.] 

28.1 Ib. Stoning the jamras 

On each day after the sun has passed the zenith, you first stone the jamra nearest Mina using 
seven small pebbles and saying, 'AUahu akbar' with each pebble thrown. You then stone the 
other two jamras with the same number of pebbles again saying " AUahu akbar" as you throw 
each one. After stoning the first two jamras you stand and make du'a but after stoning the 
jamra al-'aqaba you do not stand but move straight off. 

[On these three days. He does the middle one second and finishes with the third, which is the Jamra al- 
'Aqaba, using seven stones each time. Al-Aqfahasi said that "after the zenith" means before the prayer. 
If he stones before the zenith, it is not enough and he repeats it after midday, as when he stones the 
Jamra al-'Aqaba before Fajr.] 

28.1 lc Leaving for Makka 

When you have finished stoning on the third day, making four days including the 'ld, you leave 
for Makka 

[Ibn 'Umar said that he does not stay at Mina after stoning on the third day. It is recommended to stop 
at Muhassab and pray Dhuhr, 'Asr, Maghrib and 'lsha' there and to enter Makka at night since the 
Prophet did that as the Companions after him. If he prays Dhuhr before it, he owes nothing, and if he 
does not stop, he does not have to sacrifice anything.] 



28.1 Id The completion of the hajj 

and your hajj is complete. 

[If he means by complete the sunan, obhgations and excehent parts, there stih remains the Tawaf of 
Fareweh. If he means the obhgations, they are complete before that. He must mean its obhgations and 
sunan and so he did not consider the Tawaf of Fareweh because it is not particular to the hajj. It is 
done by whoever leaves Makka after the hajj or any other reason.] 

28.1 le Hurrying up departure from Mina 

If you want, you can speed up your departure by staying only two days at Mina, leaving after 
finishing stoning on the second day. 

[This is when the sun has not set on the second day. When it sets, there is no hurrying because the 
night obhges camping there for the stoning of the day. If the sun has set, it is as he is obhged to do the 
third day.] 

28.12 Leaving Makka 

When you are about to leave Makka you do the Tawaf of Farewell and the two rak'as after it 
and then leave. 

[This tawaf is recommended and sacrifice is owed for omitting it. When he finishes it, he prays two 
rak'ats. Ibn Farhun said that the Tawaf of Fareweh has two rak'ats and if he omits them until he is far 
away or arrives home, he prays them then and owes nothing. If he is near and still in a state of purity, 
he returns to them. If he has broken wudu', he purifies himself and begins the tawaf again and then 
prays them.] 

28.13 'Umra 

For 'umra you do the same as we said at the beginning of this chapter up until when you have 
completed the sa'y between Safa and Marwa. You then shave your head and your 'umra is 
complete. 

[This shows that its pihars are three: ihram, tawaf and sa'y. It has two miqats: time and place. The time 
is ah time, and the place is outside the Haram, whether he is foreign or resident in Makka. It would 
appear from his words then that 'umra is not complete until he shaves his head. That is not the case 
because Mahk said that his 'umra is compete by tawaf and sa'y. Shaving is one of the preconditions of 
perfection, not one of vahdity, and so that is no contradiction in its being mandatory. What he meant 
by the end of the 'umra is its perfection and so there is no contradiction.] 

28.14. Cutting the hair 

28.14a. For men 

For both hajj and 'umra it is better to shave your head but shortening the hair is acceptable in 
which case the hair should be shortened all over the head. 



[This is not absolute: shortening is preferable in the tamattu' hajj so that the dishevelment remains for 
hajj. Zarruq stated that. The practice of shaving is only complete by shaving the entire head since the 
Prophet did that. Ibn al-Hajib said that the sunna in shortening for men is to cut close to the roots. The 
minimum is to cut off something from all the hair. It is not enough cut some of all the hair, even the 
amount of a finger. If he shortens only some, he misses the sunna.] 

28.14b. For women 

The sunna for women is to shorten the hair. 

[It is disliked for her to shave and it is said that it is haram because it is mutilation. She shortens her 
hair. The basis for that is what Abu Dawud related that the Prophet said, "Women do not have to 
shave. Women shorten their hair."] 

28.15 Requirements of Ihram 

28.15a. KiUing harmful animals 

There is no harm in someone in ihram killing a rat, snake, scorpion or such like nor in killing a 
dangerous dog or any other dangerous animal such as a jackal or a Uon. 

[It is permitted to kill these categories. Similar to rats are creatures which chew clothes, like weasels. 
Snakes and vipers includes hornets. A dangerous dog is one which will attack. Dangerous animals 
include hyenas and tigers.] 

28.15b. KilUng harmful birds 

You can also kill crows and kites if you fear they will harm you but not any other birds. [You 
can kill birds whose harm is feared, Uke crows and kites.] 

[These two types are killed, even if they do not initiate harm, large or small. Other birds, harmful or 
not, are not killed. That is one of two statements which Ibn al-Hajib reported. What is preferredof the 
two is to kill them if they cause harm.] 

28.15c Avoiding women 

When doing hajj or 'umra you should avoid women, 

[This is an obligation .Avoidingwomen means avoiding enjoyment of them by intercourse or anything 
else. That is obligatory since it absolutely invalidates the hajj, whether it is genital or anal, human or 
not, intentional, out of forgetfulness of ignorance, with ejaculation or not, whether it obliges the hadd 
or mahr or not, with an adult or not. It is clear from what they say, as in al-Ahjuri, even if ghusl is not 
obliged, 

The second sunna that he assumes ihram for makingup hajj. That does not spare him the missed one 
and its ihram. The second is ineffectual which has no place while he is in a false ihram and his ihram 
is not for making it up. He is obhged to complete it when he has done the Standing in the year in 
which he corrupted it. If he does not catch it, then he is commanded to come out of it by doing 'umra 
He is not permitted to remain in ihram by agreement because it is continuing the corrupted while he is 



able to be free of it. 

As for actions which precede intercourse, like the kiss and the embrace, they are unlawful. If he kisses 
or embrces and has ejaculated, it is invahdated. Otherwise he should sacrifice a camel. As for the look 
and the thought, they do not entail invahdation by the emission of sperm because of them unless both 
of them were for pleasure and continued. As for its emission by simply looking or the thought, there is 
only sacrifice for it. These are the judgements for the emission of sperm. It obliges a sacrifice 
absolutely whether it emerges after constantly looking, thought, kiss or touch or not.] 

28.15d Avoiding perfume 

perfume, 

[He must avoid perfume in hajj or 'umra like rose or jasmine, for which there is no fidyat, or feminine 
perfume, which is what has a substance which stays on the body and clothes, like musk, and saffron. 
There isfidya for it, even if it is quickly removed.] 

28.15e. Avoiding stitched clothing 

stitched clothing, 

[There is no disagreement that they are unlawful for men but not women. What is meant is all that 
surrounds the body or part of it it.. It is also unlawful for him to wear turbans, trousers and burnooses.] 

28.15f Avoiding hunting 

hunting, 

[He must also avoid hunting in land,whether the reason for hunting is to eat meat like the antelope, 
and wild ass or not, like monkeys without difference between them being tame or wild, owned or 
permitted. There is no exception for that except what is transmitted in the hadith: the kite and crow, 
rate, scorpion, and dangerous dogs.] 

28.15g Killing insects 

killing insects 

[He does not kill lice or remove them from his body.] 

28.15h. Removing hair from the body 

and removing any hair from your body. 

[Like clipping the moustace which resembles removing hair. If he removes any of his hair, he owes a 
handful of grain.] 

28.15i. Not covering the head 

When you are in ihram, you should not cover your head nor should you shave it except in a case 
of necessity. 



[It is forbidden for the one in ihram to cover his head and face with any covering, be it hke mud, let 
alone a turban. As for other things which cover the body, it is forbidden to cover with with something 
specific which is stitched. The head is not shaved by the words of the Almighty, "But do not shave 
your heads until the sacrificial animal has reached the place of sacrifice. If any of you are ill or have a 
head injury, there is an expiationE" (2:196) which means: shaving to remove harm, and so the fidya is 
fasting, sadaqa, or practices: He indicates this:] 

28.15J Its expiation 

If you do you must make expiation by fasting three days or feeding six destitute people with two 
mudds each, using the mudd of the Prophet, may AUah bless him and grant him peace, or 
sacrificing a sheep. This sacrifice does not have to be carried out in any particular place. 

[This could even be three days at Mina. He must perform an act of devotion. It could be a sheep or 
something else. He only mentioned sheep because fidya is done the best meat. It must be slaughtered. 
It is not enough to give it without sacrificing it, as some of them said. The lack of particular place is 
quaUfied to when the animal was not garlanded or marked. If it was garlanded or marked, then he only 
sacrifices it at Mina.] 

28.15k What women wear 

Women may wear khuffs and ordinary clothing while they are in ihram but in all other respects 
they must avoid the same things as men. 

[They can absolutely wear leather socks, even if she has sandals. They wear stitched clothes in ihram. 
Outside of this, they avoid the same things: intercourse and foreplay, hunting, kilhng animals, 
removing hair. There is no way she can avoid covering her head.] 

28.151 A woman's ihram 

A woman's ihram consists in her not covering her face and hands 

[She shows her face and hands, and it is forbidden for her to cover them with anything, even mud. She 
cannot wear a veil. If she does any of this, she must do fidya.] 

28.15m A man's ihram 

and man's ihram in his not covering his face and head. 

[A man must show his face and head while in ihram, night and day. If he covers any of that and 
benefits, that is forbidden for him and he does fidya whether it is out of forgetfulness, knowingly or 
out of ignorance. If he removes it immediately, he owes nothing. He is permitted to use a pillow and 
shield himself from the sun or windwith his hand. The hand is not considered a covering unless it is 
touching the head and for a long time. In such case he must do fidya as it says the 'Utibiyya. He is 
permitted to carry his baggage and other things on his head as necessary, hke a bundle of firewood 
which he carries to sell. If he carries it for someone else or for trade, there is fidya. He is permitted to 
seek the shade of the buildings and tents.] 

28.15n. Wearing leather socks 



A man may not wear khuffs while he is in ihram unless he has not got any thronged sandals in 
which case he should cut his khuffs down to below the ankles. 

[As is reported in tlie hadith. Then he proceedes to clarify which type of hajj is best:] 

28.16 Ifrad is best 

According to us doing Hajj by itself is better than doing tamattu' ('umra then hajj separately in 
the same season) or giran (hajj and 'umra together). 

[Ifrad is best based on what is in the two Sahih collections that the Prophet did ifrad in the Farewell 
Hajj and that continued to be the action of the khahfs. Abu Bakr did ifrad in 2 AH, 'Umar in 10 AH 
and Uthman in 12. It has not been reported that the Prophet did qiran or tamattu'. The Imam said that 
some of the Companions commanded qiran and some tamattu'. Ifrad does not need to be mended by 
sacrifice as opposed to qiran and tamattu'. They need that. ] 

28.16a. Someone not from Makka not doing ifrad 

ff someone who is not from Makka does qiran or tamattu' 

[It is understood that the people of Makka do not have to sacrifice. What is meant by them are those 
who are present there or at Dhu Tuwa at the time the practices are performed. There are two 
conditions for the sacrifice of the one doing qiran: that he does not live in Makka or Dhu Tuwa and 
that he makes hajj in the same year. If he misses the hajj, he comes out of 'umra and owes no sacrifice. 
If he omits the first and does not come out of ihram for 'umra and remains in ihram, it is not cancelled 
for him. Then he clarifies the place of the sacrifice.] 

28.16b The sacrifice to mend it at Mina 

he must sacrifice an animal at Mina, 

[At Mina in the day after Fajr. It is not enough to do it as night. The basis in all that is that the Prophet 
did it. There are preconditions for the validity of the sacrifice:] 

28.16c Preconditions for the vaUdity of the sacrifice 

which he had with him at 'Arafa. 

[1. Whoever is obliged to sacrifice must have the animals at 'Arafa at night. Ibn Harun said, 
"As for the precondition of standing at night, I do not know of any dispute about it because 
all who stipulate standing at 'Arafa at night, like Malik, make its judgement that of its 
owner in what makes the standing acceptable. 

2. The sacrifice must be during the days of Mina: the Day of Sacrifice and the two days 
after it The fourth day is not included. 

3. If the sacrifice is in the hajj, the sacrifice was driven under the ihram of the hajj, whether 
it was obliged by something lacking, or in the 'umra, or voluntary to repay hunting. 



When all these preconditions exist, is it not permitted to sacrifice at Makka or anywhere else: the 
sacrifice at Mina is obligatory. If he lacks some of the preconditions, it is permitted for him.] 

28.16d Sacrifice at Marwa 

If he did not have it at 'Arafa he should sacrifice it in Makka at Marwa, having brought it there 
from outside the Haram. 

[If he missed it in the days of Mina, even if he stood at 'Arafa, then he is obhged to sacrifice in Makka 
or the houses near it. He is not allowed to sacrifice at Dhu Tuwa and other places outside Makka, even 
if they are connected to the houses of Makka. That is only when he has brought the sacrifice from 
outside the Haram by any aspect because every sacrifice must combine Haram and non-Haram. The 
sacrifice can be sheep, cattle or camels, but camels are best. Only sound animals are allowed in all Uke 
the sacrifices and sacrifice of these three is specificed for the one doing tamattu' and qiran when he 
can do so.] 

28.16e. Fasting three days on the hajj 

If you do not have a sacrificial animal you should fast three days during the hajj, that being 
between the time you go into ihram and the Day of 'Arafa. 

[He only mentions the tamattu' and not the qiran. The three days during the hajj can be from the time 
of ihram to the day of 'Arafa. So if the imperfection which obHges sacrifice is before standing at 
'Arafa, it is included in the time of fasting for three days, which is from ihram to 'Arafa because he can 
fast. He is hke the one who exceeds the miqat and does tammatu' and qiran and omits the Tawaf of 
Arrival. We said, 'before the standing' is if the imperfection occurs after standing, Hke not stopping in 
Muzdahfa, or not stoning or shaving, or delaying the three until the days of tasliriq are over. Then he 
fasts them with the seven days when he wishes.] 

28.16f Fasting the days of Mina 

If you do not manage to do that you fast the days of Mina. Then when you return to your own 
country you fast seven more days. 

[If he misses the three days in the hajj, he fasts them at Mina without incurring any sin if he delays the 
fast until then for an excuse. After fasting the three, whether in the hajj or at Mina, he fasts the seven 
when he returns from Mina to Makka, whether he stays at Makka or not. If he delays it, he fasts 
whenever he wishes, and it is recommended that the three be consecutive, but it is not obHgatory. The 
same appHes to the ten. It is recommended in the well-known position.] 

28.17 Tamattu' 

28.17a How it is done 

To do tamattu', you go into ihram for 'umra only during the months of hajj, then come out of 
ihram, then go back into it again for hajj that same year without having travelled back to your 
country or to anywhere else a similar distance away. 

[It is not a precondition that they are both in the months of hajj. If he goes into ihram in Ramadan and 



then completes it in Shawwal, he does tamattu' even if a pillar falls into the months of hajj. If only 
shaving remains for him and it happens in the months of hajj, he is not doing tamattu'. Then he 
performs hajj in this year because if they were not both in the same year, there is no tamattu'. He is 
also not doing tamattu' if he returns to his land after his 'umra in the months of hajj before going into 
ihram for hajj. So tamattu' is true in any form when he finishes 'umra in the months of hajj and goes 
into ihram for hajj before he returns to his land.] 

28.17b Coming out of 'umra and going into ihram for hajj 

If this is the case you are permitted to go back into ihram from Makka if that is where you are 
but to do you must go outside the haram territory. 

[When he comes out of 'umra, he goes into ihram in Makka. In this case it is recommended that he do 
it from the door of the mosque. He does not go into ihram from Makka because one of the 
preconditions of 'umra is that he combine being in and out of ihram.] 

28.18. Qiran 

To do qiran you gointo ihram for hajj and 'umra together, making the intention to do 'umra 
first. If you decide to do Hajj as well as 'umra before you have done the tawaf and its following 
two rak'as you are considered as doing qiran. 

[He begins with 'umra. It appears from his words that he does not make it consecutive in tawaf. The 
well-known position is that it is permitted. It is valid after he completes it and before praying the 
rak'ats, but it is disliked. If he prays the rak'ats, he misses consecutiveness. Whoever does it 
consecutively (arfada) after sa'y is not doing qiran by agreement.] 

28.19 Particulars on tamattu' and qiran 

28.19a People of Makka doing tamattu' or qiran 

The people of Makka do not have to sacrifice if they are doing tamattu' or qiran. 

[It is agreed that they do not have to sacrifice in tamattu' or qiran according to the well-known 
position.] 

28.19b When it is not tamattu' 

If you come out of ihram after an 'umra before the months of hajj and then stay on for hajj 
during the same year, you are not considered as doing tamattu' 

[If he delays the shaving until the months of hajj.] 

28.20 Atonement for hunting in ihram 

20.20a Expiation 

If you kill any game while in ihram you have to make expiation for it by sacrificing a domestic 
animal equivalent to the one you killed. 



[Whether its flesh is eaten or not. The Lawgiver said whether the killer in ihram is doing hajj or 'umra, 
or is in the Haram, even if he is not a muhrim, whether he is free or slave, male or female, young or 
old, and the kilhng is dehberate or accidental, or by forgetfulness direct or causal. This sacrifice is an 
obHgation. The Hkeness is in form and value, or close to it. So the one who kills an elephant owes a 
Khorasani camel with two humps. The one who kills a wild ox or wild ass or gazelle owes a domestic 
cow. The one who kills an ostrich owes a camel becase it is close in value and form. The one who kills 
a hyena, fox, or one of the doves of Makka outside the Haram must pay its price in food when it is 
killed. The least of what is allowed in repayment for hunting is a lamb or kid because Allah Almighty 
called it a sacrifice and so it must meet the preconditions of a sacrifice.] 

20.20b. Who assesses it 

This should be ascertained by two trustworthy fuqaha' from among the MusUms. 

[If he pays it before their judgement on it, he repeats it, even if the evaluated thing is not eaten. The 
precondition of being trustworthy is being free and adult. There must be the expression "judgment": 
fatwa is not enough. One of the preconditions of their judgement is that base their judgement on the 
judgement of the Prophet and the Companions. A judgement which has no prior judgement is rejected 
and not carried out; and no one repays without a judgement. If he repays it without a judgement, he 
repeats it, even if it agrees with the judgement passed. An exception to are the doves of Makka and the 
Haram for which there is a sheep.] 

20.20c. Where the sacrifice is done 

If the animals to be killed was with you on ' Arafa the sacrifice should be made at Mina. 
Otherwise it should be made in Makka, the animal concerned having been brought in from 
outside the Haram territory. 

[The place where it is slaughtered, i.e.the repayment of game if it is part of what is slaughtered and 
sacrificed. He or his representative do it at Mina. Otherwise it is done in Makka.] 

20.20d. The choice 

You have the choice of doing this or of making kaffara by feeding destitute people, in which case 
you work out the value of the animal killed in terms of food and give that amount away as 
sadaqa. Or alternatively you can fast one day for each mudd, fasting a whole day for any 
incomplete mudd. 

[Someone who kills game has a choice between two things. He can do kaffara, which is feeding from 
the predominant food of the place where the game was killed, whatever it is. If it has no value there, 
one considers its price in the nearest place to it, and he gives it as sadaqa to them. When he feeds, each 
poor person receives a mudd. If he gives its price or goods, that is not enough. 

The second possibiHty is to fast. There is a day per mudd because he cannot make it partial, and so it 
can only be mended by a complete day.] 

20.21 Going home 

20.21a. The ruling of 'umra 



'Umra is a confirmed sunna to be done at least once in a lifetime. 

[It as two miqats: place, which are those of the hajj, and time, which is the entire year. It has three 
pillars: ihram, tawaf and sa'y. Shaving is not one of its pillars. The description of ihram for it is 
recommended to have a ghusl and what is permitted to dress and what is forbidden of scent, etc, is Hke 
the hajj, It is disUked to repeat it in the same year in the well-known position.] 

20.21b. Final du'a 

When you leave Makka after hajj or 'umra, it is recommended to say: "Ayibuna, ta-ibuna, 
'abidana lirabbina, hamiduna, sadaqa'llahu wa'dahu wa nasara 'abdahu wa hazama'l-Ahzaba 
wahdah. (Returning, repentant, worshipping, praising our Lord. AUah had been true to His 
promise and given victory to His slave and defeated the clans by Himself.) 

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Chapter 29: On sacrifices, the slaughter of animals , 'agiga (animals 
sacrificed for the birth of a child), hunting , circumcision and 

forbidden food and drinks 

29.1 Animals for feast day and hajj sacrifices 

29. la The ruhng of the 'id sacrifice 

Sacrificing an animal for the 'id is a sunna which is obligatory for all who are able to do so. 

[Adhiya refers to animals which are brought to be sacrificed on the Day of al-Adha and afterwards. It 
is called that because of the day when they are sacrificed at Duha and it is called the 'ld al-Adha 
because the prayer in it is at that time. It is a confirmed sunna in the well-known position for the one 
who is able, if he is free, Mushm, adult or child, male or female, resident or travelUng, not on hajj, 
because because the sunna is for him to sacrifice for himself and those relatives whose maintenance he 
is resposnible for, Hke parents and poor children. By "being able" he avoids the one who is poor. Ibn 
al-Hajib said that the one who is able is the one who would be injured in his property, i.e. the one who 
is not able to find its price in that year. Partnership is permitted in the reward for it rather than in its 
price.] 

29. Ib. The minimum 

The least which is acceptable for it in the case of sheep is a jadhaO, which is a one year old ram, 
ahhough some have said eight months and some ten months old. In the case of goats it should be 
a thaniyya, which means a male in its second year and Hkewise only thaniyya animals are 
acceptable in the case of cattle and camels. A thaniyya in respect to cattle is a male in its fourth 
year and in respect to camels it is a six year old male. 

[This is the well-known position.] 

29.1c. The the most perfect animal 

Rams which have not been castrated are better for sacrifice than those which have been, but 
castrated rams are better than ewes. Ewes are better than either male or female goats. Male 
goats which have not been castrated are better than camels and cattle for Oid sacrifices. 

[This has to do with being more perfect. So there are twelve grades, the highest is a uncastrated ram 
and the least is a female camel and cow.] 

29.1d The order in animals 

As regards 'hadys' (animals to be sacrificed as part of the hajj) camels are best and then cattle 
and then sheep and then goats. 

[This is the famous position because what is desired of hadys is to have a lot of meat for the poor, and 
what is desired of the dahiya is good meat, i.e. for bringing to the family, Bahram said, "The evidence 
for us in the two places is that the Prophet used to often make his hadys camels and his dahiya was 
two rams, as is reported in the Sahih.] 



29. le. Unacceptable animals 

In none of these circumstances is it acceptable to sacrifice a one-eyed animal or a sick animal or 
a markedly lame animal or an emaciated animal. 

[However, an animal with some whiteness in the eye which does not entail blindness is permitted. Of 
course, a totally blind animal is not permitted. A clearly ill animal is not allowed, but one with a slight 
illness is permitted. Clear illness involves not eating normally or eating a lot. Also excluded are 
animals having a lot mange and which have lost its teeth, except for a single tooth.] 

29.1f. Other unacceptable animals 

In fact you should avoid using for sacrifice any animal which has something wrong with it. You 
should also avoid any spUt-eared animal unless the split is only slight. The same appUes to an 
animal whose ear has been cut off or one with a broken horn. If it is bleeding it is not acceptable 
for sacrifice. However, if it is not bleeding, it is acceptable. 

[This is if it is a lot, a little is overlooked. He includes spht-eared animals, and other forms of 
manghng the ears. There is disagreement about the extent of cutting, That which is the predominant 
position is that a third of the ear is sHght, and a third of the tail is a lot because the tail is meat and 
sinew wliile the ear is not. This is about the tail of the sheep which is a fat tail. As for Hke the ox, 
camel and sheep in some lands which have no meat on the tail, that which would prevent its 
acceptabiUty is what decrease beauty. Bleeding refers to a wound which does not heal.] 

29.2. TimeofSacrifice 

29.2a. After the Imam 

It is good to sacrifice your animal yourself after the imam has made his sacrifice on the morning 
of the Day of Sacrifice. If you slaughter your animal before the imam you must repeat your 
sacrifice. 

[That is recommended if it is possible to imitate the Messenger of Allah. If you cannot do that for 
some reason, then you delegates MusHm, and it is recommended that he be one of the people of virtue 
and excellence. Anyone who does not pray is disliked, but it is said that it is permitted in the well- 
known position. It is not allowed to delegate an unbeHever of any description. 

The time of sacrifice begins from the time the Imam sacrifices on the Day of Sacrifice, the lOth of 
Dhu'l-Hijja. He should sacrifice in the morning, which is the time of the nafila. If anyone sacrifices 
before the Day of Sacrifice or after Fajr on the Day of Sacrifice and before sunrise, that is not 
permitted and he must repeat the sacrifice. This is based on the words of the Almighty, "Do not 
advance yourselves in front of Allah and of His Messenger." (49:1) Al-Hasan al-Basri said, "It was 
sent down about people who sacrificed before the Imam." This is about the one who has an Imam.] 

29.2b When there is no imam 

If there is no imam with you, you should make sure you do not do it before the time the imam 
nearest to you would do so. The sacrifice must not be done at night. 



[They sacrifice at the proper time. If their error becomes evident to them, it is allowed in the well- 
known position. One considers the Imam of the prayer. It is not done at night on the second or third 
day. This is because Allah Almighty says, "Mention Allah's Name on particular days." (22:28) It is 
allowed to sacrifice in forenoon in the second or third day after dawn and before sunrise, but then he 
has abandoned what is recommended as opposed to the one who sacrifices in the first day after dawn 
and before sunrise which is not acceptable.] 

29.2c. The three days of sacrifice 

There are three 'days of sacrifice' and you can make your sacrifice any time up until Maghrib 
on the last of these days but the best time to make your sacrifice is on the first day. 

[According to Mahk, foUowing a group of the Companions. It is the Day of Sacrifice and the two days 
after it. The end of the time is sunset on the third day. The best time foUows what was done by the 
Prophet and the right-guided khahfs.] 

29.2d. On the second day 

If you do not manage to make your sacrifice before midday on the first day some of the people of 
knowledge say that it is better to wait until the morning of the second day. 

[This is Ibn Habib. Bahram transmitted it from MaHk. Bahram said that they is no disagreement that 
what is done before midday from the beginning of the day is better than what is after it. There is 
disagreement about whether what is after midday of it is better than before midday of the second day. 
That is the apparent meaning of what the Mukhtasar says. It is the school of the Risala. The reUable 
position is that all of the first day is better than what is after it.] 

29.2e. None of the animal can be sold 

No part of an animal sacrificed for the 'id may be sold; neither its skin nor anything else. 

[This is a prohibition. This also apphes to an 'aqiqa. He refutes the one who says that its skin can be 
sold.] 

29.3RitualofSacrifice 

29.3a Facing qibla 

The animal you are intending to sacrifice should be made to face the qibla 

[This is in all sacrifices. If it is not done for some excuse or forgetfulness, it is agreed that it can be 
eaten.] 

29.3bWhatissaid 

and when you slaughter it you should say, "Bismillahi, Allahu Akbar." (In the name of AUah. 
AUah is greater.) 

[He says both. That is the action of the people. The takbir is sunna, i.e. recommended. The basmala is 



taken from his words afterwards, and it is the position in the Mudawwana. It is obligatory when 
remembered and one is able to say it. It is omitted in case of lack of ability and forgetfulness. If he 
confines himself to it, that is sufficient by the words of Allah, "Eat from that over which the name of 
Allah has been mentioned." (6:118) Nothing is a precondition but the name of Allah Almighty.] 

29.3c What is said on 'id sacrifices 

If, when sacrificing for the 'id you add "Rabbana taqabbal minnaa(Our Lord, accept this from 
us), there is no harm in that. 

[This means it is recommended. It is also said that it is permission.] 

29.3d If the basmala is forgotten 

If you forget to say 'Bismillah' when sacrificing an animal for the 'id or at any other time you 
are permitted to eat it. However, if the Bismillah is left out deliberately the animal cannot be 
eaten. 

[According to the position of the Mudawwana, it is obligatory when remembered.] 

29.3e When hunting 

The same thing appUes to sending hunting animals out after game. 

[Or shooting an arrow and the like used for hunting. It is eaten. If the basmala is deliberately omitted, 
it is not eaten by the words of Allah, "Do not eat from that over which the name of Allah has not been 
mentioned." (6:121) The Almighty said, "Eat from what they bring you and mention the name of 
Allahoverit."(5:4)] 

29.4. Use of animals for various types of sacrifice 

29.4a Not sold, but eaten from and given away 

It is not permissible to sell the meat, skin, fat, innards, or any other part of an animal that has 
been sacrificed either for the 'id or for a new-born child or as part of the Hajj, but you are 
allowed to eat from such an animal and it is recommended to give some away as sadaqa 
although it is not obligatory to do this. 

[This includes horn, wool and hair. It is possible that the excellence is specific or that it refers to 
combining eating and sadaqa, which is the literal meaning by the words of the Almighty, "Eat from 
them and feed those who are poor and in need." (22:28) and His words, "feed both those who ask and 
those who are too shy to ask" (22:32) whether he asks or not. Giving it all as sadaqa is disliked. There 
is no definition to how much is eaten or given away. Most forbid feeding the unbeliever from it 
absolutely, whether a Kitabi or Magian.] 

29.4b. Not eating from an animal slaughtered for expiation. 

You may not, however, eat from an animal you have sacrificed in expiation for breaking one of 
conditions of ihram nor for one sacrificed on account of having killed while in ihram nor from 



one sacrificed as part of a vow you have made to feed the poor nor from 'hadys' intended as 
voluntary sacrifices which for some reason become defective before reaching the place of 
sacrifice. In any other instances you can eat from your sacrifice if you want. 

[The hadis are not eaten as opposed to the dhahiya. 

The place of sacrifice is Mina if he had the animal at 'Arafa and it is is within the days of sacrifice, and 
at Makka if he did not stop there or if the days of sacrifice have passed. It is haram to eat from the 
these categories after they reach their place because Allah Almighty called the fidya and repayment 
kaffara, and a man does not eat from his kaffara. He excludes himself in the third case and gives it to 
the poor. He is permitted to eat it before the place because he can still replace it. He is permitted to eat 
from voluntary hadis when they are defective after reaching the place. He is permitted to eat the hadis 
of qiran and tamattu' and the hadi of invahdation, and every hadi obHged for missing one of the marks 
of hajj absolutely before reaching the place and after it by the lack of suspicion before it reaches the 
place because he can replace it, and after it the business is clear.] 

29.5 Slaughtering 

29.5a. Severing the throat and carotid arteries 

The correct method of slaughtering is to sever the throat and the carotid arteries and nothing 
short of that is acceptable. 

[All of the throat. The throat and arteries must all be cut: this is the position of Sahnun and is well- 
known. It is said that it is enough to cut the arteries completely and half the throat. The hteral words of 
the shaykh mean that it is not a precondition to cut the gullet. 'lyad said that the gullet is the path of 
food and drink.] 

29.5b A single stroke 

If you take your hand away after severing only part of that and then resume and compete the 
cutting, the animal cannot be eaten. 

[It is apparent that it is whether it is a long or short gap, but there is disagreement about when he 
returns the blade quickly. Sahnun said it is unlawful. Ibn Habib said that it is eaten because all that is 
asked is that it be immediate and a small disparity is over looked. That is the rehable position. The 
fiqh of the question is that if he Hfts his hand after kilHng it and returns afterwards, it is not eaten, even 
if he lifted his hand by necessity. If he Hfts his hand before finishing any of the kilHng, it is eaten, 
even if he returns afterwards because the second is a separate slaughter.] 

29.5c Cutting off the head 

If you cut the head right off you have committed a wrong action, but the animal can be eaten. 

[Whether it is deHberate, by forgetfulness or an overly sharp knife.] 

29.5d. When the animal is slaughtered from the back of the neck 

You cannot eat an animal which has been slaughtered from the back of the neck. 



[It has not be slaughtered in the prescribed manner and its death arose out by cutting the spine. If it is 
killed by such slaughtering, it is not eaten, even if the throat is cut and the knife is hard on the arteries 
because of the lack of sharpness in the knife and it cuts the arteries from inside. It is not eaten 
according to the Maliki School.] 

29.5e Methods of slaughter 

Cattle should be slaughtered with a knife but if their throats are pierced with a spear they can 
still be eaten. 

[Two forms are permitted in cattle because they have the place of sacrifice and the place of slaughter. 
The place of sacrifice is the the upper breast. It is not a precondition in nahr slaughter that any of the 
throat and arteries be cut because the place of the upper breast is the place where the implement 
reaches the heart and the animal dies quickly.] 

29.5f Camels 

Camels should be pierced in the throat with a spear and if they are slaughtered with a knife they 
may not be eaten although there is a difference of opinion about this. 

[It is recommended that camels be slaughtered while they are standing. There is disagreement about 
eating them if they are slaughtered with a knife. The position that they are not eaten if they are 
slaughtered like this is found in the Mudawwana. Ibn Habib takes it as a prohibition and Ibn al-Hajib 
thinks it is well-known. It is what is preferred. Others consider it disliked. The dispute is about when 
such a slaughter is unnecessary. If it is necessary, as when a camel falls into a hole and its upper chest 
cannot be reached and it is slaughtered, then it can be eaten by agreement.] 

29.5g Sheep and goats 

Sheep and goats should be slaughtered with a knife and if their throats are pierced with a spear 
they should not be eaten although there is a difference of opinion about this also. 

[This is when it is not due to necessity. The well-known position is that it is forbidden. If it is due to 
necessity, as when it falls into a hole and slaughtered, there is agreement that it is eaten.] 

29.5h The foetus 

The slaughter of a mother includes what is in the womb provided that the foetus is fuUy formed 
and its hair has grown. 

[This is part of livestock. If it is slaughtered and there is dead foetus in it, it can be eaten with 
preconditions. It should be fully developed. This does not mean that all its limbs are perfect. It can be 
even if missing a leg.] 

29.6 Forbidden foods and animal by-products 

29.6a Various forms of death 

An animal which has been strangled by a rope or suchUke or one that has been beaten with a 



stick or some other object or one that has fallen from a height or one that has been gored or one 
that has been attacked by a wild beast may not be slaughtered and eaten if the animal is going to 
die from the wounds it has received. 

["Suchlike" includes the spear and the stone. This is because such animals are carrion. If it is hoped 
that the animal will live, there is no dispute about sacrificing it. If there is no hope of life, Malik said 
via Ashhab that it is not sacrificed and not eaten. It is the position of the shaykh. The school of Ibn al- 
Qasim, which is transmitted from Mahk, is that it is sacrificed and eaten. It is the preferred position.] 

29.6b Carrion in dire need 

There is no harm in eating carrion (mayta) if you are in dire need - 

[From any hving thing except human. If someone in ihram finds both game and carrion, he eats the 
carrion. If he finds carrion and pig, he eats the carrion. If he only finds pig, he eats it. It is 
recommended to him to slaughter it and its slaughter is by wounding. At-Tata'i said, "The evident 
position is that he does not need to slaughter it because slaughter does not benefit that which forbidden 
to eat.] 

29.6c. How long carrion can be eaten 

you can eat from it until you are satisfied and take provision from it so long as you throw it 
away when the need for it no longer exists. 

[This is is when he fear lack of food in the future. It is permissible for the person compelled to eat 
carrion when he does not find any other food. If he is forced to take food belonging to other people, it 
is said that he confines himself to what is necessary for hfe without filhng himself and taking 
provision, as al-Mawwaq stated. It is said that he eats his fill and does not take provision, as al-Huttab 
said. As he is permitted to eat carrion in necessity, he is also allowed to drink all that will repel thirst, 
Hke impure water and other impure Hquids, Hke impure rose water except for wine. It s not lawful 
except to take a swallow. It is of no use in quenching thirst. Indeed, it increases thirst.] 

29.6d. Skins of carrion 

There is no harm in using the skin of a carrion animal if it has been tanned but you cannot pray 
on it nor can it be sold. 

[By tanning its smell and moisture is removed. It is understood that it is a precondition that it is not 
used before it is tanned. It appears from his words that the tanning is used for the skins of all carrion 
as Sahnun and Ibn 'Abdu'l-Hakam said. It is well-known that tanning is not used for pigskin. It is also 
apparent from his words that its purity is general to aquatic and other animals, and that it is the case 
with Sahnun and others. The well-known position is that its purity is confined to dry animals. Water 
alone is what clarifies aquatic animals . However the prayer is not performed on that in the well- 
known position. It is not sold according to one of two transmissions which is well-known in the 
School.] 

29.6e. Skins of wild animals 

There is no harm in doing the prayer on skins of wild animals or selling them if they have been 



killed correctly. 

[This means it is permissible. This refers to every animal whose flesh is disliked and so it includes 
elephants, wolves, foxes, and hyenas provided that they are slaughtered. They can also be sold.] 

29.6f. Wool and hair of carrion 

You can use wool of a carrion animal or its hair or any other thing which could be taken from 
the animal when aUve, but according to us it is better for it to be washed first. 

[After shearing and it refers for general use in selling, praying on it, giving it as sadaqa and other 
things. If it is sold, the fact that it is from carrion should be made clear. It is clear that his words, "and 
its hair" includes the bristles of pigs. That is the case according to Malik, Ibn al-Qasim and others. It is 
said that the hair of pigs and dogs are excluded and others say that all of pigs are impure except the 
hair. The Malikis recommend that wool and other things be washed if you are not certain that they are 
pure. If you are certain that something is pure, it is not recommended to wash it. If you are certain it is 
impure, it is obligatory to wash it.] 

29.6g Feathers, horns, teeth, hooves, tusks 

You cannot use feathers from birds which are carrion or the horns, hooves and teeth of carrion 
animals. It is disUked to use elephant tusks although there is a difference of opinion about this. 

[This would appear to contradict his words "or what is taken from them when alive." He removes the 
specification by his words, "or pain them." It is clear that it is prohibition because life makes it 
allowed. 

The dislike of the use of elephant tusks is found in the Mudawwana. But there is disagreement about it 
as about horn and antlers. There are four positions, and the well-known of them is that all of it is 
impure based. Ibn Wahb said that it is pure. What is confirmed is that elephant tusks are impure since 
it is carrion. The position of the Mudawwana is to dislike oils found in the tusks of elephants, combing 
with it, and trading in it because it is carrion. As for the tusks of elephants slaughtered, even as a 
camel, that is disliked, and the dislike is for encourage restraint.] 

29.6h Liquids in which a mouse dies 

Any ghee, oil or Uquid honey in which a mouse has died should be thrown away and not eaten 
although there is no harm in using such oil for Ughting purposes provided it is not in a mosque, 
in which case it should be carefuUy avoided. 

[It is not sold. Similar to a mouse is any breathing creature. Liquids are thrown away and not eaten 
However it can be used for light in places like houses and shops. It is not used in mosques because it 
is impure and the mosque lamps are not lit by it since they are free from impurities.] 

29.6i. If the substance is soUd 

If the substance is soUd, then the mouse should be thrown away along with what is around it and 
the rest may be eaten, although Sahnun said this was the case only if it had not stayed in it a 
long time, otherwise all of it should be thrown away. 



[He can sell it although he must make that clear. There is no set amount which is thrown away. That is 
according to predominant opinion. If it is in it a long time, then the impurity may have spread 
throughout it.] 

29.6J Food of the People of the Book 

There is no harm in the food of the people of the Book and their slaughtered animals. 

[He means it is permissible. Allah Almighty says, " And the food of those given the Book is lawful to 
you." Most commentators say that what is meant is all slaughtered food is lawful, what is lawful of 
that and what is unlawful, hke when the slaughtered animal has a bad lung. There must be permission 
to eat if the Kitabi is one of those who does not consider carrion lawful. If he considers it lawful, al- 
Bakri said that if is slaughtered in your presence and then it is permitted to eat it. If he is absent from 
it, it is not permitted.] 

29.6k Fat of animals slaughtered by Jews 

However, it is disUked to eat the fat from animals slaughtered by jews although it is not actually 
haram. 

[i..e what is forbidden them by their Shari'a, Hke the fat of cows and sheep Uke the fine fat which 
covers the intestines. If it is said that the fat which are the Jews are foridden by our Shari'a is not 
unlawful, the answer is that it is a slaughtered part and what is slaughtered is lawful for him and he did 
not slaughter for other than what is lawful for him. Because it is prohibited for him it is disHked for us 
to eat it.] 

29.61. Animals slaughtered by Magians 

It is not permissible to eat animals slaughtered by Magians although any of their food that does 
not involve slaughtering is not haram. 

[This refers to idolator in general, whether an idolater slaughters for himself or for a MusHm unless he 
commands him to sacrifice and tells him, "Say, 'ln the name of Allah' over it'. That can be eaten 
without disagreement. 

Similarly one does not eat the sacrifice of the drunk or mad person, even if they carry out the 
slaughter, because of the absence of their intellect. Ibn al-Hajib said, "It is vahd when done by the 
discriminating child, and the woman without necessity in the soundest position." It is permitted to eat 
unslaughtered food by agreement if he is certain of its purity. If he is certain of its impurity, it is 
unlawful to eat it. If he doubts it, he considers it impure.] 

29.7 Hunting 

29.7a Hunting for sport is disliked 

Hunting for mere pleasure is disUked but any other kind of hunting is permissible. 
[Hunting is obHgatory if he can only provide for his family by it.] 



29.7b. Prey killed by a trained dog or falcon 

Any prey killed by your trained dog or falcon can be eaten if you sent it after it. 

[It is not particular tliese two, but applies to all animals which can be trained to hunt and obey. It is not 
a precondition that falcons be restrained unless the prey is a bird. It is enough that it obey when 
released. It is not a precondition that it accept confinement after being released. It is a precondition for 
hunting animal that he actually train it, even if it is an animal which does not normally accept training, 
like a lion or tiger. It is a precondition that the prey be seen or in a confined space like a cave or 
thicket which he knows about or which has no other exit. Otherwise it is not eaten. It must be 
something whose flesh is eaten, even if it different than he thinks as when he thinks it is a rabbit and 
releases his dog and it is a gazelle. It is a precondition that the hunter make an intention and say the 
tasmiya when releasing the animal. If he neglects it intentionally, the game is not eaten but not if he 
forgot and he is Mushm. This is for land hunting. As for fishing, it is permitted for everyone who is 
sane. It is not vaHd from a mad person or drunk.] 

29.7c Prey killed out of sight 

The same applies if your hunting animal kills any prey out of sight before you are able to 
slaughter it. If you reached the prey before it has been killed it can only be eaten if you slaughter 
it. 

[It must be slaughtered. If he does not neglect it, it is eaten, even if he does not carry out its kilHng 
since there must be bloodletting, even on the ear when the skin is thick.] 

29.7d. KiUing game with a spear or arrow 

You can eat anything you kill with a spear or arrow but if you get the chance to slaughter it you 
should do so. 

[All that has a point, even if not iron, whether it is killed outright or dies of its wound. You can eat it 
because of your intention and basmala when you shot. It is desirable to slaughter it if you find it still 
ahve.] 

29.7e Game that runs off 

You can still eat an animal even if it runs off, provided you are sure that it is your arrow that 
has killed it as long as you reach it before nightfall. Some say that this refers only to prey that 
has been killed by trained hunting animals. If your arrow is found piercing a vital organ you can 
eat the animal. 

[It says in the Mudawwana that if he the night passes and he finds it dead, he does not eat it, whether 
that is through a dog, falcon or arrow.] 

29.7f Domestic animals killed like game 

You cannot eat a domestic animal which has been killed in the way game is killed. 

[This is clear, even if it is a stray and has joined wild animals. It is the same if the wild animal 



becomes tame. It is only eaten by sacrifice.] 

29.8 The 'Aqiqa 

29.8a The 'aqiqa is recommended 

Sacrificing an animal for the birth of a child ('aqiqa) is a recommended sunna. It should be done 
on the seventh day after the birth of the child, using a sheep similar in age and characteristics to 
what has been previously mentioned concering sacrifices for the 'id. The day on which the child 
is born is not counted as one of the seven days. The animal should be sacrificed in the morning. 

[Tlie word derives from the hair of the head of child because it is slaughtered when the hair is cut. It is 
also said that it is because its veins are cut. It is recommended, not stressed. The basis for its legahty is 
what Ahmad related with an excellent isnad: the Prophet said, "Every child is in pawn for his 'aqiqa." 
It is done for a boy or a girl provided the child lives to the seventh day. It should be a sheep or a goat 
without any defects which would prevent its sacrifice. The day he is born is not counted, unless he is 
born at Fajr, in which case it is counted. It should be done in the morning and it is disHked to do it 
from midday to sunset, and it is not allowed to be done at night or before sunrise.] 

29.8b The child is not smeared with blood 

The child should not be smeared with any of the animal's blood. 

[To avoid the custom of the Jahiliyya which was to rub the head with the blood for luck so that he 
might be courageous and blood-shedding.] 

29.8c. What is done with the meat 

It can be eaten and given away as sadaqa and its bones can be broken. 

[i.e. it is recommended for the people of his house and neighbours to eat from it. Al-Fakhani said, 
"Feeding people is the same as is done in sacrifices and there is no specific amount which is given to 
people. He eats what he wishes and gives as sadaqa what he wishes, although sadaqa is more fitting 
since it is said that there there is no 'aqiqa until all or some of it is given as sadaqa." The aim of the 
'aqiqa is sadaqa and sadaqa can be raw or cooked. It is recommended to break its bones as opposed to 
the Jahiliyya when they did not break its bones out of fear that it would affect the child.] 

29.8d. Shaving the baby's head 

If the baby's head is shaved and the weight of hair in gold or silver given away as sadaqa that is 
a good practice. 

[Male or female. This is based on a hadith of 'Ali in at-Tirmidhi where the Messenger of Allah did an 
'aqiqa for al-Hasan with a ram and said, "Fatima, shave his head and give sadaqa in silver according to 
the weight of the hair." It was weighed and it was a dirham or part of one. The fact that it is "good" 
means that it is recommended. It is recommended that it he be named on the seventh day if there is an 
'aqiqa, and if there is no 'aqiqa, the child is named before that. It is recommended that something 
sweet go first to the stomach of the child because the Prophet did that for 'Abdullah ibn Abi Talha 
using a date.] 



29.8e. Rubbing the head with other than blood 

ff, instead of being rubbed with blood as was the custom before Islam, the baby's head is rubbed 
with a lotion consisting of perfume mixed with rose water, there is no harm in this. 

[Based on what is related by Abu Dawud from Burayda the Companion. He said, "In the Jahiliyya 
when one of us had a son, he would sacrifice a sheep and rub the head with its blood. When Allah 
brought Islam, we used to sacrifice a sheep and shave his head and rub it with saffron."] 

29.9 Circumcision 

29.9a Male circumcision 

Circumcision is a confirmed sunna for males 

[It is mandatory. It is disliked to be circumcised on the day of birth or the seventh day because it is the 
practice of the Jews. Circumcision should be performed before the time when he is commanded to 
pray - from seven years to ten. There is disagreement about whether or not to circumcise an adult who 
becomes Mushm and fears for himself. Sahnun said that circumcision is obhged for him, saying, "If it 
is mandatory to cut off the hands of thieves, is it left for fear of himself?" Someone who foregoes 
circumsicion without excuse is not allowed to be Imam or to give testimony.] 

29.9b Female circumcision 

and female circumcision (khifad) is praiseworthy (makruma). 

[To remove what the woman has of excess. It is recommended according to at-Tata'i. It is worthy 
because it brightens the complexion and makes intercourse pleasurable.] 

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Chapter 30: On Jihad 

30.1 Its meaning 

[ Linguistically jihad is derived fromjahd, which, acording to al-Misbah, is effort in what someone 
does, orjuhd which is ability. It is a technical term for the Muslim fighting the unbelievers who have 
no treaty with the intention of elevating the word of Allah or presenting Islam. 

Jihad has obligations which must be met. They are: 

1. Obeying the ruler and so when he recommends going in a particular direction to fight, it is 
binding to go there. 

2. Ghulul (misappropriation) must be abandoned: it means to take from the booty before it is 
divided. 

3. He must be honour to a safe-conduct, and so when an unbeliever is granted safe-conduct, he 
must abide by it and he is not permitted after that to deem it lawful to kill him. 

4. One must not flee when the odds are two to one: which means standing firm in the fray. 

Jihad has two categories; individual obhgation and general obHgation. When it becomes a specific 
duty to do it and it cannot be opposed, whether it the person is one of those who are responsible for 
the obHgation of jihad or not, Hke the slave and child who cannot fight and women, as when the 
enemy arrives suddenly in the place and only these people are available, then it is an individual 
obUgation for them.] 

30.2. How and when it is obligatory 

30.2a. An obligation 

Jihad is an obUgation which can be taken on by some of the people on behalf of others. 

[By the words of the Almighty: "Those behevers who stay behind - other than those forced by 
necessity - are not the same as those who do jihad in the way of Allah." (4:95) Allah has promised 
both good, ie. the best reward which is the Garden. There is mutawatir sunna that the Prophet sent 
some people rather than others.] 

30.2b. Inviting people to Islam first 

And it is preferable, according to us, that the enemy are not fought until they have been invited 
to the din of AUah except if they attack first. 

[The MaHkis prefer that each group be called upon to abandon their disbeHef and be called to the 
shahada whose contents are not prescribed. He calls to the general message of the Prophet for three 
days in succession unless they attack first. Then the call is not recommended. Indeed, it becomes 
obHgatory to fight them.] 

30.2c. Offering a choice between Islam and jizya 

They can either accept Islam or pay the jizya (tax on non-MusUms); if not they are to be fought. 



[His apparent words mean that they are given a choice between the two at the same time. If they 
accept one, they are left. Otherwise they are fought. Al-Jawhar describes the call as Islam being 
offered to them. If they answer, they are left. If they refuse, then jizya is offered to them, If they 
refuse, they are fought. All of that is when there is a delay and there is time. If they attack before the 
call, preventing our call, they are fought because then the call is unlawful.] 

30.2d Where jizya is acceptable 

Jizya is only acceptable in places where they are subject to our law. If they are a long way from 
our jurisdiction jizya can only be accepted from them if they move to our territory. If they do 
not do this they are to be fought. 

[Ibn 'Umar said that this precondition is about the people of force. As for the people of truce, it is not a 
precondition for them. Jizya is accepted from them where they are because they restrained themselves 
until they paid peace for themselves and their lands. ] 

30.2e. Fleeing from the enemy not allowed 

Fleeing from the enemy is a major wrong action when their number is twice that of the musUms 
or less. 

[This is when the unbehevers are twice that of the MusHms in strength or stronger, or the business is 
not known. It is the well-known position when they are considered weak according to the number, not 
the force, as opposed to Ibn al-Majishun. He says that they must be estabhshed as more than twice the 
number if they are superior to the unbehevers in weapons and stronger in strength and resolve. The 
prohibition against flight is when he flees and does not intend to return. If he does that as a trick or to 
join another group so that the enemy sees the retreat and follows him and he returns or he rejoins the 
amir or the group of the MusHms to help them, then it is not unlawful.] 

30.2f When flight is allowed 

If there are more than that there is no wrong in doing so. 

[If there are more than twice the number of Mushms, there is no harm in flight. Such it would appear, 
even if the MusHms number as many as 12,000, which is in an-Nawadir from Sahnun. Ibn Rushd 
related from group of the people of knowledge and he is thinks that when the Mushms reach 12,000, 
they are not permitted to flee, even if the unbelievers are more than twice their number.] 

30.2g. Fighting under any commander 

The enemy are to be fought whether the commander of the muslims is right-acting or not. 

[It is obHgatory for those for whom jihad is obHgatory to fight the enemy. The Prophet said, "Allah 
will support his deen by the impious man." Perhaps if he does not fight with him, there might be harm 
for the Muslims.] 

30.2h Killing prisoners 

There is no harm in kiUing an enemy prisoner but you may not kill anyone after a pledge of 



security has been given, nor may you break a treaty. 

[When there is benefit in killing him. After security is given by the Imam or someone else in the well- 
known position, contrary to the one who says that security given by other than the Imam is dependent 
on the view of the Imam. The basis of the well-known position is the words of the Prophet about a 
banner being set up for the treacherous on the Day of Rising, when it will be said, "This is the betrayal 
of so-and-so." It means that he will be known as treacherous on the Day of Rising so that the people 
there will censure him. Nor is a treaty to be broken.] 

30.2i Not killing women and children 

Nor may you kill women and children. 

[Since that prohibition is sound from the Prophet. Similarly jizya is not imposed on them. The Imam 
can give them choice between three: enslavement, freedom and ransom.] 

30.2J Monks and priests and women who fight 

KiUing monks and priests should be avoided unless they are involved in the fighting. Similarly, 
women who fight can also be killed. 

[The prohibition against kilhng monks is not by virtue of their monasticism, because they are further 
from Allah because of the strength of their disbehef. They are left since the people of their deen leave 
them and so they are Hke women. Priests (rabbis) are left unless they actually fight. It is said that this 
refers to women and children as well. Women can be killed if they are involved in the actual fighting. 
Ibn 'Umar hmits this to the state of fighting. When fighting is over, women are not killed. The 
predominant opinion is that when women fight with weapons, they can be killed during the fighting or 
afterwards, even if they did not fight anyone. According to the Mukhtasar, monks and nuns retain 
their freedom, and it is forbidden either to kill them or to reduce them to slavery.] 

30.2k pledge of security 

A pledge of security given by the least of the MusUms is binding on the rest of then. 

[This security is granted to specific people, i.e. specific unbehevers. The people of a region or town 
are not granted security except by the ruler. If someone else makes such a contract, the ruler can break 
it if he wishes. We read in al-Jawahir, "The precondition of the security is that there is no harm in it 
for the MusUms. If someone grants security to a spy or scout or one who contains harm, it is not 
binding." 

30.21 Women and children giving security 

This also appUes when women do this, and also children provided they are able to understand 
what is involved. It is also said that this is only acceptable if the man in charge says it is 
acceptable. 

[i.e. if the child knows that it is unlawful to violate security, then he is obHged to observe it.] 
30.3. Booty 



30.3a. The fifth 

When the MusUms gain booty by having fought and won it, their leader takes one fifth and 
divides the remaining four-fifths between those doing the fighting. It is better for this dividing 
up to take place where the battle was fought. 

[He divides the fifth as he thinks best. He can put it in the treasury or spend it on the welfare ot the 
Muslims by buying weapons or other things beneficial for the Muslims. If he likes, he can give it to 
the family of the Prophet or others or give part of it to them and the rest to others. This is when they 
take booty other than land: horses, hnen, slaves, money and grain. Land is not divided in fifths or 
allotted. It is entailed and its land-tax is spent on the best interests of the Mushms. After the fifth is 
taken, the rest of the booty is divided in that place whre the fighting took place since the Prophet did 
that because it is a punishment for the enemy.] 

30.3b Which booty is divided 

Only booty that has been fought for using horses and camels or taken after combat is to be 
divided up in this way. 

[As for what is taken without combat or force, Hke that which is take from the one who people have 
left when they hear that the Mushm army has advanced against them, there is no fifth nor division. It 
is at the discretion of the Imam as he can dispose of the fifth of the booty wherever he wishes.] 

30.3c Use of food or fodder 

If part of the spoils consist of food or fodder, there is no harm in any who need it taking some 
before the division takes place. 

[This means it is permitted with or without the permission of the leader. What is meant by food is 
what can be eaten: meat or other things. The basis for what he said is found in the Sahih in the words 
of Ibn 'Umar, "We used to get honey and grapes in our raids and we ate them and did not present them 
to the commander. 

The four-fifths of the booty is divided between the army according to the preconditions in the Shari'a.] 

30.4 Distribution of shares 

30.4a Those actively involved in jihad 

A share of the booty is only given to those who take part in the fighting or who are prevented 
from doing so by being occupied with the jihad in some other way. 

[An active presence is meant, whether fighting or being present to face the enemy. When the rows are 
formed and fighting has not begun, there is no share for someone who dies then, but there is a share 
for the one who dies after the fighting stops. Also those who are prevented by things Hke scouting or 
bringing equipment or the Hke receive a share. There is a share for the one who gets lost from the 
army in enemy territory.] 

30.4b If someone is ill 



Anyone who falls sick is given a share as is any horse that falls sick. 

[If he becomes ill after or during the fighting, i.e. he is present healthy at the beginning of it and then 
becomes ill and continues to fight while ill. If he becomes ill before being present at the fighting, 
whether his illness began in enemy territory or Muslim territory, he has no share. If the horse goes 
lame after fighting or during it, it has a share. Ibn 'Umar said, "It has no precondition, and that is the 
same if it becomes ill by for some other reason."] 

30.4c The share of the horse 

A horse gets two shares 

[This is the horse and not the camel, mule and ass which have no share. It is hmited to one since he 
spends more for its provision and has no share.] 

30.4d The share of the rider 

and a rider gets one share. 

[There is allowance of what is not ridden. The rider is said to the rider of camels. As for the rider of 
horses, he is called a horseman. The basis in what is mentioned is that it is sound that the Prophet gave 
the horse two shares and the rider one share.] 

30.4e Slaves, women and children 

Slaves do not get a share nor do women nor do children, unless the children are really able to 
fight, have been given permission by the Imam, and do actually participate in the fighting in 
which they are given a share. 

[Freedom is a precondition to receive it, and so the slave, whether he fights or not, does not get a 
share. He must be male, so the woman does not get a share, whether she fights or not. He must be an 
adult, so the child does not get a share except with three preconditions: that child who has not reached 
puberty is able to fight, has the permission of the Imam and actual participated. Bahram transmits 
from the Mudawwana that it is expUcitly stated as well-known that he has no share, whether he fights 
or not. The Hteral meaning of the hadith indicates lack of shares. The hadith quoted by Ibn Wahb 
related that the Prophet did not give a share to slaves, women or children.] 

30.4f Servants 

A hired servant is not given a share unless he actually fights. 

[He must go out with the intention of jihad, especially the one whose uses are owned, Hke the hired 
servant, and Hke the general hireUng in the lack of the share. Ibn 'Umar makes a distinction about 
those who actual fight. 

Three preconditions remain: sanity. Islam and health. The madman has no share by agreement. The 
dhimmi has no share by disagreement if he does not fight or does fight in the well-known position.] 

30.4g When the enemy becomes Muslim and has Muslim property in his possession 



If anyone from the enemy becomes a Muslim and has in his possession property previously 
belonging to the MusUms, that property remains in his possession. If anyone buys any of it from 
him it becomes theirs and the original owner can only get it back by paying the correct price for 
it. 

[Ibn Naji said it is clear from his words that if he becomes Muslim with free Muslims in his 
possession, they are taken from him, and it is the well-known position. According to him he is not 
recompensed for this. If a Muslim buys something in the Abode of War, be it the property of Muslims 
or that of the dhimmis, it belongs to him, and the owner can only get it back by paying the price which 
he paid for it if it is lawful to own. If it is something unlawful to own hke wine and pigs, its owner 
takes it without buying it.] 

30.4h Rights of the original owner 

If property of this kind is divided up as part of the booty the original owner of a particular piece 
of property has the first right to it provided he pays the correct price for it. 

[This is if he finds it with someone who bought it from the booty . If he finds in in the share of 
someone or who is ignorant of the price, he only takes it for the price connected the right of the other 
to it.] 

30.4i Claiming it before division 

If the division has not yet been made he can reclaim his property without having to pay 
anything for it. 

[He means when the MusHm or the dhimmi finds his goods in the booty before the division has taken 
place and has clear evidence of ownership, he takes it without paying anything, but pnly after taking a 
legal oath that he did not sell it, give it away, nor was it removed from his property by legal means. 
Thus it is still be his property.] 

30.4J. No one receives more than his basic share 

No one is permitted to receive more than their allotted share unless it is given by the leader at 
his discretion from the fifth apportioned to him and this cannot be done before the basic division 
is made. 

[This is based on what Ibn Wahb related about the Messenger of Allah allotting extra from the fifth at 
the Battle of Hunayn. This extra is only allotted after the division. On this basis, allotting it before the 
division is only conceivable by a promise. For instance he says, "Whoever has killed someone has 
whatever is taken from the corpse." These words can imply prohibition or disHke, i.e. the Imam or 
general of the army is prohibited from saying this before having power over the enemy because that 
might lead to the invahdation of their intentions because some of them expose themselves to death for 
the sake of the goods of this world, and then he would fight for the reward. After the fighting, that 
does not need to be guarded against.] 

30.4k Arms, clothing and personal effects of the enemy 

The arms, clothing and personal effects of enemy soldiers killed in the battle is treated as part of 



the fifth that can be given away at the leader's discretion. 

[The Imam only gives them from the fifth according to his discretion. Pickings are what are found 
with the dead person: clothes, weapons and similar equipment rather the dead idolaters have of 
bracelets and crowns. It is like that with money. These things are not part of pickings in the well- 
known school, i.e. as opposed to Ibn Habib who includes the bracelets, crowns and money in the 
pickings.] 

30.5 Forts (Ribat) 

30.5a. Their excellence 

Guarding a frontier post is an action of great excellence, which increases in virtue 

[Lingustically ribat means to reside, and in the Shari'a it means to reside at the frontiers in order to 
defend them. It includes money and other things, the dhimmi and the Muslim. Guarding other things is 
a consquence of guarding the frontiers. The frontier is the place where there is a possible defensive 
weakness. 

It is related that ribat is beter than jihad based on what is in the Sahih where the Prophet said, "Ribat 
one day in the way of Allah is better than this world and what is in it." It is better because the bliss of 
the Next World remains and does not run out, and also because ribat is in order to preserve the blood 
of the Mushms, and preserving their blood is better than shedding the blood of the idolaters.] 

30.5b The amount of danger 

according to the amount of danger experienced by the people manning that post and the amount 
of caution they have to take. 

[This excellence varies. It according to the number of the enemy, fear and caution. Fear increases 
caution.] 

30.6 Raids 

30.6a Permission of parents 

You cannot go on jihad without the permission of your parents 

[If they are both MusUms according to Ibn al-Qasim and with Sahnun in general whether they are 
MusHms or unbeUevers.] 

30.6b. A surprise attack 

unless the enemy makes a surprise attack, raining your town, in which case it is obligatory for 
you to put up a defence. In such case parents' permission is not required. 

[If there is a sudden attack on the people of a certain town, then the people of the town have to defend 
it. It is obHgatory for the one with a father or without, slave or free. In this slaves have shares because 
they are called on to perform jihad because when we denied them a share, it was because it was not 



their responsibility. It is now is tlieir responsibility as mentioned in at-Tahqiq. He mentioned that it is 
obUgatory for those near them to help them. The author said that he does not ask for his parents' 
permission in such a case, since it has become an individual obHgation hke hajj, the prayer and 
individual seeking knowledge because he is obHged to obey them in abandoning permissible and 
supererogatory things, not specific obHgations.] 

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Chapter 31: On Oaths and Vows 

[This deals with what is permitted in oaths and vows and what is not permitted or binding. It meas 
with kaffara (expiation) of the oath and swearing. The yamin (oath, right hand) is real in the limb and 
metaphorical in other contexts. It is said that the yamin is the limb and the oath is called yamin 
because when they made oaths, one of them strike the other persons right hand with his right hand. So 
it was called an oath.] 

31.1 The form of an oath 

31.1a Oaths are by AUah 

Anyone who swears an oath should either do so by AUah 

[He should swear by the name of Allah, not by the Prophet or anything else which is esteemed in the 
Shari'a or one of His attributes, like Oneness, timelessness and existence.] 

31.1b. Not making an oath 

or keep quiet. 

[He should keep quiet unless he makes a proper oath since he is not swearing by Allah. He is 
forbidden to swear by other than Allah since the Prophet said, "Allah forbade you to swear by your 
fathers. Whoever takes an oath, should swear by Allah or be silent." So he commands the silence for 
what is other than oath by Allah.] 

31. lc. Oaths involving divorce or emancipation 

Anyone who swears an oath to divorce a wife or free a slave is to be punished for doing so 
aUhough he still has to hold to his oath. 

[This is when he is adult and has knowledge and deliberately makes such an oath. That impairs his 
testimony, It is clear from his words that he is punished, whether he breaks the oath or not. According 
to Malik the punishment is not defined but is up to what the ruler thinks best: beating, cursing, or the 
like, which can vary with different people. In addition to punishing someone who makes an such an 
oath, he is obliged to carry out the oath he made about divorce or freeing when he breaks the oath. If 
he unsure whether he broke it or suspects it or thinks it probable, he has broken it in the well-known 
position. If he doubts whether he said , " You are divorced" or not or is unsure about whether he made 
an oath and broke it or did not make an oath and did not break it, he does nothing.] 

31.1d. "If AUah wiUs" is not said in the oath 

No one should make an oath containing the safety clause, if AUah wiUs. 

[This is not done.] 

31.1e. No kaffara for oaths in which AUah is not mentioned 

There is no kaffara (expiation) except for an oath made using the name AUah or one of His other 



names or attributes. 

[Kaffara is pointless otherwise. It is also done if he uses a name, hke the Almighty or the Creator, or 
one of His essential Attributes, Hke knowledge, power, wiU, hearing, seeing, and speech and Ufe. As 
for actions Hke provision, an oath is not made by them. The Hteral meaning of his words is that "Allah 
wilHng" has no force when connected to divorce, as when he says, "If I enter the house, you are 
divorced, Allah wilHng." Ibn al-Majishun says that if he means an action, Hke entering the house, it 
has force. The position of Ibn al-Qasim is that it does not apply, even if he means the action. When he 
enters the house, then the divorce occurs. It is that which is beHeved by KhaHl, and is is the weU- 
known position.] 

31.1f. Saying it at the same time as the oath 

If someone does use a safety clause he does not have to do kaffara as long as he intends the 
provision and says 'lnsha'allah' at the same time as he makes his oath. If this is not the case such 
a provision bears no weight. 

[When he swears by AUah or one of His attributes, he does not have to do kaffara with three 
preconditions. 

1. He must have meant the provision, i.e. intended to dissolve the oath without any difference in the 
aim is that it was before the oath, during it or after he finishes, then it appHes as at-Tata'i states. 
If he does it without intention, as out of forgetfulness or for blessing, it does not dissolve the 
oath. 

2. He must say "Allah wiUing"; the intention alone is not enough. 

3. It must be connected to the oath before it. So if he is silent more than enough necessary for a 
breath or sneezes. If he is forced to stop, there is no harm.] 

31.2. Kinds of oaths 

There are four kinds of oaths which can be sworn by Allah. 

31.2a. Oaths for which there is kaffara 

You do kaffara for two of these; namely, if you swear by AUah, "If I do such-and-such a thing, I 
will do such-and-such a thing", or if you swear by AUah, "I will do such-and-such a thing." 

[One of the two is that the oath in the promise to perform a good deed. The first is when he swears that 
he will do something or not do something, and then if he fails to do, he has broken it. 

31.2b. Oaths for which there is no kaffara 

The two kinds you do not do kaffara for are firstly when you make an oath about something, 
thinking at the time it is true and later reaUsing that it isn't. In this case you do not do kaffara, 
nor is there any wrong action involved. 

[The first category is when you think that it is true. This does not mean that you think it is probable. 
What is meant is feeHng certain, not it being unequivocal according to the evidence, but then later the 
opposite becomes clear. This is what he believes to be true. Belief is strong assumption. If it is not 



strong, then there in lack of clarity or even doubt. He owes no kaffara and there is no sin involved 
since Allah says, "Allah will not take you to taskfor inadvertent statements in your oaths, but He will 
take you to taskfor oaths you make intentionally. " (5:89) We read in the Mudawwana, "There is no 
inadvertancy except in the oath by Allah or a vow which cannot be avoided, ' i.e. the unclear vow, as 
when he says, "If I do this, then I have a vow" and the inadvertant has no effect in divorce, setting free 
or an unclear vow.] 

31.2c. Oaths for which there is no kaffara 

The other kind is if you swear an oath about something knowing it to be untrue or having doubt 
about it. In this case there is a wrong action involved but no kaffara. 

[A doubtful oath is one, for instance, where you swear that you met someone the previous day but you 
did not meet him or are unsure about it. Doubt is weak supposition. So he swears to a he or is unsure, 
and so he definitely sins, even if what he swears is true. But there is no kaffara if it is connected to the 
past. If it is connected to the present or future, there is kaffara. It is Hke that when the inadvertant oath 
is connected to the future. If it is connected to the past, there is no kaffara.] 

31.2d. Repentance in any case. 

You must, however, do tawba to AUah, glory be to Him, on account of it. 

[Because it is one of the major wrong actions and you should draw near to Him with what you can do 
of freeing slaves, sadaqa and fasting.] 

31.3 Kaffara 

Kaffara for oaths consists of 

[There are four types of expiation. There is choice between three forms feeding, clothing or freeing, 
and fourth follows the lack of abihty to do either of the three: it is fasting. The best of the them is 
feeding which is why he began with it.] 

31.3a. Types 

31.3al. Feeding 

feeding ten needy people, who are muslim and free, giving one mudd to each measuring by the 
mudd of the Prophet, may AUah bless him and grant him peace, but according to us it is better 
to increase that by a third or a half. 

[From this is clear that feeding has five preconditions 

1. Number (ten) and so it is not allowed to give it to more or less, nor to one several times. When 
he gives five people two mudds each, he gives to five and completes it with another five people. 
He can give a larger amount provided that it remains in the possession of the poor and he does 
not destroy it. The time of paying it must be made clear that it is kaffara. If he feeds twenty 
people half a mudd, that is not allowed. 

2. That they are poor, If he gives it to rich people knowingly, that is not allowed. 



3. That they are Muslims. If he gives it to the poor of the dhimmis, it is not allowed, as is the case 
with zakat. 

4. That they are free. If he gives it to a slave, that is not allowed. 

5. That what is given of the mudd to each poor person is by the mudd of the Prophet and it not 
allowed with anything else,. 

Two things can take the place of the mudd: two ratls of bread with seasonings of oil or yoghurt, or 
meat. As for feeding them lunch and dinner, or two lunches or two dinners, and to have lunch or 
supper, that is not enough, even if it reaches a mudd. We think it better to increase give more than a 
mudd.] 

You add a third or a half according to what the prevailing standard of Uving is and whether the 
price of staples at the time is high or low. However if you only give one mudd regardless of these 
considerations, you have fulfilled the obUgation. 

[This is based on the medium standard of life and the type of grain usually eaten, no matter what the 
price. Any a mudd in any land and in every time without adding to it satisfies it because it is the 
obligation.] 

31.3a2. Clothing 

If you give clothing you should give a man a robe and a woman a robe and a head-covering. 

[If he chooses clothing, then he clothes 10 poor people. There is no difference between the child and 
the adult in giving the clothing and support. It is not a precondition that the clothing be from the 
middle of its people because Allah made that a precondition in food but not clothing.] 

31.3a3. Freeing 

Kaffara can also be done by freeing a beUeving slave 

[They stipulate preconditions in it. One is that the slave is a believer, and so an unbehever is not 
adequate. The second is that the slave is free of faults which would impair him, Hke bhndness, 
senihty, and great lameness. As for that which does impair, it is allowed. The third is that it is 
someone who has firm ownership after buying, and not a conditional purchase. The fourth is he has 
full ownersliip, and is not shared, The fifth is that there is no contract to purchase freedom.] 

31.3a4. Fasting 

but if you cannot do this or feed people, then you should fast three consecutive days although if 
you do them separately, you have still fulfilled the obUgation. 

[If all three are impossible, then there is fourth course which he indicates. It is recommended to fast 
for three consecutive days because it is hurrying to discharge responsibihty. If the three are separate, 
then it is still correct, but there must be an intentionmade each night.] 

31.3b When kaffara is obUged 

You can do kaffara either before or after failing to fulfiU a vow, although doing it afterwards is 



preferable according to us. 

[This appears to be generally applicable, whether the oath is for an act of piety or on account of failing 
to do something, like kaffara for the fast or something else, but it is preferable to expiate it 
afterwards.] 

31.4 Vows 

31.4a. Which vows must be fulfilled 

Anyone who makes a vow involving obedience to Allah must fulfill it whereas anyone who 
makes a vow involving disobedience to Allah must not fulfill it and no reparation is necessary. 

[Linguistically nadhr means making something binding, and in the Shari'a it is to oblige oneself to do 
something which is an act which brings one near Allah. There are two categories: a vow involving 
obedience which must fulfilled, and a vow involving disobedience which must not be fulfilled. When 
it is not obhgatory to fulfil it, according to Abu Hanifa there is kaffara for it, but that is not the 
position of the majority, as he stated here.] 

31.4b. Vows made respecting other people's property 

Anyone who makes a vow to give sadaqa with someone else's money or to free a slave belonging 
to someone else is not under obligation to fulfill it. 

[He owes no sadaqa or freeing in that which has no precondition. If it is connected to a precondition, 
then he must do it when the precondition exists according to the famous position, Uke, "I would free 
so-and-so if I owned him." 

31.4c Fulfilling the vow 

Anyone who makes a vow that if he does a particular thing, he will do a specific good action, 
such as praying or fasting or going on hajj or 'umra, or giving away something specific as 
sadaqa, must do what he said he was going to do even if he fails to fulfill his vow straightaway. 

[Whether it is obHgatory or forbidden, and so he binds himself to do what he vowed what he 
stipulated. This is when he mentions a specific thing with his tongue or in his heart and it is a pious 
action. The unlawful and permissible are excluded and so a vow which does not involve a good action 
would not be binding. So in the case of sadaqa, he may name an amount or simply make an intention 
connected to worship and abihty. That is then binding. He must carry it out, even if he did not intend 
an amount. If it is prayer, then it is the least of that to which the name prayer appHes, which is two 
rak'ats. In the case of fasting, when it is not specified, it is the the minimum which can be fasting is 
appHed, which is a day. If he says, "If I speak to so-and-so, then I must walk to Makka," then it is 
obHged for him to walk on hajj or 'umra. As for sadaqa, if he does not name anything, he must give a 
third of his property. If he names, then the Hteral meaning of his words is binding, even if it is all his 
property. Ibn 'Umar said. "If he mentions his house and it is all that he has, then he must do that.] 

31.4d. When the vow is not accompanied by an oath 

This is the case even if his vow is not backed up by an oath. 



[It is binding.] 

31.4e. An unspecified vow 

If anyone makes a vow without specifying a particular good action to be done if he fails to fulfill 
it, and then does fail to fulfill it, should atone for it by doing the kaffara for oaths. 

[If he does not name anything specific in his vow so that it can be achieved, as when he says, "By 
Allah, I have made a vow" without saying whether it is prayer, fasting, hajj or the like, he owes 
kaffara for an oath in the School.] 

31.5. Oaths and vows to do wrong 

31.5a. There is no reparation for a vow to do a wrong action 

Anyone who makes a vow to do a wrong action such as kiUing someone or drinking wine or 
something similar, or to do something which is neither a good action nor a wrong action, does 
not have to make any reparation for faihng to fulfill it, but should seek forgiveness from Allah. 

[Or something permissible or disliked. He does not have to do kaffara.] 

31.5b. Kaffara for such oaths 

If anyone swears by AUah to do a wrong action he should do the kaffara for oaths and not do the 
thing he swore to do. However, if he is so bold as to do the thing he swore to do he has 
committed the wrong action but does not have to do the kaffara for breaking his oath. 

[If he swears by the name of Allah or one of His attributes, then he should do kaffara. If he does not 
action without concern for its consequences, then he does not have to perform kaffara.] 

31.6. Kaffara for various oaths and vows 

31.6a. When there is a double kaffara 

Anyone who says in his oath "By the pact of Allah and His covenant" and then fails to fulfill it 
has to do a double kaffara. 

[Because the covenant is an oath and the pact is an oath. If he combines them, he swears two oaths. 
What he mentions differs from the famous position which is found in at-Tawdih that the kaffara is not 
repeated when the oath-taker intended to stress the oath or it was unintentional.] 

31.6b A single kaffara 

However, anyone who emphasises his oath about one specific thing by repeating it only would 
have to do a single kaffara. 

[Ibn al-Hajib said when the oath is repeated on the same thing, it is not a new oath, if the aim is 
repetition, i.e. there is not another kaffara. Ibn 'Abdu'l-Salam he means that when he swears to 
someone by one of the Names or Attributes of Allah and then repets the oath by that specific Name or 



Attribute connected to that specific thing. If he intends a second oath to stress the first or or does not 
have an intention, he does not have to do the kaffara again. If he intended multiple kaffara, then it is 
agreed that it is multiple. If he intends to formulate and is not alluding to a multiple kaffara, then the 
famous position is that it is not multiple. It is understood that it as about one thing. If, for instance, he 
repeats it about two things, he owes the kaffara of an oath for each, as when he says, "By Allah, I wil 
not speak to so-and-so, and by Allah, I will not eat from this food, and by Allah, I will not wear this 
garment."] 

31.6c. Oaths for which there is no kaffara 

Anyone who says, "I am a mushrik," or that he is a Jew or a Christian if he does such-and-such, 
does not have to make any reparation and nothing is binding on him except that he must seek 
AUah's forgiveness 

[I seek refuge with Allah - or any similar sort of expression. He owes no kaffara because it was not by 
any of the Names of Allah or His Attributes and so does not entail a binding oath. He must only repent 
and no shahada is demanded of him. Of course, asking forgiveness is an act of devotion to Allah, like 
emancipation, sadaqa and fasting.] 

31.6d. No kaffara for making something lawful unlawful 

and anyone who makes something haram for himself which AUah has made halal does not have 
to do kaffara 

[In the form of food or drink. He owes no kaffara but must ask forgiveness for that sin because it is 
Allah who makes things lawful and unlawful and he has criticised Allah by doing that by the words of 
the Almighty, "Say: 'What do you think about the things Allah has sent down to you as provision 
which you have then designated as lawful and unlawful?' Say: 'Has Allah given you authority to do 
this or are you inventing hes against Allah?'" (10:59) 

There are two exceptions to that.] 

31.6e. An exception: divorce 

except in the case of his wife who then does become haram for him until after she has been 
through another marriage. 

[This is when someone says that his wife is haram for him. This is because making her haram 
amounts to a treble divorce and so she is not lawful for him until she has been through another 
marriage which has been consummated. If it has not been consummated, then a treble divorce must 
have occurred in it unless he intended the minimum. The second case is when he makes his slavegirl 
unlawful and intends to free her. By that she becomes unlawful to him.] 

31.6f. A vow to give away aU of one's property 

If you make an oath or vow to give your wealth away as sadaqa or as a free gift [to the House of 
AUah} giving away a third is sufficient to fulfil the oath. 

[Ibn 'Umar said that if that that is the case in an oath or vow and also when he does not name 



something specific. If he names it, it is binding on him, even if it is all of his property. This is also the 
case when he gives it to a specific person hke Zayd or the Banu Zayd: aU of that is binding when he 
makes the oath unless he would be reduced and then he is left what a bankrupt is left.] 

31.6g. A vow to sacrifice one's son 

If you make an oath to sacrifice your son, then if you remember what happened with Ibrahim 
you should sacrifice an animal which should be slaughtered in Makka and the minimal sacrifice 
for this is a sheep. If, however, the example of Ibrahim does not enter your thoughts there is no 
need for you to make any reparation. 

[As when you say, "If I do not do such-and-such, I will sacrifice my son," and then recall the story of 
the Prophet Ibrahim and his son, then you sacrifice an animal, a camel, cow or sheep, in Makka or at 
Mina if you stop at Arafat. It is said to be recommended or obhgatory, which is the more Hkely. The 
minimum is a sheep which is disHked if a larger animal is possible. It can be male or female. If you do 
not remember the story at all, then there is no sacrifice or kaffara, but you should ask Allah's 
forgiveness.] 

31.7 An oath to walk to Makka 

31.7a. Such an oath is binding 

If you make an oath to walk to Makka and fail to do so it is still binding on you to walk from the 
place where you made the oath and it is up to you whether you go for hajj or 'umra. 

[As when you say, "If I do a certain thing, I will walk to Makka." If you do that thing, then you must 
walk from the land in which you made the oath, not from the place in which you resides, unless you 
specified a place. You have a choice about whether it is in hajj or 'umra when you did not intend 
either. That is the famous position: there is a choice when there is no intention. The end of achieving 
the oath in 'umra is after finishing sa'y. In the hajj it is after finishing the Tawaf al-Ifada.] 

31.7b. When riding becomes impossible 

If it becomes impossible for you to walk at any point you should ride. But if you later become 
able to walk you should walk that part of the journey where you rode. If you are certain you will 
not be able to fulfiU the oath you stay where you are and make a sacrifice. What 'Ata' said about 
this is that you should not go over any part of your journey a second time and that you can 
sacrifice instead. 

[This oath is dependent on ability. If you become able to walk, then you ride and later you can return 
and walk. If you know that he cannot, you make a sacrifice - preferably a camel, or a cow, or a sheep. 
If you do not know what you walked and what you rode, you walk the whole way. If you know that 
you will not be able to walk, you sacrifice and do not have to return again. 'Ata' ibn Abi Rabah, one of 
the mujtahids, said that you do not have to return again and the sacrifice takes care of it. This is part of 
the disagreement in the MaUki School in which there is choice.] 

31.7c When someone who has not performed hajj makes this vow 

If you have not yet gone on hajj (and it was not part of your intention when you made the oath 



to walk to Makka to do so) you must do an 'umra first and when you have finished your tawaf 
and sa'y and shorten your hair, you may then go into ihram from Makka for the fard of hajj as 
a mutamatti'. In any other case you should shave your head but in this instance it is 
recommended to merely shorten the hair in order to retain an unkempt appearance during the 
hajj. 

[If you not have not yet performed hajj when you make an oath to walk to Makka, then it is mandatory 
that the walking be in 'umra, based on what the Mukhtasar states, when there is no intention. When 
you have an intention, you walk as you intended. It is recommended that after the tawaf, sa'y and 
shortening your hair, you then assume ihram from the mosque according to the Mudawwana or at its 
door according to Ibn Habib. Then you make the intention for the hajj of Islam, and you add 'umra to 
hajj if it is in the months of hajj. He should shorten only shorten and not shave his hair in this case. 

31.7d. An oath to walk to Madina or Jerusalem 

ff you make an oath to walk to Madina or to Jerusalem it is alright to ride to them if your 
original intention was to do the prayer in either of the two mosques. If you meant something else 
you do not have to fulfill you oath at all. 

[You can walk to them in the well-known position. Ibn Wahb said that you must walk to them while 
al-Lakhmi, al-Maziri and and others recommended that because it is can act of piety which should be 
fulfilled. You are obUged to go to them only if you intend an obligatory prayer - although some say a 
voluntary prayer and retreat in their mosques. If you do not intend to pray, you owe nothing because 
walking itself is not worship.] 

31.7e. An oath to walk to any other mosque 

ff you make an oath to pray in any mosque other than one of these three, you should not go 
either walking or riding, but you should do that prayer in the place where you are. 

[Whether it is near or far based on what is reported in MusHm where the Prophet said, " Animals are 
only saddled for three mosques: my mosque, the Masjid al-Haram, and the Masjid al-Aqsa."] 

31.8 A vow to man the frontier 

If you make an oath to man a post in any place on the frontiers of Islam you have to do it. 

[Even if he is one of the people of Makka and Madina. That vow should be fulfilled because manning 
the frontier is an act of devotion to Allah and if you vow an act of devotion, you must fulfil your vow.] 

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Chapter 32: On marriage, divorce, remarriage, 'Dhihar'- 
repudiation, vows of celibacy within marriage, mutual cursing 

(li'an), 'Khul'-'divorce, and suckling 

[These are eight things. The first, marriage, is the root and rest are consequences. Each has a linguistic 
meaning and usage which we will mention in its proper place. Marriage (nikah) linguistically means 
intercourse and is used as a metaphor for the contract. In technical usage, it is actual for the contract 
and metaphorical for intercourse. It is used in custom to mean to mean intercourse as the Almighty 
says, "Until she marries a husband other than him," (2:230) and so it is known from this that nakaha is 
used for intercourse between any man and woman. Marriage in the sense of intercourse is only 
permitted in the Shari'a by one of two matters: the contract of marriage or ownership by the words of 
the Almighty, "those who guard their private parts - except from their wives or those they own as 
slaves, in which case they are not blameworthy." (23:5-6) 

Marriage has four pillars: the wali, the place, the form and the obligatory dower. ] 

32.1 Obligatory elements for the validity of marriage 

32. la. A guardian 

Marriage is not valid without a guardian (wah), 

[There is no marriage contract except with a guardian. As Ibn 'Arafa says, the guardian is either her 
owner (in the case of a slave), or her father or male relative, or an agent or guardian, or the authority 
(the ruler) or someone who is Mushm. 

Preconditions for that are being Mushm, free, adult, sane and male. Integrity is not a precondition for 
the vahdity of the contract in the famous position, but part of its perfection, nor is common sense. So 
the fool can make a contract for his daughter with the permissible of his guardian according to Ibn al- 
Qasim. This is a precondition of vaHdity and the contract is not vaHd without a guardian by the 
statement of the Prophet, " A woman does not give herself or another woman in in marriage. The 
woman who gives herself in marriage is a fornicatress." (as-Daraqutni who said that it is sahih and 
hasan.) If it occurs without a guardian, then the marriage is null and void both before and after 
consummation, even if she gives birth to several children. There are two transmission about whether 
the nulHfication is a divorce or not.] 

32.1b. A dowry 

a dowry, 

[The dowry is a precondition for the vaHdity of consummation because of the words of the Almigthy 
"Give women their dowry as an outright gift." (4:4)] 

32. lc. Two witnesses 

and two legaUy acceptable witnesses. 

[Having two witnesses is also a precondition for the vaHdity of consummation, not for the contract. It 



is a precondition that the two witnesses of the marriage be reputable, based on what Ibn Hibban 
transmitted in his Sahih: the Prophet said, "There is no marriage except with a wali and two legally 
acceptable witnesses." Marriage without those preconditions is invahd according to the hadith. If there 
are no legally acceptable witnesses, then there should be a lot of witnesses, hke 30 or 40. 

One of the preconditions of the vaHdity of the contract is the form of the contract from the waH and 
husband or agent. The guardian must use an expression which would entail permanent transfer Hke "I 
have given to you in marriage". The husband must use an expression which entails acceptance, Uke "I 
have accepted." The order is not a precondition, but is recommended. If the husband speaks first and 
then the guardian speaks after him, the contract is sound as long as the two responses are immediate; a 
sHght difference does not impair the contract as opposed to a major difference. This would be, for 
instance, if a man who is ill were to say, "If I die from this illness, I have given my daughter in 
marriage to so-and-so," and then dies a month later, and the husband accepts the contract after his 
death. The marriage is not vaHd. 

NOTE: A marriage is contracted by the acceptance and answer, even if it was intended a a joke on 
both sides because marriage is a serious matter.] 

32. Id. Witnesses must be present at the contract 

If these two are not present to witness the actual making of the contract, it is not permissible for 
the couple to consummate their marriage until the witnessing has taken place. 

[i.e. the guardian and husband. In one text, it has the singular, meaning the husband. If it is 
consummated without witnessing, the marriage is invahdated with a final divorce and they receive the 
hadd-punishment if they did not make it known and do not have the excuse of ignorance and admit 
intercourse. If they make it known, there is no hadd, especially they have a feast, drums and one 
witness.] 

32. le. Minimum amount of dowry 

The smallest acceptable amount for a dowry is a quarter of a dinar. 

[That by which the contract becomes vaHd. The dinar is of pure gold and in silver it is three dirhams 
of pure silver. It can be an equivalent value in goods. There is no maximum because the Almighty 
says "Give one of them a qintar." (4:20)] 

32.2 The authority of the guardian 

32.2a. A father arranging the marriage of a virgin daughter 

A father can arrange the marriage of his virgin daughter without her permission even if she is 
beyond the age of puberty. It is up to him whether he consults her or not. 

[To whomever he wants for the dowry he wishes, even for less than a suitable dowry. He can give her 
choice, and it states in al-Jawahir and elsewhere that it is recommended that he ask her permission.] 

32.2b. Someone other than the father arranging the marriage of a virgin 



However, if anyone other than the father is arranging the marriage of a virgin, such as a 
guardian appointed in the father's will or anyone else, he cannot give her in marriage unless she 
is beyond the age of puberty and has given her consent. In this case her silence is taken as 
consent. 

[It says in the Mudawwana that an orphan is not given in marriage by her guardian until she comes of 
age and gives permission. Ibn Naji said, "unless there is a will from the father to marry her to a certain 
person and then he acts in loco parentis. There is a text in the Mukhtasar which states that the 
guardian as the same position as the father in compulsion to marriage with two preconditions. One is 
that he the husband is specified and the other is that the father commands that. The shaykh states after 
this, "The girl is not married unless her father commanded that she be married." What he mentioned 
about other relatives than the guardian, hke the grandfather and brother, is known in the School.] 

32.2c. A woman who has been married before 

A woman who has already been married cannot be given in marriage, by her father or anyone 
else unless she herself agrees to it and gives verbal consent. 

[When she is adult, sane and free and free has not lost her virginity through injury or fornication, be 
she sensible or foohsh, by her father or anyone else. It is Hmited to the adult instead of the child who 
loses her virginity before becoming an adult. He marriage is not dependent on her consent. "Sane" 
excludes the mad woman. Her father can compel her, even if she has children. The judge can also 
compel the adult mad women if she has no father. 

What is mentioned about asking her permission is by word, as MaHk, ash-Shafi'i, and MusUm 
transmitted, "The widow is is more entitled to herself than her guardian, and the virgin is asked for 
consent for herself, and her consent is her silence." What is meant by the widow is the non-virgin. The 
difference between the two is the shyness which is found more fully in the virgin rather than the non- 
virgin. It is reported from Ibn al-Qassar that modesty has ten parts: nine in women and one in men. 
When a woman marries, a third of it goes. When she gives birth, two-thirds is gone, and if she 
fornicates, it is all gone.] 



32.2d. The necessity of the consent of the guardian 



A woman can only be married if she has the consent of her guardian or someone suitably 
quaUfied from among her people, such as one of her male relations, or the governor. 

[Or her agent since a guardian is a precondition for the vaUdity of the contract - there is no 
disagreement about that with us - or with the permission of someone qualified, which means those 
who possess the preconditions of guardianship which are: being male, free, sane, adult, not in ihram, 
and not a unbeliever for a MusUm woman. The ruler acts in default of such a person.] 

32.2e. Lowly women 

There is a difference of opinion regarding lowly women (daniyya) as to whether they can have a 
guardian that is not related to them or not. 

[This is the woman who has neither beauty, money nor position. When she has beauty, money or 
position, she is noble. Position is like Hneage and descent, or a noble father. 



A guardian who is not related is a Muslim, i.e. he is not a guardian nor one quahfied from her family 
nor a chent nor a ruler when there is a particular guardian. Ibn al-Qasim said that she is permitted to 
appoint him even when there is a relative. Ashhab said that that is not permitted unless there is no 
relative. So the two shaykhs agree on the vahdity but differ about when this can be done. Ibn al-Qasim 
says that it is vaUd although disliked, when is the rehable position, while Ashhab said that it is not.] 

32.2f. Order of precedence in matrimonial guardians 

A woman's son has more right to be her marriage guardian than her father and her father has 
more right than her brother. After this the nearer the relationship the greater the right. 

[The son is a closer relative because he is the most entitled of her relatives after her father. The father 
is more entitled than the brother (full or half) because the brother is not as close as than the father and 
the father will debar him from inheritance.] 

32.2g. The marriage is vaUd when the more distant acts as guardian 

However, if the more distant relative acts as guardian the marriage is nevertheless still vaUd. 

[Even when a nearer relative exists, Uke the brother. The marriage is valid because the order between 
them is only about suitability. Differing from it is only disliked provided the marriage is with an equal. 
If the husband is not an equal, then it is obliged for the closer relative to reject the marriage, even if 
the woman is pleased with it. If he does not reject it, it is presented to the ruler, i.e, it is obhgatory to 
reject it and she is not permitted to consent. It is invaUd.] 

32.2h. A guardian appointed in a will 

A guardian appointed in a will can arrange the marriage of a male child under his guardianship 

[i.e. he can compel him to marry, like the father, when that has benefit, like marrying him to a rich or 
noble woman.] 

32.2i. The Umitations of such a guardian 

but he cannot arrange the marriage of a female child unless the father has given him specific 
instructions to do so. 

[And if he has specified the husband, when he says "Marry her to so-and-so." According to the 
Mukhtasar, it is enough that he commands her to compel her to marry that he can marry her to 
whomever he wishes.] 

32.2J. Agnate relatives 

Male relatives on the maternal side are not considered suitable as marriage guardians who 
should rather come from the paternal side. 

[To act in giving in marriage, whether they are heirs like the brothers by the mother or not, like the 
maternal uncle. The guardians come from the paternal side, the stronger being advanced first. So the 
full brother comes before the half brother by the father. Ibn 'Umar said, "It is clear from his words that 



the guardian is only one of tlie paternal relatives, and there is a contradiction when he says 'someone 
suitably qualified from among her people, or the governor.' The reply is that the what is meant here 
about the relative being only from the paternal relatives does not preclude the one who is not a 
paternal relative being a protector or ruler, and so it is relative.] 

32.3 Competition between suitors 

No one should propose marriage to a woman if another proposal has already been accepted, nor 
should anyone try to outbid his brother, if an agreement has already been reached. 

[According to what al-Fakhani said, "The expression means a prohibition." This is is to propose when 
there is an outstanding proposal and to bid when there is an outstanding bid provided an agreement 
has been reached between the couple of the parties to the bid. In respect of marriage, this means that 
the couple incline to one another so that only the offer and its acceptance remain. In the sale it is a 
precondition that the money be weighed, for instance, and the goods free of faults. If he sees a fault, 
he can return it.] 

32.4 Forbidden types of Marriage 

32.4a. The shighar marriage 

A 'shighar' marriage - which is when there is a direct exchange of daughters without any dowry 
- is not permitted; 

[There are three types of forbidden marriage. Shighar is to exchange one woman for another. The 
basis for its prohibition is found in the Muwatta' a.nd two Sahih Collections where the Messenger of 
Allah forbade the shighar. It is derived from hfting, as when a dog Hfts its leg to urinate or when a 
person Hfts their leg for copulation. It is also used from a land is devoid of people. It is used for 
exchanging women without a dowry. The pure shighar is that a man gives his daughter in marriage to 
a man provided that he marries his daughter to him with no exchange of dowry. The woman whose 
marriage is consummated receives an appropriate dowry and the unconsummated has nothing.] 

32.4b. Marriage without a dowry 

neither is marriage without a dowry; 

[If they stipulate that it be dropped. If that happens, then it well-known that it is nulhfied before 
consummation, and she receives nothing. There are two positions about whether its nulHfication 
amounts to a divorce. After consummation she receives a suitable dower and the child is connected to 
him and there is no hadd-punishment because of the dispute.] 

32.4c. Temporary marriage 

nor is temporary marriage - which is marriage for a specified, Umited period. 

[By consensus. This is found in Khahl, the Mudawwana and elsewhere, whether it is a short or long 
term such that the person will not Uve that long. Ibn Rushd said that it is marriage with a dowry, 
guardian and witnesses which is unsound by setting a term, and its judgement is that it is always 
invahd without a divorce. If anyone marries a woman in a temporary marriage but does not enjoy her. 



it is permitted for his father and son to marry her. There is no hadd for them, and the child is attached 
to the father and she observes full 'idda. She receives no dowry if it was voided before consummation. 
If it is after that, she receives the dowry appropriate to her whether or not a dower was stipulated for 
her.] 

32.4d. Marriage during the idda 

Marriage during the 'idda period is also forbidden 

[This means forming a contract while she is in her 'idda, whether that it for the death of a spouse or 
divorce, irrevocable or revocable, based on the words of the Almighty, "until the book reaches its 
term." The consensus on that if anyone forms a contract with a woman during'idda, it is nulhfied 
without divorce because it is agreed to be unsound. If it is consummated, they are punished as are the 
witnesses if they are aware of that. She received the named dowry and children are connected but the 
couple do inherit from one another if one dies before it is nulhfied because the contract was unsound 
and she is always forbidden to him. When there is only a contract which it is nulHfied, she is not 
forever forbidden and he can marry her after the 'idda is he wishes.] 

32.4e. Marriage contracts containing uncertainty 

as is any marriage involving uncertainty (gharar) in either the terms of the contract or the 
amount of the dowry or any marriage in which the dowry includes anything whose sale is 
forbidden. 

[Like marriage by choice, or where the dowry consists of an runaway slave or runaway camel, or if 
the dowry is unlawful, Hke wine and pigs. If anyone of that occurs, then it is invahd before 
consummation and she has no dowry. It is estabhshed after it with the dowry of a women Hke her.] 

32.4f. When there is a defect in the marriage 

Any marriage which is invaUd because of some defect in the dowry should be dissolved before 
the consummation takes place. However, if the marriage is consummated, it is considered vaUd 
and the man should then pay the dowry appropriate to the circumstances of the woman he has 
married. 

[Like a marriage for what cannot be lawfully owned, Hke wine, or is permitted but not vaHd to sell, 
Hke a runaway slave. It should be dissolved by divorce with no dowry. If she has taken it, she returns 
it. If it is consummated, and only discovered afterwards, she receives a suitable dowry for someone of 
her deen and Hneage.] 

32.4g. Defective marriage contracts after consummation 

If it is the contract that is defective but the marriage is not dissolved until after it has been 
consummated, the specified dowry must be paid and any marriage bars (muharim) that would 
have appUed if the marriage had been vaUd, still apply. 

[This is Hke a marriage without a guardian which is invaHd before and after consummation. If it is 
voided before consummation, there is no dowry. But if it has been, a specified dowry is paid or a 
suitable dowry. When an invaHd marriage is nulHfied, the bars to marriage formed by it are still 



binding. just as would have been the case in a valid marriage. If the marriage is nullified before 
consummation, these bars do not occur unless some of the prehminaries to intercourse have taken 
place, Hke kissing and embracing.] 

32.4h. Fake marriage does not permit remarriage 

Nor does such a marriage make it possible for a man to remarry a woman whom he has 
previously divorced with a triple divorce. 

[i.e. through an unsound marriage after it is agreed that it is unsound, even if intercourse occurs 
several times. As for a marriage whose vaHdity is disputed and she is divorced after confirmed 
intercourse, then she is lawful based on the evidence of whether there is intercourse or not. It achieves 
imposing bars against intercourse without making marriage lawful to be careful on either side.] 

32.4i. It does not entail being muhsan 

Nor do the two parties involved attain 'muhsan' status. 

[Because one of the preconditions of becoming lawful and muhsan is the vaUdity of the contract. The 
correct position is that the couple do not achieve muhsan status through an invahd marriage as we read 
in at-Tahqiq.] 

32.5 Forbidden degrees 

32.5a. Unlawful through blood relationship 

Allah has made it haram to marry seven categories of women through blood relationship and 
seven through suckling and marriage relationship. He says, may He be exalted, "Haram for you 
are your mothers and your daughters and your sisters and your father's sisters and your 
mother's sisters and your brother's daughters and your sister's daughters." These are the ones 
who are haram through blood relationship. 

32.5b. Unlawful through suckUng or marriage relationship 

Those who are haram through suckUng or marriage relationship are, as AUah says: "Your 
mothers who have suckled you and your sisters through suckUng, 

[This apphes whether the nurse is a virgin or non-virgin, even if not yet of puberty, and even if it is a 
hermaphrodite, alive or dead, when there there is milk in the breasts. The suckHng can be once or 
several times. Mothers and sisters are the only two mentioned in the Qur'an: one is the root and one 
the branch to indicate that it encompasses all.] 

32.5c. Wives' mothers 

your wives' mothers, 

[Every woman who has a connection by birth to the wife, however high, whether he made a contract 
with her when he was adult or young. The majority of the people of knowledge say that it is general 
whether or not the marriage was consummated. A marriage contract with the daughter makes her 



mother unlawful. Other people hke 'Ah and Ibn 'Abbas say that "those you have gone into" is a 
precondition for this and the step-daughter. According to their school, when a man marries a woman 
and divorces her before consummation, he can marry her mother.] 

32.5d. Step-daughters 

your step-daughters Uving in your households, if you have consummated your marriage with 
their mothers - if you have not consummated it there is no harm in marrying them - 

[Stepdaughters are the wife's daughter. No consensus about that is understood except what is related 
from 'Ah that she is not unlawful when she is in the household. There is disagreement about 
consummation. Ash-Shafi'i says that it is intercourse while al-Baydawi said that it means to go behind 
a curtain with them which is a weU-known aUusion to intercourse. Mahk and Abu Hanifa said that it 
means enjoyment with touching, kissing, even if nothing happens from that.] 

32.5e. Son's wives 

the wives of your sons who are born from your loins, 

[However lows whether the marriage was consummated or not. This appHes to milk sons as well by 
agreement, based on what the Prophet said: "Suckhng makes unlawful what Hneage makes unlawful."] 

32.5f. Two sisters at the same time 

or being married to two sisters at the same time except if it has already happened." 

[Whether by marriage or ownership of if one is by marriage and the other is a slavegirl. An exception 
is made regarding what has already happened. If it happened before, and has been removed by Islam, 
Allah excuses it. Islam ehminates it but there is no punishment for it.] 

32.5g. Father's ex-wives 

And AUah ta'ala also says, "Do not marry any of the women whom your fathers married." 

[Whether the marriage has been consummated or not. It is by the contract that she becomes unlawful 
to the son. It is the same with the ex-wife of the grandfather. ] 

32.5h. Milk causes marriage barriers 

And the Prophet, may AUah bless him and grant him peace, made suckUng the same as blood 
regarding the categories of relationship which are haram for marriage. 

[This is in the two Sahih coUections. What birth makes unlawful, suckhng makes unlawful. The ayat 
which indicates the prohibition of being married at the same time relatives other than two sisters and 
the Sunna adds further categories. Here he indicates here a prohibition made by the Prophet:] 

32.5i Being married to a woman and her aunt 

And he also made it haram for a woman to marry a man who is married to any aunt of hers. 



[It is transmitted in the Muwatta' and the two Sahih collections. The precise rule is that it apphes to 
every two women between whom there is kinship and suckUng which prevents them being married 
together, and so it is unlawful to be married to them both at the same time. If he is married to both of 
them, both marriages are always null and void, even if he has consummated the marriage, without 
divorce or dowry for the one whose marriage has not been consummated. If the first woman knows, 
then the second marriage is void and the first marriage is confirmed and the marriage of the one who 
claims she is the second is nulHfied, but it is by divorce. If the first knows of the second and the 
husband does not claim knowledge about which marriage was first, both marriages are void.] 

32.5J. The contract entails marriage barriers 

When a man has married a woman, the existence of the contract even without the marriage 
having been consummated, makes that bride haram for his father and grandfathers and his 
sons. 

[This bar is not based on intercourse.] 

In the same way, the bride's mother and grandmothers become haram for him. 

[This explains the "mothers of your wives". By a contract with the daughter, the mother becomes 
unlawful, whether the marriage is consummated or not.] 

32.5k. The case of the ex-wife's daughters 

However, her daughters are not haram unless either he has had sexual intercourse with her or 
has experienced physical pleasure from contact with her, as a result of having married her or 
owned her as a slavegirl or the same thing having happened as a result of a doubtful marriage 
or ownership. 

[Even by looking at other than her face or hands. In the case of the doubtful marriage, such a contract 
does not make the daughter unlawful. Consummation, intercourse or enjoyment of her makes her 
unlawful. Looking at her face or hands, even with pleasure, does not. Enjoyment by sound marriage is 
evident. A case of doubt, for instance, would be when the marriage is a fifth one, or she is in 'idda 
without him knowing and he enjoys her, or he had intercourse with a woman thinking that she is his 
wife and so all the branches of each of those women mentioned are unlawful for him.] 

32.51. The effect of fornication 

Zina (fornication or adultery) does not make partners haram who would normally be halal. 

[Even if this is multiple, it does not create the bar either in the root or the branch. It is lawful for him 
to marry her mother or daughter (as long as it is not his own daughter, who is unlawful to him. That is 
the position of MaHk in the Muwatta'. His evident words in the Mudawwana are different which says: 
if he fornicates with the mother of his wife or her daughter he should divorce her. Most shaykhs say 
that this divorce is mandatory. So what is in the Mudawwana and the Muwatta' differ. Most shaykhs 
prefer the Muwatta' and it is reUed on because all the companions of MaHk agree on it except Ibn al- 
Qasim. Some prefer what is in the Mudawwana since Ibn Habib mentioned that MaHk said that he had 
retracted what was in the Muwatta' md said that it was unlawful.] 



32.6 Intercourse with non-Muslim women 

32.6a Women who are not People of the Book 

AUah has made it haram to have sexual intercourse with a kafir woman, not from the People of 
the Book, either through marriage or ownership. 

[This is for tlie Muslim. This is based on the words of Allah, "Do not marry idolatrous women until 
they believe." (2:221) Al-Fakhani said that this includes the Magians and Sabaeans who are the people 
who deviated from Judaism and Christianity and worshipped the angels. It includes idolaters who 
actually worship idols and others who worship other things like the sun and the moon.] 

32.6b. Women of the People of the Book 

It is halal to have sexual intercourse with women of the People of the Book if you own them as 
slaves or are married to any of their free women, but it is not halal for either a free man or a 
slave to have sexual intercourse with slavegirls from among the people of the Book through 
marriage to them. 

[This is based on the ayat of Allah, "or what your right hands own." We read in adh-Dhakira that 
because the People of the Book have been honoured by the Book and addressed by the Almighty 
Lord, their women and food are permitted. Others lack this honour by their deprival. It is reported 
from Abdullah ibn 'Umar ibn al-Khattab that it is not permitted to marry a free Kitabi woman by 
evidence of the ayat of al-Baqara. He says, "There is no shirk greater than her statement that her Lord 
is 'lsa."] 

32.7 Marriage to slaves and stepmother's children 

A woman cannot marry her slave, nor her son's slave and a man cannot marry his slavegirl nor 
his son's slavegirl. He can, however, marry his father's slavegirl and his mother's slavegirl. 

A man is permitted to marry his stepmother's daughter from a previous marriage. 

[This is clear when he had the daughter before the marriage and was weaned. When he married her 
while she was nursing or the father has divorced her and then she married a man and had a girl, can 
the daughter of the first husband marry this girl or not. There are are three positions in that. The most 
likely of them is the prohibition and dislike out of caution. Then he mentioned the reverse of this 
question] 

And a woman can marry her stepmother's son from a previous marriage. 

[By other than her father. This is when her father marries her after the child is weaned. If he marries 
her while she is nursing, he is her step-brother by nursing.] 

32.8 Number and condition of wives 

Both free men and slaves are permitted to marry four free women whether muslims or from the 
People of the Book. Slaves can marry four muslim slavegirls and free men can also do this but 
only if they are afraid of committing zina and do not have the means to marry free women. 



32.9 A man's duties towards his wives 

32.9a. Equal treatment 

A man should treat his wives equally. 

[A man should be equitable with his wives, whether they are free or Muslim slaves or Kitabis. This 
obligation is indicated by the Book, Sunna and consensus. As for the Book, it is the words of the 
Almighty, "But if you are afraid of not treating them equally, then only one," (4:3) i.e. choosing one is 
a command of Allah Almighty to confine oneself to one if you fear injustice. This indicates that 
justice is obligatory. As the for the Sunna, the Prophet said, "If someone has two wives and is not fair 
between them, he will come on the Day of Rising with one side lower than the other. The four Sunan 
relate it and the Community agree that it is obligatory. Whoever is not fair between his wives disobeys 
Allah and His Messenger. He is not permitted to be Imam nor is his his testimony accepted. The 
preferred position that he confines fairness to the spending the night. As for clothing and maintenance, 
that is according to the state of each of them: the noble is suitably provided for and the lowly is 
suitably provided for. There is no obligation in intercourse, but it is forbidden for him to hold back 
from one in order to be keen towards the other. The division is a day and night or two days if the 
wives agree.] 

32.9b. Maintenance and Housing 

He is responsible for their maintenance and housing to the extent that his means allow. 

[The husband, free or slave must maintain and provide for his wife, free or slave, Muslim or Kitabi. 
The literal sense is that it is only according to his situation. The well-known position is that her 
situation is also observed and so his like spends for her like in both his hardship and ease. It is the 
same with clothing. He permitted to give the price to pay for what he owes. He does not have to eat 
with her. There is agreement that she can divorce him if he is unable to support her after some delay in 
the well-known position. An opposite position is that he can be divorced without delay which was 
mentioned by Bahram. His divorce is not an irrevocable one, even if the judge impose it, but it is not 
valid for him to take her back unless he finds some wealth which will enable him to be able to support 
her.] 

32.9c. Rights towards slavegirls 

A man's slavegirls and or a slave by whom a man has had a child (umm walad) are not allotted 
nights in the same way as his wives are. 

32.9d. When he becomes Uable for support 

A man is not liable for maintenance until his marriage has been consummated, or he has been 
called on to consummate his marriage, given that it is with someone with whom sexual 
intercourse is possible. 

[Whether she is an orphan or otherwise, free or slave, simply by the contract in the well-known 
position. Maintenance is obliged by two things. One is consummation which means they are alone 
together whether there is intercourse or not, and whether or not she is someone with whom it is 
possible to have intercourse since she may have a physical impediment, and the husband is adult and 



they are not supervised. The second thing is when he is invited to consummate it and the husband is 
adult and they are not ill.] 

32.10 Marriage by proxy (tafwid) 

32.10a Definition 

Marriage by proxy is acceptable. This is when the husband and the guardian make a contract 
without mentioning a dowry 

[Without dispute. It is related in the singular, i.e. the husband can make it. The words of the author are 
true in two forms because when they do not mention the dowry, either they are explicit in that by 
proxy as when he says, 'T marry you to my ward by proxy " or like 'T have married you to my ward" 
without mentioning the dowry. In both cases the marriage is vahd. If they make an expUcit 
precondition that there is no dowry, then it is not permitted and it is invahd before consummation.] 

32.10b. A dowry must be fixed 

in which case the marriage cannot be consummated until the amount of the dowry has been 
fixed. 

[Appropriate to her status on the day of the contract because it obhges inheritance and other fixed 
rights of marriage and entitles him to consummation, not by the contract nor by death. If one of them 
dies, they inherit from one another. There is no dowry except by stipulation. Some of them say it is 
affirmed by death, but that it is weak.] 

32.10c. Acceptance of the dowry 

If the stipulated dowry is appropriate to the status of the woman in question she must accept it. 
However if it is less than her due the choice is hers. If she does not want to accept it, the couple 
are separated. 

[When the dowry is appropriate to her in the School, she must accept it. If it is less than the suitable 
dowry, as when he stipulates 50 dinars when a suitable dowry is 100, then she can choose. If she is 
satisfied and is sane and a non-virgin, she can make it binding as long as it is not less than a quarter of 
a dinar. If she is not pleased with it, then they are separated with a final divorce because it is before 
consummation.] 

32.10d. When the dowry is suitable 

If she is satisfied with it, or if the husband makes the amount to what is appropriate, then the 
marriage is binding on her. 

[By adding more to what was stipulated when it did not reach a suitable dowry, and he allots her a 
proper amount after allotting less, then it is binding.] 

32.11 Effects of Change of Religion 

32.1 la. If one of them leaves Islam 



If either one of a married couple leaves Islam, their marriage is invaUdated and they 
automatically become divorced, 

[This is by a statement of disbelief or entering another religion. It becomes immediately invahd and 
there is a final divorce in the famous position, i.e. it is invahd by divorce. If the apostate becomes 
MusHm, then the marriage remains and there is no need for a contract nor taking back because the tie 
stiU exists. If he is kiUed while an apostate, the spouse does not inherit. If someone who is not an adult 
apostasies, they agree that he is only killed after becoming adult and being asked to repent. Because 
one takes note of his apostasy, his slaughtered animal is not eaten and the prayer is not said over 
him. ] 

32.11b. Another opinion 

although another opinion is that the marriage is invaUdated but no actual divorce takes place. 

[Another position is that the marriage is invahd without divorce, which is transmitted from Ibn Abi 
Uways and Ibn al-Majishun. They are compelled to abrogate it by the words of the Almighty," Do not 
hold to the bond of the unbehevers," (60:10) i.e. there should be not bond or marital connection 
between them.] 

32.1 lc. When a couple become MusUm 

ff a non-musUm couple both become musUm their marriage remains vaUd. 

[This is whether they are Kitabis or others if they become Mushm before or after consummation, 
whether the marriage was with a guardian and dowry or not. The marriage is vaHd as long as there is 
no impediment, Uke hneage or milk. If there is such an impediment then the marriage is invahd.] 

32.1 Id. When only one person in a couple become MusUm 

If one of the couple becomes a MusUm, the marriage is automatically invaUdated, but no actual 
divorce takes place. 

[This invahdation is without divorce in the famous position. They describe this question in its various 
forms. One of them is that the husband is married to a Magian or the Hke who is not one of the People 
of the Book and he becomes Mushm and she does not soon after, i.e. within a month. If the time is not 
long between the two of them becoming MusUm, hke a month, the marriage is confirmed whether it 
has been consummated or not.] 

32.1 le. When the wife becomes MusUm 

If the woman becomes a muslim, her previous husband has the first claim on her if he becomes a 
musUm during her 'idda period. 

[If she is a Kitabi or otherwise when the marriage has been consummated. This is true even if he 
divorces her in the 'idda, as the divorce of the unbehever is not considered. If he becomes MusHm 
after the end of the 'idda, the marriage is not confirmed for her because his Islam is Hke the revocable 
divorce and there is not taking back after the end of the 'idda. If she becomes MusHm before her 
husband and the marriage has not been consummated, then their situation is clear.] 



32.1 If. When the man becomes MusUm 

If the man becomes a MusUm and the woman is one of the People of the Book, their marriage 
remains valid. 

[If he becomes Muslim before her and she is one of the People of the Book, the marriage is confirmed 
as long as there is no impediment to its continuance like lineage or suckhng or if he married her in 
'idda, whether his Islam was before consummation or not.] 

32.1 Ig. If the woman is a Magian 

If the woman is a fire-worshipper (Magian) and becomes a MusUm straight after her husband, 
they remain married. If there is a delay in her accepting Islam, separation takes place. 

[If he becomes Mushm immediately as long as there is no impediment. If she delays, they are 
separated. What the shaykh says differs to what is in the Mukhtasar, which is that if she becomes 
MusHms after her husband without it being a long time between their becoming Mushm, the marriage 
is confirmed. "Near" is defined as a month and the Uke.] 

32.1 Ih. Someone with more than four wives 

If an idolater who has more than four wives becomes a MusUm he must select four of them and 
separate from the rest. 

[Four of those he is permitted to marry in Islam before or after consummation, whether he had a 
multiple contract or several contracts with them, whether they are first or last, whether they become 
MusHm with him or he becomes MusUm and they are Kitabis. Choice is expHcit. After the choice he 
is separated from the others without divorce. The point of the dispute is that if he becomes Mushm 
with ten wives he chooses four and separates from the rest.] 

31.12 Various impediments 

31.12a. Divorce by Li'an 

If someone divorces his wife by a curse (H'an) he can never marry her again. 

[He adds in the Muwatta', "If he denies himself, he is flogged with the hadd and the child connected to 
him, but he cannot take her back."] 

31.12b. Marriage during 'idda 

The same applies to a man who marries a woman during her 'idda period and consummates the 
marriage during it. 

[No matter what kind of 'idda it is. We Umit the 'idda to being for a revocable divorce because if he 
marries a finaUy divorced woman, and she is unlawful to the husband, it is abrogated and there is a 
hadd but she is not forever unlawful to him.] 

31.12c. Marriage of slaves 



It is not permitted for a slave or a slavegirl to marry unless their master gives permission. 

31.12d. Women not making a marriage contract 

It is not permitted for a woman, or a slave, or a non-Muslim to draw up a woman's marriage 
contract. 

[Being male, free and Muslim are preconditions for the validity of the contract since the women is not 
permitted to undertake the contract for herself let alone another woman. The unbehever has no 
authority over a MusHm woman although he does over an unbeHeving woman and can marry her to a 
MusHm or unbeUever.] 

31.12e. Marriage to make re-marriage possible 

It is not permitted for a man to marry a woman in order to make it halal for her to remarry a 
man who has previously divorced her by a triple divorce, 

[This is when the motive for marriage to make re-marriage lawful, or he has that intention along with 
the intention of keeping her if he Hkes her. What is considered is the intention at the time of the 
contract. If that intention occurs at the time of consummation here is no harm. This is based on the the 
words of the Prophet, "Shall I tell you about the borrowed billy-goat'?"They said, "Yes, Messenger of 
Allah." He said, "That is one who makes a woman lawful." Then he said, "Allah has cursed the one 
who makes a woman lawful and the one for whom he makes her lawful." (ad-Daraqutni) He likens 
him to an animal and then he said that Allah cursed the two men for what they did in making her 
lawful for her ex-husband.] 

and if such a marriage did take place it would not make a remarriage of this kind vaUd. 

[That is because this type of marriage is void before and after consummation Some of them make a 
distinction between a final divorce with consummation and a suitable dowry. If the first marries her 
with this marriage, it is invaHd without divorce and the husband, guardian, witnessses and wife are 
punished for carrying a marriage designed to make re-marriage lawful.] 

31.12f. Ihram precludes marriage 

A man in a state of ihram can neither get married himself nor draw up a marriage contract for 
someone else. 

[Whether it is hajj or 'umra. This is because it is valid that the Prophet said, "The person in ihram does 
not marry or give in marriage nor propose." If there is marriage or giving in marriage, it is always 
invaHd before consummation and so she receives nothing. If it is abrogated after it, she has the dowry 
because every woman with a consummated marriage receives dowry.] 

31.13 Sickness 

31.13a. Serious illness precludes marriage, but the dowry is paid from the third 

It is not permitted for a man with a very serious illness to get married but if he does get married 
and consummates the marriage, then his bride's dowry is the first thing to be paid from the 



third of his wealth he is permitted to leave as he wills. 

[Or for a sick woman which may prove fatal. That is because he is restricted in respect of his property 
and it is connected to all who has a lien on it absolutely. It is clear that the marriage of a seriously ill 
person is not allowed, even if he needs a woman to look after him. It is hke that in one of the two 
famous positions. The other position is that it is permissible on account of need. The marriage is void 
before and after consummation. 

The preferred position is that it is nulhfied by divorce because there is disagreement on it. If it is not 
consummated, she has nothing. Ibn 'Umar said that the woman whose marriage is consummated 
receives a suitable dowry. It is the position of Ibn al-Qasim. Ibn Naji said that it is clear that she has 
the stipulated dowry, even if it is more than the dowry of a woman hke her, from the capital, Httle or 
great.] 

31.13b. Such a wife does not receive a fixed share 

She does not receive the fixed share of his estate which would normally go to a wife. 

[This comes from the prohibition by the Prophet against bringing in a new heir or removing one, and 
to act other contrary to its aim.] 

31.13c. Divorce when ill 

ff such a man divorces a wife, that divorce is binding on him, but, if he dies from his illness, his 
wife still inherits from him. 

[It is divorce because he is sane and responsible, whether the divorce is final or revocable. She does 
not inherit from him if the divorce is treble. She inherits from him if its revocable as long as the 'idda 
is not over. If he recovers from his iUness and faUs iU again, she does not inherit from him because the 
restriction was removed by health.] 

[This chapter is continued in the next page which deals with divorce, 'Dhihar'-repudiation, (ila') vows 
of cehbacy within marriage, mutual cursing (U'an), 'Khul'-'divorce, and suckHng) 

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(Continuation of Chapter 32) 

Divorce, 'Dhihar'-repudiation, vows of celibacy within marriage 
(ila'), mutual cursing (li'an), 'Khul'-'divorce, and suckling 

[The discussion on divorce begins. Linguistically it means releasing, from your words, "I released the 
camel," and it is a technical term for undoing the bond of marriage. It has four pillars: 

1. Husband 

2. Wife 

3. Intention. If someone speaks of divorce without intention it does not occur, i.e. if someone wants 
to speak about something else and his tongue becomes tied and he utters divorce, that has no 
effect. It is the same when someone is forced to divorce: unless he uses a double-entendre with 
full knowledge. 

4. The form, which is divided into the exphcit, which has the expression "divorce" and it does not 
require an intention, and into allusion, which can be exphcit or probable. If it is probable, then 
his claim about his intention and number is accepted. When, for instance, he says, "Go" or 
"Leave," and says that he did not intend divorce by that. He swears to that and owes nothing. If 
he says, "I intended divorce by that," it is binding. If he intended one or more divorce, he acts by 
that. If he did not intend a number, three is obhged. 

The shaykh divided divorce into two categories: innovated and sunna.] 

32.14 Divorce 

32.14a. Result of divorce 

If anyone divorces his wife by a triple divorce she is no longer halal for him either by right of 
ownership or marriage until she has married another husband. 

[Free or slave, MusHm or Kitabi, consummated or not. This is based on the Qur'anic ayat. What is 
meant by marriage by the shaykh and in the ayat is intercourse which is indicated by the words of the 
Prophet in the hadith about the wife of Rifa'a, "Not until you taste his sweetness and he tastes yours." 

A precondition for the husband is that he is a MusHm. If he had been a MusHm married to a Jew or 
Christian and he divorces his wife three times and then she then marries a Jew or a Christian who then 
divorces her, she is not lawful for the MusHm to marry. 

He must be an aduH and maturity in intercourse is considered. If the contract is made before maturity 
and there is no consummation until he is an adult, then it is lawful. Intercourse during menstruation or 
'idda is not considered, nor is the intercourse of the one who makes lawful without mutual aversion in 
it and that there be a customary being alone together which is confirmed by two women. 

The seclusion must be confirmed, Otherwise, she is not lawful. Ashhab said, "even if the second 
confirms the intercourse because they are suspected of doing this to allow re-marriage to the one who 
divorced her. " Intercourse with an unconscious woman or madwoman is not considered.] 

32.14b. Triple divorce is an innovation 



It is an innovation (bid'a) to divorce a wife by a triple divorce said on one occasion but if it 
happens it is nevertheless binding. 

[The command is contrary to that even though it did occur in the time of the Prophet. Part of that is 
that he heard that a man had divorced his wife with three divorces together. He got up in anger and 
then said, "Do you play with the Book of Allah Almighty while I am among you?" However it is 
binding when it is done all at once.] 

32.14c. Sunna divorce 

A sunna divorce is acceptable, which is when a man divorces his wife by one pronouncement 
made while she is pure, having not had sexual intercourse with her since she became pure and 
does not make a second pronouncement until her 'idda period is over. 

[A divorce allowed by the sunna which is permitted is is described. This has four rules. If one of them 
is missing it is not sunna.] 

32.14d. When he can take her back 

He can go back to her provided that she has not begun her third menstrual period since the 
pronouncement of divorce (assuming she has menstrual periods and is a free woman). If the wife 
is a slavegirl who has menstrual periods, he can go back to her provided she has not yet begun 
her second period. 

[He can take her back because the marital ties continue between them except for intercourse. Taking 
her back is with the intention and the statement, hke "I take her back," "I keep her," or things which 
take the place of word hke intercourse and foreplay, but there must be an intention with the 
intercourse. Intercourse without the intention is not taking back.] 

32.14e. If the wife does not menstruate 

If the wife has not yet begun to have menstrual periods or has ceased to have them, he can 
divorce her at any time he wants and the same appUes to a woman who is pregnant. 

[Various ages are given for the menopause. About "any time," at-Tata'i said, "It can even be after 
intercourse with her because such a divorce is in months which would not entail lengthening the 'idda. 
It is the same with the wife with whom the marriage has not been consummated, even during the time 
of her menstruation, since the reason for the prohibition is to avoid prolonging 'idda.] 

32.14f. If the wife is pregnant 

A man can go back to his pregnant wife up until the time she gives birth, in the same way that 
he can go back to a wife who is having periods before the end of her 'idda. 

[He can take her back when the child is partially born. If it is completely born, then the 'idda is over 
and he cannot take her back. The 'idda ends by the miscarriage of a piece of flesh or a clot. If the 
matter is unclear, and it is not known whether it was the foetus or congealed blood, one considers the 
hot Hquid. The 'idda of a woman with constant bleeding is a year: nine months are considered as 
freeing her and three are the 'idda. So the 'idda is actually three months. The 'idda of the post- 



menopausal woman is three months. There is no difference in the 'idda of months between the free 
woman and slave. 

They disagree about whether "period" in the ayat means purity, as with us and ash-Shafi'i or 
menstruation with Abu Hanifa.] 

32.14g. Divorce during menstruation 

It is forbidden for a man to divorce his wife while she is menstruating but if he does do so it is 
vaUd, but he is compelled to take her back if her 'idda period has not finished. 

[i.e. she is not pregnant. If he does, it is binding because Ibn 'Umar divorced his wife while she was 
menstruating and as 'Umar asked the Messenger of Allah about that and he said, "Tell him to take her 
back and then keep her until she is pure and then menstruates and then is pure. Then if he wishes he 
can keep her, or if he wishes he can divorce her before touching her. That is the 'idda which Allah has 
commanded for the divorce of women." The ruler commands him to take her back. If he refuses, he 
threatens him with prison. If he refuses, he is imprisoned. If he refuses he is beaten.] 

[Mukhtasar: The same applies if he divorces her during lochia.] 

32.14h. An unconsummated marriage 

If a man has not yet consummated his marriage he can divorce his wife at any time. 

[He is permitted to do this in the famous position since she has no 'idda, but Ashhab forbids it in 
menstruation because he considers the reason behind the ruling to be an act of worship.] 

32.14i. Results of pronouncing divorce 

One pronouncement of divorce ends the marriage and three makes her haram for him until she 
has been married to someone else. 

[Without consummation because she has no 'idda. It is final. Three in one statement or what is like it 
is like the final or by repeating the expression one after another.] 

32.14J. The statement, "You are divorced" 

If a man says, " You are divorced," to his wife that is considered one pronouncement unless he 
intended more than that. 

[It is a clear explicit statement, and counts, even if it is a joke. If he uses an indirect term ("You are 
free"), divorce is only obliged by intention because it is an allusion. If he intends more, it is binding. ] 

32.15 Khul' Divorce 

Khul' is a type of divorce which precludes any possibility of remarriage, even though it is not 
technically called a divorce, and it takes place when the husband accepts something from his 
wife in return for her release. 



["It is a divorce" refutes the one who says that it is invahdation. Accordingly to the first, if he divorced 
her before, the khul' is two divorces and is she is only lawful after another marriage. According to the 
second, he can take her back before she married. The words "no possibihty of remarriage" indicates 
the position of someone who thinks it is revocable and not final. He said, "not technically a divorce" 
indicates the one who says the khul' is not divorce even though it is called divorce.] 

32.16 Formulas of divorce 

If anyone says to his wife, "You are divorced once and for all," it is as if he had pronounced the 
triple divorce, regardless of whether the marriage has been consummated or not. 

Similarly, if anyone says, "You are no longer my responsibiUty," or "You are on your own," or 
"You are haram for me," or "Your rein is on your hump" (i.e. you can go wherever you Uke) 
that is also considered as a triple divorce if the marriage has been consummated. If the marriage 
has not been consummated the husband is asked to specify what he intended. 

(One takes note of custom in all this.) 

32.17 Rights of divorced women 

32.17a. Dowry in unconsummated marriages 

When a woman who has been previously married is divorced before the marriage has been 
consummated she receives half her dowry unless she chooses of her own free will to forgo it. If 
she is a virgin the decision is left to her father and in the case of a slavegirl it is left to her 
master. 

[Which has been named for her by the words of the Almighty "If you divorce them before you have 
touched them but have already allotted them a dowry, they should have half the amount you allotted, 
unless they forgo it," meaning non-virgin sane women, "or the one in charge of the marriage contract 
forgoes it., "(2:237) which is the father in his virgin daughter and the master in his slavegirl. This 
appHes when the divorce is final or revocable, and she is free or a Kitabi or a MusHm slave, 
consummated or not.] 

32.17b. A gift from the husband to the divorced wife 

When a man divorces his wife it is recommended for him to give her something by way of 
consolation although this is not obligatory. 

[A gift according to his situation, wealthy or not. He is not compelled to do it, but it is recommended.] 

31.17c. When the gift is not needed 

If the marriage has not been consummated but the dowry has been paid, nothing need be given 
by way of consolation. 

[She has no gift because she takes half of the dowry while her goods remain. It is understood that this 
is when she has no allotment, she has a gift, as we said.] 



31.17d. In a khul' divorce 

The same thing appUes when a woman asks or a khul' divorce. 

[Because she paid some of her property to separate from her husband, disliked or not.] 

32.18 Right of widows in a tafwid marriage 

32.18a In an unconsummated tafwid marriage 

If a man dies without having either paid over the dowry or consummated his marriage, his wife 
receives her share of his estate but does not receive any dowry. 

[This is agreed because us the contract of marriage if sound, it makes inheritance between them sound. 
But she has no dowry in the famous position. What is understood is that it is the same if he has 
allotted her a dowry.] 

32.18b. In a consummated tafwid marriage 

If the marriage has been consummated she should receive a dowry appropriate for someone of 
her status if no particular amount has been agreed beforehand. 

[When he has not allotted her any dowry. She also inherits. This is because her goods are sold and so 
she has a suitable dowry. This is when she is sane and it permitted to agree to less than a suitable 
dowry.] 

32.19 Physical grounds for annulment 

32.19a Physical grounds in respect of the bride 

The marriage contract can be annulled if a bride is found to be mad or suffering from leprosy or 
a disease of the vagina. If the man consummates his marriage to such a woman in ignorance he 
must pay her her dowry and then claim it back from her father. The same applies if it was the 
bride's brother who acted as her marriage guardian. 

[These are faults. A disease of the vagina is a blockage which prevents intercourse. There are various 
forms of this. It includes constant vaginal bleeds which prevent full intercourse. A bad smell from the 
vagina is another cause. If the marriage is consummated, then he pays her dowry and seeks it from the 
father.] 

32.19b. A consequence of this 

If the marriage guardian is not one of her close relatives, the man does not have to pay any 
previously agreed dowry, but instead the bride receives only a quarter of a dinar (i.e. the 
minimum possible dowry). 

[If he is a cousin, and does not know about the fault and the marriage is consummated, he owes 
nothing. If he knows about the fault, then he is hable for it Hke the relative. He does not have any 
comeback against the distant relative, but the woman only has a quarter of a dinar.] 



32.19c. Impotence 

An impotent man is allowed one year and if he is still not capable of having intercourse the 
marriage can be dissolved if the wife so wishes. 

[If he has not had intercourse because the impediment preceded and followed the contract. If he has 
had intercourse, and then that impediment occurs and he manages intercourse there is no divorce. If he 
claims intercourse and she denies it, his statement is taken when he swears to it. If he refuses, she 
swears and her word is taken. This is if she wishes a final divorce because every divorce made by the 
qadi is final except in the case of someone who is unable to provide for his wife.] 

32.20 A missing husband 

32.20a. Period of Waiting 

If a man disappears his wife should wait four years from the day she brings the matter to the 
notice of the appropriate authority. 

[This is when he is missing in the land of Islam, and has no known place in a place of famine or 
wildness when he has a wife and she refers her business to the ruler to investigate his news for him. If 
he is free, then the period is four years. If he is a slave, it is two years. The time begins from when the 
case is presented to the authorities.] 

32.20b. The 'idda after the waiting period 

When this period of time has elapsed she should observe the same 'idda period as a woman 
whose husband has died. Then she may remarry if she wishes to. 

[And she must observe mourning according to the famous position. After that she can marry and does 
not require the permission of the ruler to marry.] 

32.20c. His inheritance 

The wealth of such a man is not distributed as inheritance until such a time has passed that he 
could no longer be reasonably supposed to be aUve. 

[Generally this is the age of 80. The author and al-Qabisi choose it. Abdu'l-Wahhab chose 70.] 

32.21 During the 'idda period 

A woman may not be asked for in marriage during her 'idda period although there is no harm 
in an indirect suggestion being made provided it is done in an acceptable way. 

[No matter the reason for the 'idda. This means it is haram. When she is in 'idda not from divorce, it is 
not haram since it is not three. It is also unlawful to promise marriage from one of two sides so that 
she is certain of it. It is permissible to allude it so that an intention is known.] 

32.22. Newly-wed 



A man who marries a virgin can spend seven consecutive nights with her, overriding the rights 
of any other wives for that period. If the woman has previously been married the period is three 
nights. 

[Young or old, Muslim, Kitabi or slave. After this period the division begins.] 

32.23. Forbidden degrees among slavegirls 

If a man has two slavegirls who are sisters he may not have sexual intercourse with both of 
them. If, having had sexual intercourse with one of them, he desires to have sexual intercourse 
with the other, he must separate himself from the first, making her haram for himself, by either 
selling her or making an arrangement with her to buy her freedom (kitaba) or by setting her 
free or by any other means by which she would become haram for him. 

[Or any other forms of sexual pleasure. If he owns both, he has intercourse with one but refrains from 
other. If he wants to have intercourse with the other, he must made the first unlawful for himself, 
either after the istibra' by selling her. If the sale is not final, like the sell with an option, the first 
woman is not unlawful to him until the end of the days of the option. Other possibilites are kitaba.] 

32.23a. Consequences of intercourse 

If a man has had sexual intercourse with one of his slave girls, her mother and daughters 
become haram for him and she also becomes haram for his father and sons as is the case in 
marriage. 

[This is based on analogy.] 

32.24. Divorce by a slave, minor or wife 

A slave can divorce without getting his master's permission. A child, however, cannot divorce. 

32.24a Divorce by a wife 

A woman whose husband has given her the authority to divorce or the option to do so as long as 
the two are in the same meeting. 

[In the meeting she must clearly state her choice. The woman with authority may have authority for 
one or more divorce.] 

32.24b. Sort of right of divorce 

The husband may deny the right of other than a single divorce. If she has the option, it can only 
be a triple divorce and he does not have the night to deny it. 

[Except for the the option. This cannot be denied whether the marriage is consummated or not.] 

32.25. Ila': The Oath of Abstinence 
32.25a. Definition of the ila' 



A man who swears not to have intercourse for more than four months is considered to have 
pronounced an ila'. 

[This is whether the woman is Muslim, Kitabi or slave, intending harm by that. The period begins 
from the date of the oath, if it is explicit, or from the day of stopping, and the judgement is that it is an 
oath which applies to less than the term, like the "I will not have intercourse with you until Zayd 
comes," and if it four months or less, it is not an ila'.] 

32.25b. When the ila' becomes effective 

The divorce is only implemented after the end of the ila': which is four months if the man is free 
and two months if he is a slave. Then the ruler gives him an ultimatum. If he resumes marital 
relations, then the ila' is cancelled. 

[This is the famous position that there is no divorce until the end of the term of ila'. It is the famous 
position that the ruler gives him an ultimatum to resume relations or divorce. If he resumes, then the 
judgement of the 'ila' is removed by the words of the Almighty, "If they resume Allah is Ever- 
Forgiving, Merciful," (2:226) and resumption is achieved by the glans disappearing into the vagina. If 
he does not resume, then the ruler commands him to divorce. If he refuses, then the divorce is forced 
on him by the ruler.] 

32.26 The Dhihar Divorce 

32.26a. Expiation of the Dhihar 

If someone pronounces a dhihar (a statement that sex with her is tantamount to incest) then he 
may not have intercourse with her until he expiates that by freeing a beheving slave free of 
faults who is not partially owned by others or in the process of obtaining freedom. If he cannot 
do that, then he must fast two consecutive months. If he is unable to do that, he should feed sixty 
poor people two mudds each. 

[Free or slave Muslim. He cannot have intercourse with her or kiss or touch her or look at her hair 
until he expiates for it. The months are lunar months which are counted by the moon. If he breaks it, 
he starts anew because it must be continuous. If he cannot do that, then he feeds free Muslims. The 
slave is not fed for expiation unless his master gives permission.] 

32.26b. No intercourse until he done expiation 

He may not have intercourse with her night or day until the end of the expiation. If does so, he 
must repent to AUah Almighty. 

[However he does not have any other expiation.] 

If he has intercourse after doing part of the expiation by feeding or fasting, he starts it over 
again. 

32.26c. Slaves freed in expiation 

There is no harm in freeing a one-eyed slave in the dhihar or a bastard. A child is sufficient, but 



we think it better to free someone who fasts and prays. 

[Or any other slave. The Mahkis think it better, as opposed to a nursing child. He should support the 
freed child until he is able to earn.] 

32.27 The Li'an divorce 

32.27a. Definition of li'an 

The li'an divorce between a couple is when the man denies paternity provided that he claims 
that he has been apart from her since her last menstrual period or by actually witnessing 
adultery, like a kohl stick in its case. 

[The H'an is an aUowance made by the Book and Sunna. There is no disagreement about it among the 
Imams. It takes place between a couple, even if their marriage is void, consummated or not, or rather 
they are iniquitous as Ibn al-Mawwaz states. If someone marries a relative or his sister unknowingly 
and she becomes pregnant and he denies the child, they curse each other because it appeared to be a 
marriage. If she refuses, she receives the hadd. If he refuses, he receives the hadd for slander and the 
child is connected to him. It is a precondition that the husband be a legally responsible MusHm who 
can have intercourse. For the wife, there is a precondition that she be one who can become pregnant. 
Neither Islam nor freedom are preconditions. There can be a h'an from a Kitabi or slavegirl. 

She must have menstruated, even once. A similar case is when he claims that he has not had 
intercourse with her after she had given birth previously this denied pregnancy. There must be a 
period between the two pregnancies which would make them separate: that is six months or more. Or 
it is actually witnessing adultery. A precondition for the h'an in denying paternity is immediacy. If he 
sees it and is silent and then takes a stand after that, there is no U'an. A precondition for the H'an is 
actual and not having intercourse with her afterwards. If there is a delay there is no H'an for adultery.] 

32.27b. Li'an in slander 

There is disagreement about whether li'an in the case of slander is allowed. 

[Without the claim of seeing intercourse or denying peternaity in two famous positions, One is that he 
enacts the H'an and the other is that he receives the hadd and cannot enact the H'an. 

Four ruHngs are connected to the H'an. He indicates one of them:] 

32.27c. Li'an precludes premarriage 

If they divorce by li'an, they can never remarry. 

[The other three judgements is that there is no hadd punishment, paternity is denied and the marriage 
is ended. The separation between them occurs when the H'an is finished. It does not require the 
judgement of a judge. It is abrogation, not divorce in the famous position.] 

32.27d. How the husband carries out the li'an 

The husband begins the li'an by testifying four times by Allah and then the fifth time he curses 



himself. 

[In the li'an. To deny paternity, he says, "I testify by Allah that this child is not mine" four times. Al- 
Mawwaz said that it is what is in the Mudawwana. It is the well-known position that he says, "I testify 
by Allah that she has committed adultery." If saw her, he says, "I testify by Allah that I saw her 
commit adultery." The fifth time he says that the curse of Allah is on him if he is one of the liars.] 

32.27e. How the woman carries it out 

Then she does the same four times, and the fifth invokes AUah's anger, as AUah Almighty has 
mentioned (in the Qur'an 24:6-9). 

[She denies the husband's oath, and when he states that he denies paternity and testifies by Allah that 
she commited adultery, she rejects that and says four times, "I testify by Allah that I have not 
committed fornication." When he says that he saw her and swears by Allah that he saw her fornicate, 
she refutes that and say four times, "He did not see me fornicate." The fifth time she invokes the anger 
of Allah on her if he is telling the truth. 

Tbe li'an must take place in the presence of a group of people, with a minimum of four and be in the 
highest place in the land. It only takes place in the mosque. It is recommended that it be after the 'Asr 
prayer and it is recommended to alarm them both, particularly at the fifth oath and ]to tell them. "This 
fifth oath will oblige the punishment for you." 

32.27f. If the wife refuses to testify 

If the wife refuses to testify, she is stoned if she is free and muhsana by intercourse with her 
husband or another husband. Otherwise, she receives a hundred lashes. 

[This is after the husband's curse. There is half the punishment for a dhimmi.] 

32.27g. If the husband refuses to testify 

If the husband refuses to testify, he is flogged eighty lashes for slander and the child is 
considered to be his. 

32.28 Khul' 

A woman may ransom herself from her husband by her dower or a sum more or less unless it is 
due to some injury to her. If there was an injury to her, she may reclaim what she gave him and 
the khul' is still binding. The khul' is a divorce which cannot be retracted except by a new 
marriage contracted of her own accord. 

[She can do this if she is adult and sane and he is adult and sane. If he is a child or mad, she cannot do 
that. If it is due to an injury, hke not paying maintenance nor making her do inappropriate work and 
the harm is estabhshed by evidence, and the woman has already obtained a khul' and then says it was 
only due to harm and presents the evidence for that, then the husband must return the payment to her 
and the khul' is a final divorce. They cannot marry again unless she has married again.] 

32.39 Divorce of Slaves 



A woman freed from slavery who married to a slave can choose between remaining married to 
him or separating from him. If someone buys his wife, then his marriage is void. 

A slave is allowed only two divorces and the 'idda of a slavegirl consists of two menstrual 
periods. The expiations of the slave are the same as the free man except for the differences in the 
hudud punishments and divorce. 

32.30 Kinship established by wet-nursing 

32.30a. This appHes up to the age of two 

Any milk which reaches the stomach of a nursing child in the first two years, even one suck, 
makes marriage unlawful. 

[This is in accordance with the words of Allah, "and your mothers who nursed you." (4:23) It is 
apphes, even if only on one occasion." 

There are certain preconditions necessary to cause the legal consequences of suckHng.] 

32.30b. After the age of two 

Nursing after the age of two years does not cause these prohibitions, unless it is close to it, Uke a 
month or so, or some say two months. 

[After the age of two years, even if a lot of milk reaches his stomach, it does not create marriage 
barriers. This is based on the words of Allah, "Mothers shall suckle their children for two full 
years," (2:233) and His words, "his carrying and weaning is 30 months." (46:15) So He informs us 
about the minimum period of pregnancy and full period of nursing. A Httle over two years does not 
matter. Ibn Abdu'l-Hakam says a month and Ibn al-Qasim two months.] 

32.30c. When the child is weaned before the age of two 

If the child is weaned before the age of two so that it eats food without milk, any nursing which 
happens after that does not create these prohibitions. 

[This is according to what is in at-Tirmidhi and an-Nasa'i report that the Prophet said, "Nursing does 
not create prohibitions except what spHts the intestines," and that is before weaning. If a child eats 
food rather than milk, his intestines are opened.] 

32.30d. Milk being poured into the mouth or nose 

Nursing by pouring milk into the mouth or nose creates the same prohibitions. 

[Even if it is not definite that it reached the stomach. That is what Ibn Habib reports from Malik. Ibn 
al-Qasim says that if it reaches the stomach, it creates prohibition but otherwise not.] 

32.30e. Milk sisters 

If a woman nurses a boy, her daughters and her husband's daughters, whether born before or 



after the boy, are his sisters. However the boy's brother may marry them. 

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Chapter 33: 'ldda, Istibra' and Maintenance 

['ldda designates a woman waiting for a specific time determined by tiie Siiari'a 
to see if siie is pregnant. It is also a form of worship in itself. It is obligatory by the 
words of the Almighty, "until the book reaches its term" and because the Prophet 
said to al-Furay'a, "Wait in your house until the book reaches its term." 

There are three types: menstrual periods, lunar months and pregnancy. Periods 
apply to the divorced woman who menstruates, free or slave.] 

33.1 'ldda for divorced women 

33.1 a. Its length 

The 'idda for a free woman is three periods, whether she is l\/luslim or 
kitabi. For a slave or partial slave, it is two periods. It does not matter 
whether the husband is free or a slave. A 'period' means the periods of 
purity between two menstruations. 

[The ayat is general and this is not disputed. 'ldda has to do with the woman, not 
the husband. Divorce has to do with the men. A period is the period of purity. Abu 
Hanifa says it is menstrual periods.] 

33.1 b. If the woman is not menstruating 

If the woman is not menstruating or has ceased menstruation, then it is 
three months for a free woman, free or slave. 

[So she cannot be pregnant. It is three months. This is agreed. It is the same for 
the slavegirl in the famous position. This is calculated by the moon. When she is 
divorced during the month, the month in which is which is divorced is completed 
from the fourth month. The day of divorce is not counted.] 

33. 1c. A woman with constant bleeding 

The 'idda for a divorced woman with constant bleeding is one year, slave or 
free. 

[That is nine months and third months,] 

33.1 d 'ldda for pregnant women 

The 'idda for a pregnant woman who is widowed or divorced is when she 
gives birth, whether free or slave or l<itabi. 

[This is in the famous position in divorce and is agreed, even if it is a minute after 
the divorce or death. This applies to all by the words of the Almighty, "The term of 
those who are pregnant is when they lay down their burdens." (65:5) It is makes 
the general particular in "those of you who die and leave wives, they should wait 



by themselves for fourth months and ten days." (2:234) The limitation of it is is 
clarification. If she gives birth to twins, she is not lawful until she gives birth to the 
second.] 

33. 1e. No 'idda if the marriage has not been consummated. 

A divorced woman whose marriage has not been consummated has no 
'idda. 

33.2 'ldda for widows 

Tlie 'idda for a free woman who is widowed is four months and ten nights, 
whether a child or adult, consummated or not, Muslim or kitabi. For a slave 
girl who is partially free it is two months and five days, except in the case 
of an older woman whose period is delayed. Then she waits until the doubt 
is removed. As for the one who does not menstruate because of youth or 
old age and her marriage was consummated, she cannot marry until three 
months after the death of the husband. 

[This is a woman who is not pregnant, whether with false menstruation or not. It 
is the same whatever the age of the husband. Removal of doubt is by 
menstruation or the completion of nine months.] 

33.3 Mourning 

Mourning for the woman in 'idda because of being widowed is that she not 
use any adornment in the form of jewellery, kohl or other things, and she 
avoids all dyed colours except black. She avoids all perfume. She does not 
use henna or perfumed oil nor comb perfumed substances into her hair. 
Mourning should be observed by the slave and free woman, child and 
adult. There is disagreement about a Kitabi. A divorced woman does not 
have to observe mourning. 

[Ihdad is mourning. She avoids bracelets and similar things, and kohl, which 
would appear to be even if it was out of necessity, which it the position of Ibn 
'Abdu'l-Hakam. In the Mudawwana, "She does not use kohl except for necessity." 
She removes dishevelment from her self. She does not enter the bath-house 
except by necessity and does not rub her body with depilatories. Black can be 
worn as the garment of sorrow. If it is an adornment among some people, she 
should avoid it. She avoids perfume and adornment because that invites 
marriage. Henna is adornment. Mourning is observed by all ages because in Abu 
Dawud the Prophet said, "The woman whose husband dies does not wear 
saffron or red garments, or jewellery or use henna." There is disagreement about 
a Kitabi with two famous positions about whether it is obligatory.] 

33.4 The 'idda for a Jewish or Christian woman and umm walad 

A free Kitabi woman should be compelled to observe the 'idda for a Muslim 



husband who has died or divorced her. The 'idda of a umm walad after the 
death of her master is one menstrual period. It is the same when he frees 
her. If she does not menstruate, it is three months. 

[Whether it is a single or final divorce because mourning is prescribed to protect 
lineage. The man has died and has no one to protect his lineage and so 
mourning becomes a barrier to defend the dead. The Kitabi is compelled whether 
the marriage has been consummated or not, even if she is a child or he is one.] 

33.5 Istibra' 

Istibra' is observed in the case of a slavegirl who changes ownership. It is 
one menstruation. Ownership changes by selling, giving away, capture, or 
any other way. If the woman menstruates after being in the possession of 
the new master before he has bought her, then she does not have to 
observe an istibra' if she has not gone out. The istibra' for a child when she 
is sold is three months as it is for a woman who no longer menstruates. 
There is no istibra' for a woman who has never had intercourse. 

If someone buys a pregnant woman from another person or gains 
possession of her without a sale, should not go near her or enjoy her in 
any manner until she gives birth. 

[Omitted explanation) 

33.7 Lodging and maintenance of divorced wives 

33. 7a. Rightto lodging and maintenance 

A divorced woman whose marriage has been consummated has the right to 
lodging, but not maintenance unless she was divorced by less than three 
divorces or is pregnant. If pregnant, she has a right to maintenance 
whether it is one or three divorces. 

[This is distinct from khul'. Any woman whose marriage has been consummated 
has the right to maintenance.] 

33. 7b. The position of a woman separated by a khul' 

A woman with a khul' divorce has not right to maintenance unless she is 
pregnant. 

[Any woman divorced by a final divorce is not entitled to maintenance unless she 
is pregnant.] 

33. 7c. A woman divorced by li'an 

The woman divorce by a li'an has no maintenance, even if she is pregnant. 



[Because the husband has denied paternity.] 

33.7d. Widows 

In the 'idda period on account of being widowed, she has no right to 
maintenance but to lodging if the house belonged to the decreased or he 
rented it. 

[If the marriage was consummated.] 

33.8 Confinement in 'ldda 

When she is divorced or widowed, she should not leave her house until her 
'idda is over unless the owner of the house evicts her and will not accept a 
normal rent. Then she leaves and stays in the place to which she moves 
until the end of the 'idda. 

[She is not moved from her house unless it is a case of necessity. She is 
permitted to go out to see to her needs: what this refers to is moving house. She 
must spend the night in her house. She does not leave for hajj during this time.] 

33.9 Nursing and custody of children 

33. 9a. Nursing the child 

The woman should nurse her child in the marriage unless someone of her 
status should not do so. A divorced woman can nurse the child for the 
father and she can take a fee for nursing if she she wishes. 

[If she is married or has been divorced by a revocable divorce. In such a case 
she receives no fee. "A divorced woman" refers to a woman who is finally 
divorced or who has finished her 'idda. The right of nursing is a right in her 
favour, not one against her based on what is reported by Abu Dawud that the 
Prophet said to a woman whose husband had divorced her and wanted to take 
her child from her, "You are more entitled to the child than he is as long as you 
do not re-marry."] 

33.9b. Custody 

After a divorce, the woman has custody of a boy until he reaches puberty 
and a girl until she marries and the marriage consummated. 

[This is the right of the mother, be she free or slave, Muslim, or Kitabi, sensible or 
foolish according to Ibn 'Arafa. This right also pertains if she is widowed. The 
girl's maintenance is owed by the father until her marriage is consummated.] 

33. 9c. Order of custody 

After that if the mother dies or remarries, custody goes to the grandmother 



and then the maternal aunt. If there are no female relatives of the mother, 
then it goes to one of the sisters and paternal uncles. If there are none, 
then the agnate relatives. 

[Custody goes first to the mother's mother and then the father's mother.] 

33.10 Recipients of Maintenance 

33.10a. The wife 

A man is only responsible for the maintenance of his wife, whether she is 
rich or poor, 

[A wealthy man is obliged to provide food, condiments, clothes and a dwelling 
once he has consummated the marriage or has been invited to do so while the 
woman is capable of intercourse. It does not matter whether she is wealthy or 
poor, Muslim or Kitabi, free or slave. A divorce can be imposed on him if he is 
unable to provide for him unless she knew of his inability in advance.] 

33.1 Ob. His poor parents 

and his poor parents 

[Who are free, whether they are Muslims or unbelievers and he acknowledges 
their poverty. If he denies that they are poor, they must prove but are not 
required to make an oath. Making them take an oath would involve disrespect.] 

33.10C. His children: sons 

and to his young children who have no wealth. He is responsible for sons 
until they reach puberty if they have no crippling disability, 

[This is free children, even if they are unbelievers. This means a disability which 
would prevent them from earning, as when they are insane or blind. Then the 
father is required to continue to support them.] 

33.10d. Hisdaughters 

and for girls until they marry and their marriages are consummated. 

[Or the husband, who is adult, has been invited to consummate the marriage. 
When her husband divorces her or dies, her father is not responsible for her 
maintenance if she is adult. If she is not adult, it reverts to him.] 

33.1 Oe. He is not responsible for other relatives 

These are the only relatives whose maintenance he is responsible for. 

[He is not responsible for grandparents or grandchildren] 



33.1 Of. Providing the wife with servants 

If he is wealthy enough, he should provide his wife with servants. 

[This is an obligation wiien iiis wife is not someone wiio usually serves herself.] 

33.11 Burial 

SS.IIa. Burying slaves 

He must also maintain his slaves and shroud them if they die. 

[The obligation is from the words of the Prophet in the Sahih, "The best sadaqa is 
that given by the wealthy. The upper hand is better than the lower hand. Begin 
with your immediate dependents. The woman says, 'Either you feed me or 
release me, the slave says, 'Feed me and use me,' and the child says, 'Feed me 
until you let me go.'"] 

33.1 1b. Shrouding the wife 

Here is disagreement about shrouding the wife, Ibn al-Qasim said that it is 
done using her own money, and 'Abdu'l-Malik says that it comes from the 
husband's money. Sahnun said that if she is wealthy her money is used, 
and if she is poor, it is done from her husband's money, 

[If she is wealthy her money is used and the husband is not obliged to pay it 
because shrouding is part of maintenance which ends with death. Otherwise the 
tie of marriage obliges that he do it since he can wash her and she her private 
parts and they inherit from one another.] 



Chapter 34: A Chapter on the law of trading and 
transactions similar to sales 

34.01 EXCHANGE OF MONEY 

If a man is rich, it is incumbent upon iiim to employ a servant for his wife, and he 
must also maintain his slaves and provide shrouds for them when they die. 
However, there are divergent opinions amongst jurists as to whether or not he is 
under an obligation to provide for the shrouds of his dead wife. According to the 
view of Ibn al-Qasim (a famous jurist), the expenses of such shrouds should be 
met from the wife's own property. But Abd al-Malik (another jurist) is of the 
opinion that such expense must come from the property of the husband. Sahnun 
(yet another famous Maliki jurist) is of the opinion that if the wife is rich, the cost 
of the shrouds should come from her property, and if she is poor then it must 
come from the property of the husband. 

God made trading and sales lawful but He forbade 'riba', i.e. usury. Usury used to 
be in pre-lslamic times in this manner: a debt is contracted subject to the 
condition that it be repaid at a specified time; if not, the debtor is to pay the 
creditor a ratable amount to be added to the principal. If the riba (usury) is not 
conducted in this form, whereby a delay may earn an increase, it may take the 
form of bartering silver and gold for gold, in which one of the parties gives more 
than he received. It is not lawful to exchange silver or exchange gold with gold 
except in equal quantities in direct and immediate exchange. The exchange of 
silver with gold shall be considered usury, except when done with immediate 
effect. 

34.02 EXCHANGE OF FOODSTUFFS 

In respect of foodstuffs such as cereals, legumes and similar things, which can 
be stored, all kinds of foodstuffs and condiments, it is unlawful to exchange those 
of the same type, except by giving quantities and with immediate effect. It is not 
lawful for one party to delay compliance with these rules. It is not lawful to 
exchange foodstuff with foodstuff, whether of the same type or not and whether 
of the type that can be stored or not, when one or both parties are permitted to 
delay compliance with meeting their obligation. 

There is no harm in exchanging fruits and vegetables and other things that 
cannot be stored, while one party gives more to the other even if they are of the 
same type, through direct exchange. It is not lawful for one party to give more to 
the other in respect of commodities of the same type and which can be stored, 
such as dried fruits and other condiments, foodstuffs and drinks, except water 
alone. 

As for commodities of different types such as grains, fruits and foodstuffs, there 
is no harm in one party giving more to the other in direct immediate exchange. 



In exchanging commodities of one type it is not lawful for one party to give more 
than it receives except in respect of vegetable and fruits. 

Wheat, barely and huskless barley are considered as one category in respect of 
lawfulness and unlawfulness. Raisins of all types are considered as one type. 
Similarly dried dates are all considered one type also. Legumes are considered 
to consist of many types in respect of trading. But Imam Malik held a different 
view on this. Imam Malik considered legumes to consist of one type for the 
purpose of alms-giving. The flesh of quadrupeds, whether tame or wild, is 
considered to be of the same type. Further, the flesh of all birds is considered to 
consist of one type. Again, the flesh of all aquatic animals is considered to be of 
the same type. Any fat extracted from the flesh of animals regarded as one type 
is considered like the flesh to be of one type. The milk of that type mentioned as 
well as the cheese and ghee are all considered as one type. 

34.03 SELLING GOODS NOT YET POSSESSED 

Whoever buys foodstuffs it will not be lawful for him to sell them off before he 
takes them over, if the purchase is done through weighing measuring or 
counting. However he is permitted to do that if he bought the foodstuff en bloc. 
The same rule applies to all foodstuffs, condiments and drinks, with the exception 
of water alone. :Now, if the commodity to be sold happens to be drugs or 
legumes from which oil cannot be extracted, then it will not be unlawful to be sold 
before it was received after purchase. In trading such legumes one party can 
give more than it receives of that same commodity. 

There is no harm for foodstuffs bought on credit to be sold before they are taken 
over. There is no harm in joint purchase or resale at cost price or revocation of a 
sale of measured foodstuff before it is taken over. 

34.04 SELLING AT A RISK 

Every sale or hire or rental contract which involves some hazard or uncertainty in 
respect of price or the object of sale, or uncertainty as to the time payment shall 
be due, is not lawful. It is not lawful for a sale to involve uncertainty nor is it lawful 
to sell an unknown commodity. Besides, it is not lawful to sell a commodity the 
payment for which is due at an unknown time. 

34.05 SELLING GOODS WITH HIDDEN DEFECTS 

It is unlawful in trading to swindle, cheat or lie in respect of price or to deceive. 
Nor is it lawful to hide defects; nor is it lawful to mix a commodity of poor quality 
with one of good quality. Further it is not lawful for a seller to hide some nature of 
his commodity, the mention of which might stop the buyer from buying it, or to 
hide a defect the mention of which might lower the price. 

Whoever buys a slave and then finds some defects in him, he has the right to 
keep him without claiming anything, or he can take him back to the seller and 



recover the price except where another defect has occurred in the slave while in 
the possession of the new buyer. The buyer can then claim the value of the old 
defect from the price. Or he can give him back to the seller and give to the value 
of the new defect. Now when the buyer rejects a slave whom he exploited due to 
a defect, he shall be free to enjoy the benefit of any service already given. 

34.06 SELLING MERCHANDISE ON TRIAL (KHIYAR), A SLAVE 
WITH A GUARANTEE ('UHDA), OR A SLAVE WOMAN IN 
SECLUSION (MUWADA'A) 

It is lawful in a contract of sale to have the right of withdrawal when the 
contracting parties agree upon a short period, long enough to permit the buyer to 
examine the commodity, or long enough to enable the buyer to take advice with 
respect to the commodity. It is not lawful in such a case for the price to be paid 
promptly. The same applies in the case of an 'uhdah' of three days. 'Uhdah' is an 
agreement for time allowed within which to withdraw from the contract. It is not 
lawful for the price to be paid promptly while the commodity is a slave girl, who 
shall be kept for some time to ascertain whether or not she is pregnant. 

When the slave girl was thus being kept, the responsibility of maintaining her or 
bearing any loss in the event of something happening to her, shall be borne by 
the seller. 

The type of slave girl kept to ascertain whether she is pregnant or not is the one 
kept to go to bed with, in most cases, or one the seller admitted having had 
sexual intercourse with, even if she is ugly. It is not lawful for a seller of a slave 
girl to disclaim responsibility for a pregnancy except when such a pregnancy was 
evident. 

It is lawful in the sale of slaves for the seller to disclaim responsibility for defects 
he did not know of. Again a mother and her child are not separated in a sale until 
the child begins to cut its second teeth. 

34.07 RESPONSIBILITY (DAMAN) IN AN INVALID SALE 

In the event of a sale contract becoming void, whatever loss in incurred shall be 
borne by the seller. But if the buyer has taken delivery, then the buyer shall bear 
the loss from the day he has taken delivery. If the market conditions change or if 
there are certain changes in the body of the slave, then the buyer shall pay the 
seller the value of the slave on the day he took him over. But if the object of sale 
is of the type that can be weighed or measured, the buyer shall not return it to the 
seller; however, he can return to the seller the same quantity. 

34.08 CAPITAL LOANS FOR BORROWERS PROFIT (SALAF) 

The right of the buyer to withdraw from a contract of sale in respect of landed 
property shall continue to exist despite a change in the price of such properties in 
the market. It is not lawful to give a loan which can lead to a gain by the giver. 



Further it is not lawful to combine a sale and a loan in a single contract. Similarly 
it is not lawful to combine a loan with something similar to it such as a hire or 
rental. It is lawful to give out on loan anything other than slave girls. Also it is not 
lawful to give silver ore on loan. 

34.09 SURRENDERING BORROWED OR SOLD PROPERTY 

Besides this it is not lawful for a lender to give a rebate in order to make the debt 
fall due earlier. Nor is it lawful to charge an extra amount in order to postpone 
payment. Again it is not lawful to make the buyer take over the commodity before 
time, and to give him an extra amount for doing that, in the case of a sale 
contract. There is no harm in handing over the commodity to the buyer earlier, in 
respect of a loan, that is, if the increase is in respect of quality only. 

There are differences of opinion as to whether a person can give more than what 
was loaned to him when he comes to pay off a loan, when there was no 
stipulation or promise or custom making that necessary. Ashhab, a Maliki jurist, 
permitted that, while Ibn al-Qasim, another Maliki jurist, considered it 
reprehensible and did not sanction it. 

When a person is owing some gold or silver pieces as a result of a contract of 
sale or some loan which is to take some time before it is due for payment, such a 
person is permitted to pay off the debt earlier than the stipulated time it shall be 
due. Similarly, he is permitted to hasten giving a commodity or foodstuff he owes 
as a result of a loan or a sale contract. 

34.10 SOME RISKY THINGS WHICH MAY NOT BE SOLD 

It is permitted to sell fruit or grains which did not appear to be fully ripe. However 
it shall be permissible to sell them if at least some of it is fully ripe, even if this 
happens to be one date palm out of many date palms. 

It is not lawful to sell fish while still at large in rivers or pools. Nor is it permissible 
to sell a foetus while in its mother's womb, nor is it lawful to sell what is in the 
wombs of other animals nor to sell the semen of male camels which shall 
produce young when they cross female ones. 

Again it is not lawful to sell a runaway slave while at large, nor a stray camel. 

34.11 DOGS 

It is also prohibited to sell dogs, but jurists disagree as to the lawfulness of selling 
those dogs people are permitted to keep. However anybody who kills a dog of 
the type people are permitted to keep shall pay for it. 

34.12 MUZABANA EXCHANGE OF THE SAME KIND OF 
FOODSTUFF, AND USURIOUS PAYMENT 



It is unlawful to give meat in exchange for an animal of the same type; nor is it 
lawful to combine two contracts of sale in a single contract - that can arise when 
a person buys a commodity at five gold pieces for cash, or ten gold pieces on 
credit. He can only stick to one price. 

It is unlawful to exchange ripe dates with dried ones or raisins with grapes. In this 
respect neither greater nor equal amounts can be received in the exchange. Nor 
may ripe juicy ones be exchanged for dried ones of the same type of the rest of 
fruits. That is prohibited because it involves selling or exchanging a thing in 
return for something unknown. Commodities, further, are not exchangeable, 
some measured in return of others en bloc of the same type; nor some en bloc in 
exchange of others also en bloc, of the same type: except where it is evident that 
the quantity of one is greater than that of the other, in respect of a commodity in 
which it is lawful to exchange unequal quantities in respect of commodities of the 
same type. 

34.13 SELLING ABSENT GOODS 

There is no harm in selling a commodity which is absent when it is described. But 
such a contract payment must not be made except where the article of sale is 
near or of the type that cannot easily change, such as a house or a piece of land 
or a tree. In such a circumstance payment can be made. 

34.14 A GUARANTEE (UHDA) IN SELLING A SLAVE 

In the sale of slaves, it is lawful to have an agreement between the contracting 
parties to allow time within which the buyer can claim his money back if he finds 
some defects in them. That shall be when the guarantee has been stipulated. A 
guarantee is also given in respect of a slave girl who is present in town for three 
days. Liability to bear any loss shall be upon the seller in respect of anything 
which arises. The period of guarantee in the purchase of a slave shall extend to a 
whole year in respect of madness or leprosy. 

34.15 SALE WITH ADVANCE PAYMENT (SALAM) 

There is no harm in respect of forward-buying in the case of commodities, slaves, 
animals, foodstuffs and condiments, with specific description for a specific time- 
limit. The price can be paid promptly or it can be deferred for two or three days if 
it has been made a condition. 

It is preferable to us that the commodity bought through forward-buying shall be 
delivered within fifteen days, or that it shall be received in a different locality, 
even if the distance of that locality is a two or three days journey. 

More than one Maliki jurist has approved that the goods bought in a 'salam' 
should be delivered within three days in the very town in which it is transacted; 
but some other jurists considered that reprehensible. 



It is not permissible that the article given in payment for a 'salam' (a 'salam', by 
the way, is forward-buying) should be of the same type as those bought by the 
salam. The object of salam shall not consist of those given in payment for it or 
something which closely resembles it. But a person is permitted to receive in 
payment for a loan something of the same description and quantity. The 
advantage shall be for the person who made the salam. 

34.16 EXCHANGE OF CLAIMS 

It is not permissible to pay a loan by asking the creditor to receive payment from 
a third party who is owing the debtor. Nor is it lawful to delay payment of a salam 
until the time agreed for the delivery of the articles of the salam; nor is it lawful to 
delay payment for a salam until a period longer than three days has elapsed. 

Further it is not lawful to liquidate a debt with another. For instance if someone 
owes an amount then you agree to forgo it in consideration for something he 
gives you promptly. 

34.17 SALE OF GOODS NOT YET HAD 

It is not permissible to sell something you do not have on the understanding that 
you will buy it and deliver it to the buyer. 

34.18 REVERSAL OF SALE ON TIME 

When you sell a commodity at a price to be paid later, you must not buy it back at 
a lower price as cash, or ask for it to be paid at date earlier than that date fixed 
first; nor buy it back at a higher price to be paid at a date later than the date fixed 
for the first agreement. But it is permissible to buy back the property for a price to 
be paid on the date fixed first, and the affairs shall be settled as the case may be. 

34.19 BUYING IN UNDETERMINED OUANTITIES (JUZAF) 

There is no harm in buying a commodity en bloc by giving something measured 
or weighed, with the exception of gold or silver pieces already minted. But raw 
gold not minted or silver can be given in exchange of a commodity en bloc. 

It is not permissible to buy a group of slaves and a collection of clothes en bloc, 
nor is it lawful to buy things en bloc which can be counted easily. 

34.20 RIGHT TO ACCESSORIES OF ITEM SOLD 

If someone sells date palms after they have been pollinated then the fruit shall 
belong to the seller, except where the buyer stipulates that the fruits shall be his 
property. This rule applies to other fruits. The word "ibar" means pollination, but 
in respect of other plants it means their shooting up from the ground. If a person 
sells a slave who owns some property, that property shall belong to the seller 
except where the buyer stipulates that the slave's property shall belong to him. 



34.21 EXAMINING ITEMS 

There is no harm in buying commodities in a sack when the contents are 
described and made known. But it is not lawful to buy clothes that cannot be 
unfolded or described, or at night in the darkness, where people cannot look at it 
or recognise what is in it. Similarly, it is unlawful to sell an animal at night in the 
darkness. 

34.22 BIDDING (SAWM) 

A person must not outbid the bid of his brother Muslim, and that is when the 
contracting parties are about to reach an agreement, not at the beginning of the 
offer-making. A contract of sale is concluded through speech when the parties 
are not separated. 

34.23 SELLING SERVICES BY TIME (IJARA) OR BY JOB (JU'L), 
AND SELLING THE USE OF PROPERTY (KIRA') 

The contract of hire is lawful when they agree upon time and the money to be 
paid. 

In a contract to bring back a runaway slave or stray camel, or digging a well or 
selling clothes and the like, upon which payment will be in the form of a reward, 
no limit shall be agreed upon. The person thus hired shall not be entitled to 
payment except upon the completion of the assignment. 

If a person is hired to sell something within a given time, upon the completion of 
the time agreed he shall be entitled to the wage, even if he did not sell the 
commodity. If he should complete selling the articles within half the appointed 
time, he shall be entitled to half the wage. 

The contract of hire is like that of sale in respect of the rules of lawfulness and 
unlawfulness. 

If a person should hire a specific animal to go to a specific town and the animal 
dies, the contract lapses for the remainder of the journey. The same rule applies 
in respect of a person hired who subsequently dies; so also in the case of a 
house rented which collapses before the period of rent expires. 

There is no harm in agreeing with a teacher to teach the Our'an until the pupils 
master it, nor in agreeing with a physician to cure a sick person. 

The death of a hirer of an animal, or a tenant or a hirer of a flock of sheep, does 
not cause the agreement to lapse. The rent agreed upon must still be paid. 

If in a guarantee hire, the beast hired out dies before reaching the agreed 
destination, the owner of the beast shall provide a fresh one to complete the 
journey. And if the rider should die, the contract shall nevertheless remain valid. 



while the beast is hired out to another rider. 

If a man should hire a piece of household implement or something else, he shall 
not be liable to pay for it if it gets damaged or lost. Besides the man who took the 
hire is to be believed in what he says about the implement unless it is evident 
that he is lying. 

Craftsmen shall be liable to pay for those things they take away to work on, 
whether they are going to receive a wage for the work or not. 

The proprietor of a public bath is under no liability to pay for any loss or damage 
incurred by his clients while there. Similarly the owner of the boat is not liable to 
make good any loss or damage suffered by passengers. But he is not entitled to 
any fares until upon reaching the destination. 

34.24 PARTNERSHIP (SHIRAKA) OF LABOUR AND CAPITAL 

There is no harm in hiring out labour jointly; that shall be when the partners work 
in one place and undertake the same kind of work or a similar kind. Further it is 
lawful for two people to form a company through pooling capital, on condition that 
the profit is shared in proportion to the size of shares held by the partners. The 
work also shall be shared according to what the partners stipulated in sharing the 
profit. It is not lawful for the capital contributed by the two partners to be unequal 
while they share the profit they gain equally. 

34.25 TRADE LOANS (OARD) 

Qirad is lawful. It means an arrangement of a partnership where one person 
furnishes the capital and another works with it, and the profit is shared. It is lawful 
when gold or silver pieces are advanced. It is also lawful even when irregular 
pieces of gold and silver are advanced. But it is not lawful when the capital 
provided consists of commodities; and if it should take place, the status of the 
seller will be that of a person hired for the sale. And the wage he should be paid 
should be equal to that realised in a qirad whose capital is the same as the value 
of the commodity. 

A person hired in a qirad shall be given clothing and food if he travels and if the 
capital is considerable. Usually he should be provided with clothes if the journey 
is a long one. Partners in a qirad do not divide the profit until the whole capital is 
reduced to cash. 

34.26 LEASING AN ORCHARD (MUSAOAT) 

The contract of irrigation is lawful in respect of trees on the amount the 
contracting parties agree upon. All the work shall be the responsibility of the man 
hired to irrigate. 

It should not be stipulated that the man who irrigates should carry out any other 



work besides irrigation. He sliould not be asked to perform any work connected 
witii tiie wall surrounding the farm, except very little such as mending the fence 
and mending the 'dafirah', that is, the junction of the camels. He should not be 
asked to build fresh dafirahs. The responsibility of pollinating dates palms is that 
of the irrigator. It is also the responsibility of the person hired to irrigate to clean 
the bottom of trees and to look after the place where water falls from the bucket. 
It is also part of his job to deepen the well if need be and to carry out similar jobs. 

It is not a part of the responsibility of the irrigator to drive out animals from inside 
the farm. If any animal he works with dies, it is the responsibility of the owners of 
the farm to give a substitute. It is also the responsibility of the man hired to feed 
the animals and other people he works with. Similarly, it is his responsibility to 
plant trees where they are deficient, but there is no harm of he is relieved of that. 
That is more lawful for the owner of the farm. But if the area deficient of trees is 
large, it shall not be made the responsibility of a person hired to irrigate date 
palms. However, it can be made his responsibility if it is a third of the total area or 
less. 

34.27 FARMING PARTNERSHIP 

It is permissible for two people to form a partnership for the purpose of farming 
where the crops jointly belong to them, whether the land comes from one of them 
and the labour from the other, or the labour comes from both of them, and 
whether they hire land or it belongs to them. 

It is not lawful for the seeds to come from one of them and the land from the 
other and the labour from one of them or from two of them and yet the two divide 
the yield equally. But they can divide the yield equally when they both hire the 
land and the seed is from one of them while the other supplies labour, and when 
the value of the undertakings is not much different. Payment for the hire of a 
piece of land which is not secure must not be made before the land is watered. 

34.28 LIABILITY FOR DAMAGE TO CROPS SOLD AND NOT YET 
CLAIMED 

If a person bought some fruits while still on the trees and then they were 
damaged by cold weather or locusts or ice or something else, and if the extent of 
the fruit damaged reached one third of the total, then one third of the total value 
is waived for the buyer. But damage of less than one third is borne by the buyer. 

There is no damage in respect of crops, nor in respect of fruits already dried 
when bought. But a loss due to damage in vegetables is to be borne by the seller 
even when the damage is negligible. But according to some jurists only loss 
through damage of at least one third of the crop shall be borne by the seller. 

34.29 GIFT OF FRUIT WHICH CAN BE DRIED ('ARIYYA) 

If a man gives to another as a present the fruits of some of the date palms in his 



garden, there is no harm if he subsequently buys them from the man to whom he 
donated them when they ripen and are in accordance to their measure, if they 
are up to five wasqs or less. It is not lawful for him to buy more than five wasqs 
except by giving cash or some commodity in exchange. 



Chapter 35: A Chapter on wills and various method 

of setting slaves free 

35.01 BEOUESTS (WASIYYA, PL. WASAYA) 

It is necessary for those who have a property to bequeath to take all necessary 
steps to prepare their wills. However there can be no will in favour of an heir. 
Moreover the amount of property to will away must not exceed one third of the 
net estate. If this limit is exceedecl the will shall not be executed except where the 
heirs give their consent. 

When it comes executing wills, a will to set a slave free shall receive priority. Also 
a slave whose master promised manumission upon the master's death shall 
receive priority if the promise was made in health rather than illness. And it shall 
be so whether the will involves the setting free of slaves or some other thing. In 
fact, priority is given to a will by a man who enjoys robust health, over payment of 
zakat he negligently failed to give out but then made a will to take care of it. Such 
a payment of zakat shall be defrayed from one third of the net estate. However 
priority shall be given to fulfilment of a promise of freedom which a master made 
to his slave while enjoying health. 

When one-third of a net estate is insufficient to cater for the various claims from 
the will, the claimants shall share the one-third, nevertheless, in direct proportion 
to those claims. But such claims must not be the type given priority. Moreover a 
person is permitted to go back on his grant of manumission and related matters. 

35.02 FREEING A SLAVE AT DEATH (TADBIR) OR AT A CERTAIN 
DATE (ILA AJAL) 

What is meant by 'tadbir' is for a person to say to his slave "You are a 
mudabbar", i.e. "After I am dead you shall be free". Having done that, it is 
unlawful for the master to sell that particular slave, but he is permitted to exploit 
his labour and can take away his property as long as he is not sick. And if it is a 
slave woman, the master has the right to have sexual intercourse with her. But if 
she is already set free he must not have intercourse with her until after some 
time to save her from becoming an Umm Walad; nor can he sell her away; but he 
is permitted to exploit her labour and take away her property, as long as the 
appointed time for her freedom is not at hand. If the master should die under 
these circumstances, the mudabbar shall be free, out of the one-third of the net 
estate, that is if his market value is not more than one-third of the net estate, 
while the expense of the total property of the master. 

35.03 FREEING A SLAVE AFTER INSTALMENTS PAYMENTS 
(KITABA) 

A 'mukatab' is a slave who bought his freedom from his master in consideration 
of a sum of money and has completed payment of the amount. The kitabah is 



lawful, in accordance with the agreement between the slave and his master over 
an amount of money to be paid by instalments which can be large or small. If a 
mukatab should fail to pay the amount stipulated for his freedom, he reverts to 
slavery and the amount taken from him by the master is lawful for the master to 
keep. Besides, nobody can have the authority to put into effect the agreement 
except the ruler, who does so upon petition when the master fails to effect his 
part of the agreement. 

35.04 CHILDREN AND PROPERTY OF SLAVES 

The offspring of slave women share their status as mukatabs, or mudabbars or 
receivers of a promise of manumission, at some appointed time, or given away 
as pledge. Also the son of a slave woman by a person other than her master has 
the same status as she has. 

A slave is permitted to have property except where his master took it away. If he 
set him free or entered into a mukatabah with him without accepting the property, 
as one of the things the slave shall enjoy, the master shall have no right to divest 
the slave of his property. A master has no right to intercourse with his slave 
woman if a mukatabah agreement exists between them. 

Moreover the fortune of the mukatab or mukatabah shall be that of their offspring 
and they gain their freedom the moment their parents do. 

35.05 FREEING A GROUP BY KITABA 

It is lawful to enter into an agreement of mukatabah with a group of people. 
However, such slaves do not attain their freedom except when all the sum 
agreed upon has been fully paid. 

35.06 RESTRICTIONS ON A MUKATAB 

A mukatab is not free to set his own slaves free, nor is he permitted to waste his 
property in order to gain freedom. Nor should he get married or go on a long 
journey without the permission of his master. 

35.07 CHILDREN OF A DECEASED MUKATAB 

And if he should die leaving a child, the child shall step into his shoes as 
mukatab and he will pay immediately, from the property of the deceased, what is 
left unpaid in the mukatabah agreement. His other children shall inherit what is 
left of the property. But if the deceased falls short of the debt, his children can 
then speculate in it and pay the debt by instalments if they are adult. But if they 
are minor and the estate is such that it could not cater for payment by 
instalments, they remain slaves. 

But if he is not joined in his mukatabah agreement by any of his children, his 
master shall inherit him. 



35.08 A SLAVE MOTHER OF HER MASTER'S CHILD (UMM 
WALAD) 

If a man made his slave woman pregnant, he shall remain free to enjoy sexual 
relations with her as long as he lives, and she shall be free after his death, 
whether or not her value is greater or less than one-third of his net estate. Under 
those circumstances, he shall not be free to sell her, nor it is lawful for him to 
exploit her labour or seek any other gains from her. But he shall be free to exploit 
the labour of her child whom someone else fathered. However, such a child 
enjoys the status of his mother, and becomes free the moment she is set free. 

A slave woman acquires the status of Umm Walad even if her pregnancy results 
in abortion. Withdrawal of the penis when about to have orgasm cannot serve as 
a excuse to reject paternity of her child once he admitted having intercourse with 
her. 

But if he should claim that the slave woman observed an istibra and that he did 
not have intercourse with her afterwards, then the child she gave birth to should 
not be linked with him. 

35.09 OBSTACLE OF SLAVES DEBT 

Further, it is unlawful for a person whose debts exceed the value of his property, 
to voluntarily set a slave free. 

35.10 FREEING PART OF A SLAVE (BI-S-SIRAYA) 

Again if a person grants partial manumission to his slave, the ruler has the right 
to make it complete compulsorily. And if the slave is jointly owned the value of 
the other half is assessed, and the master wishing to set free the slave is made 
to pay up. But if he does not have the money to effect total manumission, the 
share of the co-master remains slave. That is, the slave shall remain partly free 
and partly slave. 

35.11 FREEING BECAUSE OF MUTILATION (MUTHLA) 

If a master disfigures his slave clearly, such as by cutting off a limb or some other 
organ, the slave is granted freedom by the ruler compulsorily. 

35.12 FREEING BECAUSE OF RELATIONSHIP (OARABA) 

If by some chance a man becomes the master of his own parents or any of his 
children or grandchildren, or his grandparents, or his uterine, consanguine or 
germane brother, then each and every one of them shall be free at his expense. 

35.13 FREEING BY CONCOMITANCE (TAB'IYYA) 

Moreover if a master sets free a woman slave who is pregnant, then the foetus is 



automatically free as well. 

35.14 FREEING BECAUSE OF AN OBLIGATION 

When a man is under an obligation to free a slave, he is not to manumit any 
slave who is about to gain his freedom through tadbir or kitabah or some other 
means. Nor is he free to liberate a blind slave or one whose hand has been cut 
off, or a similar person, nor a slave who is a non- Muslim. Besides, it is not lawful 
to liberate a minor nor a person interdicted from transactions with his property. 

35.15 PATRONSHIP (WALA') 

Clientage (in Islamic law) goes to the person who sets a slave free. It is not lawful 
to sell clientage or to give it away. If a persons's slave gained freedom at 
someone else's expense, the clientage nevertheless goes to the original master. 
If a non- Muslim slave embraces Islam upon gaining freedom, his clientage shall 
go to the Muslim community. The clientage of a person set free by a woman shall 
go to her; similarly the clientage of those who become free the moment she owns 
them, due to the nature of their relationship to her also the clientage of people 
she liberated goes to her. A woman cannot inherit a slave who has been set free 
by someone other than her, such as her father or her son of her husband or 
someone else. 

Moreover, the estate of a man set free in a sa'ibah (i.e. let loose) method goes to 
the whole of Muslim community. But his clientage goes to the closest agnatic kin, 
the first person to die (the former master, that is). 

If the person who held the clientage of a former slave died and left two sons, the 
clientage shall go to both of them. If, subsequently, one of them died leaving the 
two sons, the surviving brother shall have the clientage exclusively. But if these 
sons of the benefactor both died, one leaving a son and the other two sons, the 
clientage shall be shared by these three grandsons of the benefactor, each 
holding one-third of it. 



CHAPTER 36: A Chapter on pre-emption, gift, alms, 
endowment, pledge, loan, trust, an article or thing 

found, and compulsion. 

36.01 PRE-EMPTION (SHUFA) 

Pre-emption (in Islamic law) exists only in respect of things jointly owned. There 
can be no right of pre-emption in articles already divided. 

There is no right of pre-emption in respect of a neighbour or in a path or the 
courtyard of a house whose rooms have already been divided; nor in respect of a 
male date-palm or well, when the palm trees or the land have already been 
divided. Moreover there can only be a case of pre-emption in respect of lands or 
what is attached to it, such as buildings or trees. The right to claim pre-emption 
lapses if it is not exercised for a whole year, if the claimant has been present all 
the while. But the person who has been away shall continue to have right to pre- 
emption even if he has been away for a long time. The holder of pre-emption 
receives his guarantee from the buyer. Besides the pre-emptor is made to 
choose between exercising his right or abandoning it. The right of pre-emption 
cannot further be given away or sold. It is divided between the joint owners of it in 
accordance with the fractions they owned. 

36.02 DONATIONS (HIBA), ALMS (SADAOA), AND FOUNDATIONS 
(HUBAS) IN GENERAL 

A gift, alms, or pious endowment are incomplete unless they are taken over by 
those to whom they are given. If the benefactor should die before such formal 
taking over is effected, they shall be treated as part of the legacy, except where 
these are taken over while the deceased is sick. Under such a circumstance they 
can be executed so long as they do not exceed one-third of the legacy, and if the 
beneficiaries are not heirs of the legacy. 

36.03 DONATIONS AND ALMS 

A gift to a relative or a poor person is like alms. It cannot be withdrawn. Also, if a 
person gives alms to his son, he cannot take it back. But he is permitted to take 
back what he gives to his minor son, or even a grown-up son, as long as he did 
not use the property in getting married or give the money on loan, nor indeed 
converted the object of the gift into something else. A mother can withdraw her 
gift as long as the father remains alive. But if the father is dead, she cannot take 
back the gift she made to her son. 

Further, a gift given to an orphan cannot be taken back, Moreover, orphanhood, 
it should be stated, arises as a result of a father's death. Again, the gift bestowed 
by a father to his minor son can be taken over on the child's behalf by the father, 
that is, if the son did not live in that particular house, or did not wear the garment, 
if the gift is of a dress. In other words, the 'hiyazah' or taking over the articles 



gifted can be effected by the father on behalf of a minor son, if that article is such 
that it can be identified. But, as for a son who has attained maturity, his father 
cannot effect a hiyazah or taking possession of an article gifted on his behalf. 

A man cannot withdraw alms after giving it away. Nor can the alms go back to 
him except through inheritance. There is no harm, in law, for a person who gave 
alms (of a cow, sheep or goat) to drink of the milk of the beast he has given away 
as alms. But one cannot buy back such articles he gave away as alms. However 
if one is given a gift, but the giver expects something in return, the recipient of the 
gift shall have the option of either giving to the giver some articles of equal value 
to the gift or return the gift. But if the article of the gift is consumed or used up, 
the recipient shall be under an obligation to give back its value. But that shall be 
so if it can be seen that the donor expects to receive some recompense for the 
gifts he made. Besides, it is reprehensible for a father to give some of his 
children all his property. However, he is permitted to give away some of it. Also a 
man is permitted to give away to poor people the whole of his property. 

If a man made a gift which has not been taken over by the person to whom it was 
given until the donor became sick or was declared bankrupt, it now becomes 
unlawful for him to take it over. But if the man to whom the gift was given should 
die, his heirs can claim it from the donor if he has not been declared bankrupt. 

36.04 HUBUS 

If a man made an endowment for a house, it should be used for the purposes he 
intended if it has been taken over before his death; but if the endowment was 
made in favour of his minor son, the hiyazah by the deceased on behalf of the 
minor son shall be in order until the son reaches puberty. But let him hire it out 
and not live in it. But if he did not stop occupying the house until he died, that 
prolonged stay nullifies the endowment. 

If the people for the benefit of whom a house is endowed died out, the house 
shall be an endowment for the man who is closest to the benefactor on the day 
the extinction of the original beneficiaries become complete. 

36.05 LIFE GRANTS ('UMRA) 

If a man should create an 'Umra' (giving a person or persons the right to dwell in 
a house free of charge for as long as the person lives, on the understanding that 
the right shall lapse the moment the beneficiary dies), the house in question shall 
revert to the original owner the moment the beneficiary dies and the dwelling 
once again reverts as the property of the owner. Similarly if a man created an 
Umra to take effect after his death, the property shall revert to him if the 
beneficiaries should die out. This is different from pious endowment, for, the 
moment the creator of Umra dies the property goes back to his heirs. 

36.06 MORE ON HUBUS 



In respect of pious endowment, the moment a beneficiary dies, iiis siiare of tiie 
endowment goes to tiiose otiier beneficiaries wiio survive. And tiie type of 
people chosen to enjoy an endowment (hubus) are those who are needy of the 
benefits accruing from it. Besides, those who already dwell in a house endowed 
shall not quit in order to make room for others, except where a stipulation in the 
terms of the endowment allowed for that. In such a circumstance the stipulation 
is enforced. A house endowed is never sold away even if it has degenerated into 
ruins. But an endowed horse affected by rabies is sold away, so that another 
horse can be bought with the proceeds; or at least the proceeds are used to 
supplement an amount with which to buy a new horse. Muslims jurists disagree 
as to whether an endowment which is in ruin can be exchanged with another 
building in good condition. 

36.07 PLEDGES (RAHN) 

In Islamic law, pawning is lawful. But it is considered incomplete until the article 
pledged is taken over. Besides, a witness is of no use in respect of it so long as 
the witness failed to see the transfer of the article pledged. Responsibility for 
damage or loss of the article pledged shall be borne by the man receiving the 
pledge. But the receiver of the pledge only makes good what is lost while in his 
possession. He does not make good what is lost while in possession of others. 
The fruit of the date palms under pledge is the property of the pledger, so are the 
proceeds of houses. 

A child born to a slave woman while she constitutes a pledge, is also a pledge. 
The property of a slave cannot be a pledge except where such a thing is 
stipulated. And in respect of pledges, what is lost while in the custody of a person 
trusted is borne by the person who made the pledge. 

36.08 LOAN FOR TEMPORARY USE ('ARIYYA) 

Articles borrowed are to be taken back to their true owners. A borrower shall be 
under an obligation to make good what got lost in his possession of consumable 
articles, but not of things he cannot consume such as a slave or an animal. Of 
the latter he is only liable to make good what is lost when he exceeded all 
reasonable limits. 

36.09 DEPOSITS (WADI'A) 

If a keeper of a depository claimed to have returned the article entrusted to him, 
he is to be believed. But if witnesses were called to see the articles entrusted to 
him, then he cannot be free from liability to make good any loss or damage, until 
he in his turn calls in witnesses to see him return his charge to its rightful owner. 
If a keeper claims that the articles put under his charge have perished, he is to 
be believed also, under any circumstances. But if a person borrowed an article 
and he then claimed to have lost it, he will not be believed if it is of the type that 
can be consumed. Also, if a man exceeds limits in respect of something placed in 
his charge, it shall be incumbent upon him to make good any loss or damage. If 



the trust consisted of gold or silver pieces, which he claimed to have returned to 
its owner in the actual bag in which the pieces were when entrusted to his care, 
and the whole or part of it became missing, in such circumstances there are 
conflicting views as to whether it shall be incumbent upon him to make good any 
loss or damage. 

It is reprehensible for a man to use as capital a property entrusted to him. But if 
he should do that, any profit acquired therefrom shall be lawful for him to keep. 
That shall be so if the property is cash; but if it is merchandise and he sells it, its 
owner shall have the option to receive the price charged or the value of the 
merchandise on the day the lapse was committed. 

36.10 FOUND PROPERTY (LUOATA) 

Whoever finds an article or thing let him announce it for one complete year at a 
place such an announcement is expected. If the year lapses and nobody comes 
forward to claim it, the finder can then endow it or give it away in alms if he likes. 
Nevertheless the finder shall be under the obligation to make good any loss or 
damage if the owner should subsequently turn up. Similarly, if the finder should 
use the article found, he must pay for that. But if the article found should be 
missing or destroyed before or after a year, without being moved, the finder shall 
not be liable to pay for it. If the person who sustains the loss of a find should 
recognise its container he should then automatically take it. 

A man must not take a stray camel from a desert and regard it as a find, but he 
can take hold of a goat or a sheep which he finds in a desert where there are no 
buildings. 

He is even permitted to eat of its flesh. 

36.11 COMPENSATION FOR CONSUMPTION OF ANOTHER'S 
PROPERTY 

Moreover if a man should squander the proceeds from some merchandise, he 
must pay its value. But in respect of things that can be weighed or measured, he 
must give a quantity equal to what he wasted. 

36.12 USURPATION (GHASB) 

The misappropriator must pay for what he misappropriated. But if he should 
return the actual article he took by force, not diminished in quality or quantity, he 
has committed no offence. But if the article misappropriated underwent some 
changes while in the usurper's hands, then its rightful owner is given an option of 
either taking it back with its defect or accepting its value. If the defect in the 
article is the fault of the usurper, then the owner is given the option of taking it 
back along with that which had been taken away from it. However there are 
divergent views on that. 



The yield, produce or revenue of property usurped is not lawful to the usurper of 
the property. Moreover he must make good what he consumed, and pay for the 
use he made of things such as implements etc. If he had intercourse with a 
woman he abducted, he receives the hadd punishment. And if the woman is a 
slave woman and she conceives, the child shall be a slave to the rightful master 
of the slave woman. Further a profit accruing from some amount taken away by 
force shall not be lawful to the person who took it by force until he has taken the 
capital back to its rightful owner. Giving away such profits as alms is what is 
recommended by the companions of Malik. However, in the chapter of procedure 
this discussion is continued. 



CHAPTER 37:A Chapter on Homicide Cases and 

other Judgements 

37.01 CONVICTION FOR HOMICIDE 

37.02 CLEMENCY ('AFW) 

Nobody should be killed in respect of a homicide except where men of integrity 
give evidence, or where the killer makes a confession, or if the relatives of the 
deceased swear an oath (qasamah) if that should be necessary. The form that 
qasamah oaths take is for the relatives of the deceased to swear fifty times, and 
when they have done that they are entitled to have the accused executed. A 
qasamah oath is sworn by no less than two men in a murder case. And in 
respect of a qasamah oath, never is more than one person executed. A qasamah 
becomes necessary if the deceased declares, on being wounded, that so-and-so 
has my blood, or when one person testifies against the accused, or when two 
people testify to seeing the deceased being wounded, if he survives all that and 
is able to eat and to drink. 

If the plaintiff fails to swear, the defendant is asked to swear and free himself 
from liability. He does that fifty times. If the defendant is not able to get some of 
his kinsmen to swear with him, he swears alone fifty times. If the accusation of 
homicide is levelled against a group of people, each one of them will have to 
swear fifty times. But if kinsmen are suing in respect of a murdered kinsman, fifty 
of them must swear once each. But if they are less than fifty, the surplus oaths 
are redistributed to them. However, a woman does not swear in the murder case. 
The heirs shall swear in the event of accidental homicide in direct proportion to 
the amount they inherit of the blood-wit, whether they are men or women. If the 
division should present a problem by producing fractions, the person with the 
biggest share of the blood-wit shall be made to swear the extra oath. 

If from the relatives of the deceased person come, (while others do not show up), 
in respect of an accidental killing, those present shall swear the full number of 
oaths on a qasamah. If afterwards others turn up, they swear in direct proportion 
to their share of the estate. 

In respect of the qasamah oaths, the litigants shall swear standing. Moreover, 
people living in the provinces of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are brought there 
to swear qasamah oaths. Nobody is taken to any other places except where the 
distance involved is a few miles. 

Oasamah oaths are not sworn in respect of wounds, nor slaves, nor among the 
Christians or Jews (People of the Book), nor a person killed between two rows of 
warring enemies, nor when a dead body is found in the vicinity of some 
settlement. 

There cannot be any pardon in respect of a treacherous murder. 



A man can pardon in respect of his own murder if it did not involve treaciiery. But 
in respect of accidental killing, he can only waive up to one third of the blood-wit. 
If one of the sons of the victim in a homicide case decides to forgive the killer, the 
killer cannot be executed. The remaining heirs can then have their shares of the 
blood-wit. When in a homicide case the heirs comprise sons and daughters, the 
daughters are not empowered by law to waive this claim for retaliation and grant 
pardon. 

When a homicide is pardoned, he is to be given one hundred strokes of the cane 
and imprisoned for a year. 

37.03 BLOOD RATE (DIYA) 

The blood-wit in respect of people who have camels is to consist of one hundred 
camels. In respect of people who have gold, it is to be one thousand pieces. 

For the people who have silver, it is to be twelve thousand dirhams. The bloodwit 
in respect of murder when it is accepted shall consist of twenty-five four year old 
she-camels and twenty-five five year old she-camels and twenty-five three year 
old she camels and twenty-five two year old she-camels. And the blood-wit in 
respect of accidental killing is to consist of five types, that is, twenty of each we 
have mentioned. And in addition to that, twenty males of the type known as 'banu 
labun'. 

The payment of blood-wit is only made more stringent in the case of a father who 
throws a piece of iron at his son and then kills him. The father shall not be killed 
on account of killing his son under these circumstances. He shall however be 
made to pay thirty jadha'ahs, thirty hiqqahs and forty khalifahs, that is, pregnant 
ones. But according to some learned men, that payment shall be made by 
members of his clan. Yet others insist that the payment must come from his own 
property. 

37.04 BLOOD RATE TO OTHER THAN MUSLIM MEN 

The blood-wit for a woman shall be half that of a man. Similarly the blood-wit for 
a male Christian or Jew is half that of a male Muslim, and the blood-wit for their 
women is half that of their men. As for a Magian, his blood-wit is eight hundred 
dirhams. The blood-wit for their women is half that of their men. Similarly, in 
respect of wounds, compensation given to non-Muslims is half what is given to 
their Muslim counterparts. 

37.05 BLOOD RATES FOR MUTILATION 

Whoever is made to suffer the loss of both his hands is paid a whole blood-wit 
(as a case of a homicide). Similarly in respect of a loss of both legs or a loss of 
both eyes, complete blood-wit is paid. If a man is made to suffer the loss one of 
these, he is paid half a complete blood-wit. In respect of the cartilage separating 
the base of the nostrils marin a complete blood-wit is paid. The same rule applies 



when loss of hearing is inflicted, or when loss of mental balance is inflicted, or 
when the backbone is broken, or testicles are impaired, or when the glans penis 
is destroyed, or when the tongue is made useless, or when the power of speech 
is destroyed. For destroying the two bosoms of a woman or the eye of a one- 
eyed person a full blood-wit is also paid. 

37.06 INDEMNIFICATION FOR LESSER WOUNDS 

For a blow to the head resulting in an injury of the type known as 'mudihah', five 
camels are paid. For an injury which results in the lost of a tooth, five camels are 
paid. For injuries resulting in the loss of a finger, ten camels are paid. And in 
respect of injuries causing the loss of the tip of either of the thumbs, five camels 
are paid each. And in respect of injuries of the type known as 'munaqqilah' one 
tenth and half of one tenth is paid. 

'Mudihah' injuries are injuries to the head which expose the bone. 'Munaqqilah' 
injuries are those which affect the bone itself but do not affect the brain. But 
injuries to the skull reaching the brain are known as 'ma'mumah'. In respect of 
them, one third of the blood-wit is paid. 

But for injuries affecting the stomach known as 'ja'ifah', no specific remedy is 
prescribed nor for injuries less serious than a mudihah. Compensation for these 
therefore shall depend upon the discretion of a judge. Similarly compensation is 
suggested forwounds inflicted on the body. 

The victim of any injuries is not compensated unless and until the wounds are 
healed. Any injury which heals without leaving a disfiguring scar shall not fetch 
anything by way of compensation if it is less than a mudihah in seriousness. 

37.07 TALION (OISAS) 

In respect of wounds deliberately inflicted retaliation is prescribed except when it 
is feared that death may result from such an action, such as ma'mumah, ja'ifah 
and munaqqilah, or when the retaliation involves the thigh, the testicles and the 
backbone and some similar vital organs. For each of those a full blood-wit is 
prescribed. 

37.08 CLAN'S OBLIGATION REGARDING BLOOD RATE 

The relative of a homicide if the killing is intentional shall not bear the burden of 
paying the blood-wit; nor must they be compelled to avow that the killing has 
been intentional. But they can own accidental injuries, or injuries whose 
compensation shall not exceed one third of the blood-wit or more. But what less 
is than one third of the blood-wit shall be borne by the accused himself. However, 
Malik insisted that a ma'mumah or a ja'ifah, even if intentional, should be settled 
by the relative of the accused. But Malik on second thoughts also said that, in 
that respect, the accused shall pay the compensation himself except where he 
happens to be insolvent. That shall be so because no retaliation is exacted from 



a ma'mumah or ja'ifah, even if intentional due to the hazards involved. 

If a man commits suicide, whether accidentally or intentionally, his relatives shall 
not have to pay any compensation to anybody. 

37.09 INDEMNIFICATION TO A WOMAN 

A woman equals a man in the amount of compensation that shall be paid in 
respect of her sustaining injuries, up to one-third of his compensation. But after 
reaching one-third, she goes back to the schedule already allotted to her. 

37.10 CASES WHERE PARTIES ARE UNEOUAL 

If a group of people kill one person jointly, they shall all be killed on that account. 
If a person who is drunk kills another person, he is to be killed. But if a madman 
kills a person, the blood-wit shall be paid by his relatives. An intentional killing or 
the intentional infliction of injuries committed by a minor are both regarded as 
accidental, as long as their degree exceeds one-third of a blood-wit, or is equal to 
one-third. But if the amount to pay as compensation is less than one-third of a 
blood-wit then it must come from the minor's personal property. 

A woman shall be killed for killing a man, and a man shall be killed for killing a 
woman, and retaliation is exercised in respect of mutual wounding. A freeborn 
person shall not be killed for killing a slave. But a slave shall be killed for having 
killed a freeborn person. A Muslim shall not be killed for having killed a non- 
Muslim, but a non-Muslim is to be killed for having killed a Muslim. There is no 
retaliation in the case of a freeborn person wounding a slave. Nor shall thee be 
retaliation for a Muslim wounding a non-Muslim. 

37.11 CASES OF NO RESPONSIBILITY (HADAR) 

A driver of an animal or one who leads it, or a rider on it, shall be liable to pay 
compensation for what their animal trampled on. But the injury or damage an 
animal inflicts without being incited by anybody shall not be compensated for. If 
anybody dies as a result of falling down a well or down a mine shaft without 
anybody causing his fall, that also shall not be compensated for by anybody. 

37.12 WHEN AND TO WHOM INDEMNITIES ARE DUE 

Compensation shall be paid by relatives by instalments within three years. The 
compensation of a third of a blood-wit shall be paid in one year, and a 
compensation of a half a blood-wit is to be paid within two years. 

The blood-wit is to be distributed as a legacy according to the schedule in the 
Our'an. 

37.13 GHURRA INDEMNIFICATION FOR CAUSING MISCARRIAGE 



In respect of causing the miscarriage of a freeborn woman, a young slave boy or 
slave girl valued at fifty gold pieces or six hundred dirhams is given as 
compensation. The value of this young slave is obviously a legacy along the lines 
drawn up by Allah Most High in the Our'an. 

37.14 KILLING A RELATIVE 

The person who committed an intentional homicide is not allowed to inherit his 
victim's property or the blood-wit paid. However an accidental homicide can 
inherit his victim's property but not the blood-wit. 

37.15 GHURRA INDEMNIFICATION IN CASE OF A SLAVE WOMAN 

The amount of money paid for killing the foetus of a slave girl by her own master 
is equal to the amount to be paid for the foetus of a freeborn woman. But if the 
foetus is by someone other than the master, one tenth of the slave girl's own 
value is to be paid. 

37.16 KILLINGASLAVE 

If anybody kills a slave he must pay, as compensation, the value of the slave. 

37.17 COLLECTIVE KILLING 

37.18 ATONEMENT FOR HOMICIDE 

But a group of people shall all be killed if they jointly kill one person in order to 
rob him, or if they kill him treacherously, even if some perpetrated the actual 
killing on behalf of others. The atonement in respect of accidental homicide is 
obligatory. It consists of setting a Muslim slave free. If the person who committed 
homicide cannot afford to set a slave free, he has the option of fasting for two 
consecutive months. If a person guilty of wilful homicide is forgiven by the relative 
of the victim, he is ordered either to set free a Muslim slave or in default, to fast 
for two consecutive months; that is beneficial to him (in the eyes of God Most 
High). 

37.19 CRIMES AGAINST ISLAM 

A freethinker (zindiq) must be put to death and his repentance is rejected. A 
freethinker is one who conceals his unbelief and pretends to follow Islam. A 
magician also is to be put to death, and his repentance also is to be rejected. A 
apostate is also killed unless he repents. He is allowed three days grace; if he 
fails to utilise the chance to repent, the execution takes place. This same also 
applies to women apostates. 

If a person who is not an apostate admits that prayer is obligatory but will not 
perform it, then such a person is given an opportunity to recant by the time of the 
next prayer; if he does not utilise the opportunity to repent and resume worship. 



he is then executed. If a Muslim refuses to perform the pilgrimage, he should be 
left alone and God himself shall decide this case. If a Muslim should abandon the 
performance of prayer because he disputes its being obligatory, then such a 
person shall be treated as an apostate - he should be given three days within 
which to repent. If the three days lapse without his repenting, he is then 
executed. 

Whoever abuses the Messenger of God - peace and blessing of God be upon 
him - is to be executed, and his repentance is not accepted. 

If any dhimmi (by 'dhimmi' is meant a non-Muslim subject living in a Muslim 
country) curses the Prophet - peace be upon him - or abuses him by saying 
something other than what already makes him an unbeliever, or abuses God 
Most High by saying something other than what already makes him an 
unbeliever, he is to be executed unless at that juncture he accepts Islam. 

The property of an apostate after his execution is to be shared by the Muslim 
community. 

37.20 BANDITRY (HIRABA) 

As for an armed robber - he is not to be granted pardon when he is caught. If he 
happens to have killed someone, then he must be killed. But if he has not killed 
anybody, the Muslim ruler shall then use his discretion as to the nature of the 
punishment to be awarded to him, based on the seriousness of his crimes and 
the length of the time during which he operated. The Muslim ruler can kill him, or 
crucify him and later kill him, or he can cut off his right hand and left foot, or left 
hand and right foot. Alternatively the Muslim ruler can banish him to another town 
where he will be imprisoned until he repents. But if he has not been overpowered 
and caught and he comes on his own to repent, then the Muslim ruler shall 
forgive him and excuse him from whatever punishment his crime has earned for 
him in respect of his disobedience to God Most High. Then he shall be liable for 
any punishment his crime has earned for him in respect of his assault on the 
property and the persons of other people. 

Each member of a band of robbers is liable to pay the total amount they robbed 
jointly. Moreover a group of people shall be killed in respect of killing a single 
person treacherously or in order to rob him, even if the actual killing was 
undertaken by one of them. Also a Muslim shall be killed for killing a scripturary 
(a Jew or a Ghristian) if the killing is treacherous or in order to rob. 

37.21 ILLICIT INTERCOURSE (ZINA) BY THE MARITALLY 
RESTRICTED 

If a freeborn Muslim who has been married (muhsan) commits adultery or 
fornication, he is to be stoned to death. What is meant by 'muhsan' is a man who 
has married a woman properly and has had sexual intercourse with her in a 
proper way. 



37.22 ILLICIT INTERCOURSE BY THE NON-MARITALLY 
RESTRICTED 

But if he has not been a muhsan, he is beaten one hundred lashes and then 
banished to another town where he should be imprisoned for a year. A slave who 
commits adultery or fornication is to be beaten fifty lashes. A slave woman is to 
be treated likewise, even if they are married. Besides, they are not exiled nor is a 
woman exiled. 

37.23 CONVICTION FOR ILLICIT INTERCOURSE 

The person who committed adultery does not receive the hadd punishment 
except through confession, or through pregnancy which becomes evident, or 
through the testimony of freeborn adult men of integrity who witnessed the action 
like a mirwad in a mukhulah. (A 'mirwad' is the little stick for applying kohl or 
antimony to the eyelids. 'Mukhulah' is the container for kohl or antimony). The 
witnesses must see the action at the same time. And if one of them failed to 
complete the description, the three should receive hadd punishment for qadhf (or 
false accusation of fornication). 

37.24 CONVICTED MINORS 

A There shall be no hadd punishment for anybody who is not mature. 

37.25 ILLICIT INTERCOURSE WITH A SLAVE WOMAN 

If a man has intercourse with a slave woman belonging to his father, he is to be 
given hadd punishment. But if a man had intercourse with a slave woman 
belonging to his son, he shall not be given the hadd punishment. But she must 
be valued and he will pay the value and own her, even if she did not conceive. A 
joint owner of a slave woman who had intercourse with her is to be disciplined 
and he will pay the the balance of her value if he has the money. But if she did 
not conceive, the joint owner is given the choice of continuing to share the 
ownership or to permit his partner who had intercourse with her to pay the rest of 
the value. 

37.26 RAPED WOMAN'S PROOF OF INNOCENCE 

If a woman who turns out to be pregnant says, "I was compelled to have sexual 
intercourse", she is not to be believed and she shall be given the hadd 
punishment except where there is a witness who testifies that she was carried 
away until the abductor disappeared with her, or if she comes looking for help at 
the time of the event, or she comes bleeding. 

37.27 A CHRISTIAN RAPIST 

If a Christian rapes a Muslim woman he is to be killed. 



37.28 VOIDING CONVICTION BASED ADMISSION 

And if a person who confessed having committed adultery retracts the judgement 
is repealed and he is to be left alone. 

37.29 EXECUTOR OF FIXED PENALTY ON SLAVES 

The hadd punishment can be awarded by a master to his slave or to his 
bondswoman in the case of adultery when a pregnancy becomes evident, or if, 
apart from him, four people have testified to that effect or if there is a confession. 
But if that bondswoman has a husband who is either a freeborn person or a 
fellow slave belonging to somebody other than him, then nobody can award 
punishment on her other than the Muslim ruler. 

37.30 HOMOSEXUALITY (LIWAT) 

If a man commits sodomy with a male adult who consented, then the two must 
be stoned to death whether they were muhsans or not. 

37.31 SLANDER (OADHF) 

If anybody levels a false accusation against a freeborn person he is to be beaten 
eighty lashes. But if a slave commits the same offence, he is to be beaten forty 
lashes. But in respect of committing fornication he is to be beaten fifty lashes. If 
an unbeliever levels false accusation, he is to be beaten eighty lashes. But there 
should be no hadd punishment in respect of any who levels a false accusation 
against a slave or an unbeliever. But the person who levels a false accusation 
against a minor girl should receive the hadd punishment if a girl of that age is big 
enough to go to bed with. But a person who levels a false accusation of adultery 
against a minor boy should not receive the hadd punishment. There shall be no 
hadd punishment in respect of minors either in respect of levelling a false 
accusation of unchastity or in respect of committing fornication. Anybody who 
denies the paternity of another, then the former should receive the hadd 
punishment. Accusations of unchastity should always be given the hadd 
punishment even if they are veiled in innuendoes. If a man said to another, 'O 
you homosexuar, he shall receive hadd punishment. 

37.32 MULTIPLICATION OF PENALTIES 

If a man levelled a false accusation against a group of people he shall receive 
only one hadd punishment when all of them demand it. Afterwards he is free and 
guiltless. 

If a man drinks wine repeatedly or commits adultery repeatedly he is to receive 
only one hadd punishment in respect of each of the repeated offences. This rule 
applies in respect of the person who levels false accusations against a group of 
people. If a person is liable to receive hadd punishment and at the same time 
liable to be executed, the execution alone is sufficient for all that, except where 



the hadd punishment is in respect of adultery. Under such circumstances the 
man must receive the hadd punishment and then be executed later on. 

37.33 DRINKING INTOXICANTS 

If a man drinks wine or some intoxicating stuff he should receive eighty lashes 
whether or not he is intoxicated. He must not be imprisoned. 

37.34 ADMINISTRATION OF THE FIXED PENALTY 

A person to receive hadd punishment must have his clothes removed, except 
such as may cover his private parts. But a woman shall have clothes on except 
such as may protect her from the beating. The punishment is to be given to the 
culprits in a sitting posture. A woman under pregnancy shall not be beaten until 
she is delivered of her baby. Nor shall a sick man be beaten until he is well 
again. 

37.35 BESTIALITY 

A person who had sexual intercourse with a beast shall not be executed but he 
must be punished for it. 

37.36 THE FIXED PENALTY FOR STEALING (SARIOA) 

If a person steals a quarter of a dinar in gold, or something the value of which on 
the day of the theft equals three dirhams of property, or something the weight of 
which represents three dirhams of silver, such a person shall have his hand cut 
off if the stolen property was in the possession of somebody else when stolen. 
But there shall be no amputation if the property is stolen surreptitiously. In 
respect of those amounts mentioned above, the hand of a man or a woman or 
that of a slave is cut off. Then if the person steals again, he has his foot on the 
opposite side cut off. If he should steal again he will have his other hand cut off. If 
he steals for the fourth time, he shall have the remaining foot cut off. If he should 
steal for the fifth time, he shall be beaten and imprisoned. 

37.37 VOIDING CONVICTION BASED ON ADMISSION 

Further, if a person confesses to having stolen, he should have his hand cut off, 
but if he should retract he shall be pardoned. 

37.38 RETURN OF STOLEN GOODS 

But he must return the article in question if he still has it, otherwise it shall be a 
debt upon him. 

37.39 MITIGATING FACTORS 

If a person takes an article from where it is being kept, he shall not have his hand 



cut off until he has taken the article out of the place where it is being kept. 
Similarly the person who steals the shrouds shall not have his hands cut off until 
he has taken it away from the grave. The person who steals from a house he is 
permitted to enter shall not have his hand cut off. Nor shall a person who steals 
secretly have his hand cut off. The confession of a slave to a crime which results 
in corporal punishments only is accepted, such as lashes in respect of false 
accusations or the cutting of a hand. 

But his confession of crimes the punishment of which shall result in his death, is 
not accepted by law. Further there shall be no amputation of hands for taking a 
fruit which is still on a tree. Nor shall there be amputation of hands in respect of 
the taking of someone else's palm pith. Nor shall there be amputation of hands in 
respect of stealing a beast from a flock while out in fields grazing, until they come 
come back to their resting place, at which juncture stealing them should be 
punished by amputation of a hand. Nor shall there be amputation for stealing 
dates from a store. 

37.40 INTERCESSION (SHAFA'A) 

There shall be no attempt to plead for leniency for a person whose case has 
reached the Muslim ruler upon the person being convicted of the crime of theft or 
adultery. But in respect of false accusation, opinions are conflicting. 

37.41 PICKPOCKETING AND STEALING PUBLIC PROPERTY 

If a man steals from another man's sleeve, he shall have his hand cut off. If a 
man steals from a store or treasury or from some booty, he shall have his hand 
cut off. But according to another authority he can only have his hand cut off if the 
amount he stole exceeded what would have been his share of that booty by three 
dirhams. 

37.42 PROSECUTION FOR STOLEN GOODS 

When the thief has his hand cut off and in returning the amount he stole, the 
balance shall be a debt on him of he is well-to-do, but if he is poor that balance 
shall not be a debt on him. However whatever circumstances he is in, the 
balance shall always be a debt on him if the total amount he stole is such that it 
is insufficient to warrant his hand being cut off. 



CHAPTER 38:A Chapter on Judgement and Evidence 

38.01 COURT PROCEDURE 

The onus of proving an allegation is upon the plaintiff. If the plaintiff fails to prove 
his allegation and the defendant denies the charge, the defendant must take an 
oath to clear himself. The taking of an oath cannot be considered until it has 
been confirmed that some transaction has taken place between the litigants or 
when there is a strong suspicion that a transaction has taken place between the 
parties. This is the manner in which the judges of Medina conducted their cases. 
Umar b. Abd al-Aziz has said, "Problems arise for people in proportion to the 
amount of sins they committed". If the defendant should refuse to take the oath to 
clear himself, judgement cannot be given in favour of the plaintiff unless he (the 
plaintiff) takes an oath to buttress his allegation. The form the oath takes is, "Bi- 
llahi-lladhi la ilaha illa huwa", meaning, "I swear by Allah besides whom there is 
no other deity". 

The person taking the oath shall do it standing up at the pulpit of the Prophet 
S.A.W.S. when the value of the property in dispute is at least a quarter of a dinar. 
In places other than Medina the litigant takes an oath in respect of such an 
amount (quarter dinar) in the congregational mosque and at the place most 
respected in it. A non-Muslim shall swear by Allah in a place be venerates. If the 
plaintiff should discover some evidence he was not aware before, after the 
defendant has already taken an oath, judgement is reversed in his favour an 
account of it. But if he was aware of the evidence and failed to bring it before, it is 
rejected. But according to another view it can be accepted. 

In respect of property, judgement can be given in favour of the plaintiff if he is 
able to bring only one witness to testify for him and he himself takes an oath to 
supplement the witness. But this is not acceptable in respect of a marriage, a 
divorce, or over a case which carries a hadd punishment. Also it is not 
acceptable in a case of injuries or homicide, except when the latter involves 
qasamah oaths. Oasamah oaths consists of fifty oaths. According to another 
authority judgement can be given in favour of the plaintiff in respect of injuries 
when one witness is produced and this is supplemented by an oath. 

38.02 TESTIMONY OF WOMEN 

Evidence given by women in inadmissible except in respect of property. The 
weight of evidence given by one hundred women is equal to that given by two 
women only, which in turn equals that of a single man. Such evidence (of 
women) can be accepted along with that of one man or accompanied by an oath, 
so that judgement is then given in favour of the plaintiff over a case which can be 
established by a witness and an oath. 

The evidence of two women only concerning an affair which men cannot be 
conversant with, such as giving birth, the crying of a baby just born and similar 
things, is admissible. 



38.03 REJECTION OF WITNESS BECAUSE OF CHARACTER OR 
RELATIONSHIP 

The evidence of an adversary and a person whose sincerity in his faith is 
doubted is not admissible. 

Only men of integrity can be accepted as witnesses. Also, the evidence of a man 
who has received hadd punishment, or a slave or a child or an infidel, is not 
permitted. 

If a person who received hadd punishment on account of committing fornication 
has repented, his evidence can be accepted except in respect of fornication. 

The evidence of a son in favour of his parents is not permissible and vice versa, 
nor shall the evidence of a husband in favour of his wife be accepted and vice 
versa. The evidence of an upright brother in favour of his brother is permissible. 
The evidence of a person who is known to have lied repeatedly and a person 
who commits mortal sins openly is not permitted. Nor can the evidence of 
somebody who will benefit from his evidence or one who will be defending his 
personal interest be admitted. Further the evidence of a testamentary guardian in 
favour of his orphan cannot be accepted, but his evidence against the orphan 
can be accepted. 

38.04 TESTIFYING TO THE CHARACTER OF A WITNESS 

Women are not permitted to commend people in giving evidence nor are they 
permitted to discredit people in giving evidence. The only acceptable words in 
commending a person to give evidence is to say "Adlun Rida", meaning he is a 
person of integrity. One person is not acceptable whether in respect of 
commendation or in respect of discrediting. 

38.05 TESTIMONY OF MINORS 

The evidence of children is acceptable in respect of injuries before they disperse 
from the place of an incident or before an adult person comes into their company. 

38.06 SALE DISPUTES 

If a seller and buyer disagree concerning the price of the subject matter 
(commodity), the seller shall be required to take an oath then the buyer is forced 
to accept the commodity at the price the seller mentioned. Conversely the buyer 
can take an oath and the contract shall cease to be binding. 

38.07 OWNERSHIP DISPUTES 

If two litigants disagree over something which they were both holding, they are 
required to take an oath, each supporting his claim. The commodity is then 
divided equally between them. And they should produce two evidences 



supporting the conflicting claims. The more dependable one is upheld and 
judgement is given in its favour. But if the strength of the conflicting evidences is 
equal, the two litigants shall swear each supporting his claim and the commodity 
is then divided between them. 

38.08 REVOKED TESTIMONY 

If a witness should recant after judgement has been given based on his 
evidence, he is then ordered to pay damages for the losses incurred through his 
evidence, that is, if he has confessed he committed perjury. That was what the 
companions of Malik stated. 

38.09 WORD OF A DEPUTY (WAKIL) 

38.10 WORD OF A GUARDIAN (WALI) 

If a person alleges that he has returned a commodity over which he has been an 
agent to the principal, or to sell, or if he claims to have given to the principal its 
value, or that he has returned a trust (wadi'ah) to the person who had given it to 
him, or if he has claims to have paid the capital advanced to him to trade with, he 
is to be believed after taking an oath. If a person claims to have delivered a 
message sent through him to third party and the third party denies receiving the 
message, he must produce an evidence to support his claim; failing this he is 
liable to make good the loss. 

A testamentary guardian claiming to have spent an amount on the maintenance 
of his orphan, or to have handed over to them their property, must furnish 
evidence that he has in fact done so. But if they are under his direct custody he is 
to be believed in his claim to have spent an amount in maintaining them, if that 
seems likely. 

38.11 AMICABLE SETTLEMENTS (SULH) 

A compromise is lawful except when it leads to something which is unlawful. It 
can take place upon an admission or a denial. 

38.12 SLAVE WOMAN MARRYING ON IMPRESSION SHE IS FREE 

If a slave woman deceives a man, pretending that she is a freeborn woman, and 
the man marries her on that understanding, then her master is free to take her 
back and to take the value of any child she may have borne by that husband. 
This value is to be calculated on the day the judgement is given. 

38.13 VINDICATING OWNERSHIP OF A SLAVE WOMAN 

If a man should claim that a particular slave woman belongs to him (who has 
given birth to a child) he is entitled to take her value and the value of the child on 
the day the judgement was given in his favour. But according to another view he 



takes the slave-woman herself and the value of the child. Yet again according to 
a third view he is only entitled to her value, unless he prefers the value which he 
can then take from the person who abducted her and who has sold her away. But 
if she is still in the hands of the abductor, then the abductor must be given the 
hadd punishment for fornication, and their issue shall remain a slave along with 
the mother to her true master. 

38.14 VINDICATING OWNERSHIP OF LAND 

If a person recovers a piece of land after it has been developed, he shall pay to 
the developer the value of the development as it stands. If he should refuse to 
pay the value of the development then the person who bought the land shall pay 
to him the value of the land without development. If he should reject that then 
they shall be joint owners of the property, the former owning the value of the 
property before development and the latter owning the value of development. But 
if the land was usurped, the usurper is to be ordered to demolish his building or 
uproot the plants and trees he has planted on the land. But if the usurper likes, 
he can receive the value of the development he effected as a debris and the 
trees he planted as they would be when uprooted after the value of the labour of 
demolishing the building and uprooting the trees has been deducted from value 
of the debris and the uprooted trees. The true owner of the land shall pay nothing 
in respect of those trees which shall have no value after extirpation, or those 
things which shall have no value after the buildings are demolished (such as 
engravings or wall decorations). 

38.15 INCREMENT OF USURPED GOODS 

Besides, a usurper must return the revenue he realised to the true owner from 
anything he usurped. But people who acquire ownership of anything through 
lawful means shall not give back what they gained, if the property turns out to 
have been usurped. 

The offspring of an animal or a slave woman, if in the case of a slave woman the 
baby was not from the new master, shall be taken over by the true owner, when 
he recovers the right to take the mother back from the person who bought them 
or else gained possession of them by some lawful means, but nevertheless 
lawfully. 

If a man abducts a slave woman and then has intercourse with her, if an issue 
results, the child shall be a slave; moreover, such a man shall receive the 
prescribed hadd punishment for adultery or fornication as the case may be. 

38.16 BUILDING REGULATIONS 

(In a house of two storeys) it is the responsibility of the person who owns the 
ground floor to maintain it. It is also his duty to furnish the timber needed for the 
roof. It is also his responsibility to make the rooms on the ground floor stronger 
when they become weak and dilapidated so that it will be secured. Further the 



owner of the ground floor is compelled to maintain his rooms or to sell them to 
someone else who is willing to keep then repaired. For the tradition of the 
Prophet S.A.W.S. says, "Do not harm others; and when you are harmed, do not 
exceed in retaliation the harm done to you". (La darara wa la dirar.) So also a 
person must not harm his neighbour by opening a window in his direction thus 
depriving him of privacy, or by opening a door opposite to his door, or by digging 
in a place that can harm his neighbour even if it is within his own property. 

In a dispute between neighbours the ownership of a wall is given to the person 
who provided the timber or stone in it, thus strengthening it. 

38.17 WATERSUPPLIES 

Surplus water should not be denied to others to force them to desert and leave a 
pasture. Those who dug wells to water their flocks have greater claim to them. 
They must therefore be given the priority to water their own flocks before others. 
After that other people shall be equal in the right to use them. Whoever has a 
spring or well in his land is free to prevent others from using their water, except 
where the well of his neighbour collapses and the neighbour happens to have 
plants which he fears will wither. In such an instance he must not deny his 
neighbour the surplus water. Jurists have differed in their views as to whether he 
can demand payment for the water. 

38.18 ANOTHER BUILDING REGULATION 

It behoves a person not to prevent his neighbour from planting his timber (that is 
the neighbour) next to on his wall. But a person cannot be forced by law to 
accept that. 

38.19 DAMAGE BY ANIMALS 

The damage done by animals during the night shall be the liability of their 
owners. But they shall pay nothing due to damage caused by their animals 
during the day. 

38.20 BANKRUPTCY CLAIMS 

If a person finds his property among the assets of a bankrupt person, he can 
either take its value in relationship to how it stands in ratio to the assets as 
against the liabilities, or he can recover his property if he can identify it. But in the 
event of death he must share the property of his debtor along with other 
creditors. 

38.21 GUARANTEE OF DEBTS 

Anybody who gives a guarantee shall be liable to pay for the loss of or damage 
to the property on respect of which he gave the guarantee. A guarantor shall be 
liable to make payment in the event of his failure to bring the person in respect of 



whom he has given the guarantee unless he stipulated that failure on his part to 
bring the debtor shall not make him liable to pay the debt. 

38.22 TRANSFER OF DEBTS (HAWALA) 

If a creditor agrees to receive payment of a loan he advanced to someone from a 
third party, then he cannot go back to the debtor and demand payment, even if 
the third party becomes bankrupt, except where the third party deceived him. 

An assignment shall be in respect of an original loan, otherwise it is a mere 
guarantee. 

38.23 MORE ON GUARANTEE OF DEBTS AND BANKRUPTCY 

A guarantor shall not be liable to pay the debt of a debtor he guarantees, except 
where the latter is insolvent or absent. 

Further, the moment a debtor dies or becomes bankrupt, all debts on him 
becomes due for payment. But debts others owe him shall not be due for 
payment. 

A slave who is permitted to trade shall not be sold in order to pay his debts with 
the proceeds, nor will the debt be transferred to his master. A debtor is 
imprisoned so that his condition might be known, but a person known to be 
insolvent shall not be imprisoned. 

38.24 APPORTIONMENT (OISMA) OF JOINTLY OWNED 
PROPERTY 

Anything which can be divided without being damaged shall be divided (and each 
of its joint owners given his share in the event of a dispute), such as houses and 
farms. But a thing which cannot be divided easily shall be left intact. It is unlawful 
to divide it. 

In a joint ownership, if one person calls for the division of the property and 
another refuses, the court shall have the power to compel the acceptance of 
division upon the party who rejected it. 

Division by lots can only take place if the articles to be divided are of the same 
type. None of the joint owners shall be given cash as his share (while another 
receives a share in kind). 

When it comes to dividing two articles of unequal value, the joint owners shall 
agree between themselves that the person to whom the more valuable 
commodity goes shall compensate the person to whom the less valuable article 
goes. 

38.25 FUNCTION OF A TESTAMENTARY GUARDIAN-EXECUTOR 



(WASI) 

38.26 SOUATTERS RIGHTS 

The testamentary guardian of a testamentary guardian is like tiie original 
testamentary guardian. The testamentary guardian is permitted to trade with the 
property of the orphans entrusted to him; he is also permitted to give away in 
marriage their slave girls. If someone appointed an unreliable person as a 
testamentary guardian such a person is to be removed. 

(In the event of death) the priorities in disposing of the deceased's property are 
as follows. In the first place, the shrouds are bought, then debts are paid; after 
wills are executed the rest of the estate in then distributed to those entitled to it 
as inheritance. 

If a person possesses a house in the presence of another for ten years, it shall 
then be taken as his own property. If the latter person subsequently claims it, and 
was present and aware of the situation and does not show any genuine reason 
for his silence, the court shall not give it to the claimant. But 'hiyazah' or the kind 
of possession which subsequently confers ownership cannot be valid within ten 
years in respect of relatives and in-laws. 

38.27 BEOUESTS 

It is not lawful for a sick person to make an admission that he owes one of his 
heirs a debt, or to admit that the heir has paid him a certain debt. 

If a man made a will that pilgrimage shall be performed on his behalf, such a will 
is to be executed. But a will for alms to be given is more favourable to Maliki 
jurists. 

If a person hired to perform pilgrimage on behalf of another dies before reaching 
the holy land, he shall be paid wages in proportion to the distance he covered. 
The rest of the money is then returned to the rightful owners, and whatever he 
spent shall be part of his wages. 

But if the agreement entered upon with the person hired to perform pilgrimage 
was that he shall have nothing until after having performed the pilgrimage, then 
the total amount given to him must be returned to the heirs of the person on 
behalf of whom the pilgrimage was to be performed. Those who hired him on 
behalf of the family of the deceased shall be liable to pay that amount. (If the 
person hired was able to perform the pilgrimage) he shall return the remainder of 
the money (to the heirs of the person on behalf of whom the pilgrimage was 
performed). 



CHAPTER 39: A Chapter on Inheritance 

39.01 LIST OF HEIRS 

Only ten categories of men may inherit. Tiiese are: (1) a son, (2) tiie son's son, 
and so on to tiie youngest generation born; (3) tiie fatiier; (4) tiie grandfatiier and 
so on to tiie oldest generation alive; (5) a brother; (6) the son of a brother, and so 
on to the youngest generation born of that line; (7) the paternal uncle and (8) his 
son, and so on to youngest generation born of that line; (9) the husband; and 
(10) the person who set free a slave - in respect of the slave, that is. 

In respect of women only seven can inherit: (1) a daughter; (2) the daughter of 
the son; (3) the mother; (4) the grandmother; (5) a sister; (6) a wife; and (7) a 
lady who set free a slave. 

39.02 HUSBAND 

The inheritance of a husband upon the death of his wife, if she did not leave 
behind a son or the son of a son, shall be one-half of the total estate. But if she 
leaves behind a son or the son of a son from the husband or someone else, his 
share shall be one-quarter of the net estate. 

39.03 WIFE 

The wife herself shall inherit from her deceased husband one-quarter of the 
estate if he did not leave behind a son or the son of a son. But if he has a son or 
a grandson from her or another wife she shall take one-eight of the estate. 

39.04 MOTHER 

The inheritance of a mother from her son shall be one-third if he did not leave 
behind a son or a grandson or two brothers or more. This case shall be different 
under two circumstances, that is, in respect of the wife and parents. Under such 
circumstances, the wife shall have one-quarter and the mother one-third of what 
is left and the residue shall go to the father. Under a different circumstance, the 
mother shall have one-third except where the 'awl' formula diminishes her share 
or where the deceased has a son or a grandson or two brothers or more. Under 
such a circumstance the mother shall have one-sixth. 

39.05 FATHER 

The share of a father from his son, if the latter happens to be the only child and 
without issue, shall be the whole property. 

But if the deceased has a son or a grandson, the father's share shall be one-sixth 
of the estate. But if he has no son and grandson, the share of the father shall be 
one-sixth and, when those who participated with him are given their share, he 
shall take the rest of the property. 



39.06 SON 

The share of a son from his deceased father is the whole estate if he is alone, or 
he can take the whole estate after those entitled to shares are given their share, 
such as the wife, the two parents, the grandfather and the grandmother. The 
status of the son's son is the same as that of the son when there is no other son. 
But if the heirs consist of a son and a daughter, then to the male you give the 
share of two females. That arrangement shall also be followed when there are 
numerous daughters as well as when they are small in number. They will inherit 
the whole estate in this manner, or what is left of it after the share of those who 
shares has been taken away. The son's son assumes the status of his father 
when that father is absent, as far as inheritance and the creation of impediments 
to succession are concerned. 

39.07 DAUGHTERS 

The share of a single daughter of an estate when she is alone is half the estate. 
When they are two or more, they take two-thirds; no matter what their number is 
they cannot have anything above two-thirds. 

39.08 SON'S AND DAUGHTER'S 

A The daughter of a son of the deceased has the status of the daughter of the 
deceased himself, when the deceased left no daughter. Similarly the daughters 
of a son assume the status of the daughters of the deceased, if the deceased 
himself lacks daughters. When the deceased is to be inherited his own daughter 
and the daughter of his son, his own daughter shall have half the estate and the 
daughter of his son one-sixth of it. And these make up two-thirds. This 
arrangement shall be followed, no matter how numerous the daughters of the 
son happen to be; they cannot have more than one-sixth when they are not 
accompanied by a son. What is left is for the agnates. But if the daughters of the 
deceased happen to be two in number, the daughter of a son shall have nothing 
from the estate except when they have in their midst a brother. In that case what 
is left after the share of the daughters shall be shared between them. And the 
division shall award the grandson the share of two females. That shall also be 
the case of the son below them; the estate shall be between him and them. It 
shall also be the case if the daughters of a son inherited along with the daughter 
the one-sixth left and beneath them there happen to be the daughters of a son or 
a son happens to be beneath them. The estate shall be between him and his 
sisters or between him and those above him, that is, his aunts. And this 
precludes those who inherited two-thirds that is the daughters of a son. 

39.09 FULL AND CONSANGUINE SISTERS 

The share of a germane sister shall be one-half of the estate. If they happens to 
be two or more, they shall take two-thirds of the estate. If there happen to be 
many brothers and sisters, whether full brothers and sisters or half brothers and 
sisters, they shall take the whole of the estate and share it, giving to a male the 



shares of two females. That shall be the procedure whether they are few in 
number or numerous. The sisters of the deceased when they inherit along with 
the daughters, have the status of agnates; they inherit what is left, but they are 
not given any specific shares when inheriting along with daughters. There shall 
be no share in an estate for brothers and sisters of the deceased when the father 
of the deceased himself is present or when a son exists or when the son of a son 
exists. Half brothers in absence of full brothers have the status of full brothers 
and sisters. 

When in the division of an estate a germane sister or consanguine sister exists, 
the germane sister shall take half the estate and to the remaining consanguine 
sisters you give one-sixth of the estate. But if the germane sisters are two in 
number, the consanguine sisters shall be given nothing, except when they are 
accompanied by a brother. In such an instance, they take the residue which they 
share by giving a brother the share of two sisters. 

39.10 UTERINE BROTHER'S AND SISTER'S 

The inheritance of a uterine sister or a uterine brother is equal and shall be one- 
sixth of each one. But if they are many, they take a third of the estate between 
them, which they divide equally, the share of the male being equal to that of the 
female. But the presence of a son or his sons or father or paternal grandfather 
and a brother shall preclude uterine sisters and brothers from inheriting. 

39.11 FULL AND CONSANGUINE BROTHERS 

A brother shall inherit the whole of the estate if he is alone whether he is 
germane or consanguine. A brother and a sister or more, whether they are 
germane or consanguine, take the whole estate which they divide by giving to the 
male the share of two females. If this is a brother (coexists and) and specific 
Our'anic sharer, the share of those with a specific share is taken out first and the 
rest is given to (the former). Similarly, what is left is taken by brothers and sisters 
which is divided by giving to the male the share of two females. But if nothing is 
left, they cannot have anything, except where those with a prescribed share 
include uterine brothers who have already taken one-third, and there is left a 
germane brother or male siblings or male and female with them who are 
germane. Under such circumstances all the uterine brothers have to share their 
one-third with the germane siblings, and they share it equally. This kind of case is 
referred to as the 'mushtarikah'. 

But if the siblings who remain are consanguine brothers they do not share with 
the uterine brothers, since they cannot be said to be sharing the same mother. 
But if the person who remains is a sister or sisters - germane or consanguine - 
they will then share the estate in accordance with the principle of 'awl' - that is to 
say everyone will receive her Our'anic share. If on the other hand there exists 
one uterine brother or sister, then this cannot be the case of mushtarikah. Then 
the residue should go to brothers and sisters whether they are males alone, or 
males and females. But if they are sisters alone, germane or consanguine, they 



should receive their normal Our'anic shares, in which case the doctrine of awl 
should be applied. 

39.12 NEPHEWS 

The case of the consanguine brother is exactly the same as that of the germane 
brother in the absence of the latter, except in the case of mushtarikah. Also the 
son of a brother is like the brother in the absence of the brother whether he is 
germane or consanguine. 

The son of a uterine brother does not inherit. 

39.13 EXCLUSION OF HEIRS 

A germane brother excludes a consanguine brother, who has precedence over to 
the son of a germane brother. Similarly the son of a germane brother takes 
precedence over the son of a consanguine brother. And the son of a 
consanguine brother excludes a consanguine paternal uncle. Further the 
consanguine paternal uncle excludes the son of a germane paternal uncle. 
Further, the son of a germane paternal uncle excludes the son of a consanguine 
paternal uncle. This is so since the nearer excludes the more remote. 

39.14 NON-HEIRS 

39.15 MORE EXCLUDED HEIRS 

The children of sisters, whatever the strength of the blood-tie, do not inherit, nor 
do the offspring of daughters. The same rule applies to the daughters of the 
brother, whatever the strength of the blood-tie, and to the daughters of the 
paternal uncle. Furthermore, the maternal grandfather does not inherit, nor does 
the paternal uterine uncle. Similarly, a slave or anyone not completely 
emancipated cannot inherit. 

Nor can there be mutual right of inheritance between a Muslim and a non- 
Muslim. The following persons also do not inherit: the son of the uterine brother, 
the maternal grandfather, the mother of the mother's father, the father (that is the 
deceased's father). 

Also uterine brothers do not inherit if they coexist with the paternal grandfather, 
nor can they inherit in the presence of the agnates descendant, male or female. 
The siblings also do not inherit in the presence of the paternal grandfather. 

39.16 IMPEDIMENT OF CRIME 

The heir who caused the death of the deceased intentionally does not inherit in 
the estate nor in the blood-wit, nor can he inherit in the blood-wit in the case of 
an accidental killing, but he can inherit from the estate. 



39.17 EFFECT OF EXCLUSION 

Whoever is disqualified from iniieriting from an estate cannot iiimself exclude 
otiiers. 

39.18 INHERITANCE BY SPOUSE DIVORCED OR MARRIED IN 
LAST ILLNESS 

A woman repudiated tiiree times by iier iiusband wiio is in iiis deatii sickness 
siiall inherit the husband if he dies in that sickness, but the husband himself 
cannot inherit her. Similarly she can still inherit him, even if it was a single 
repudiation, if he happens to die from that illness, and even if she has completed 
her iddah period. In the event of a person in good health repudiating his wife 
once, there shall be mutual inheritance between them should either of them die 
before she completes the period of iddah. But there can be no mutual inheritance 
should either of them die after she completed the iddah period. 

Where a man in his death sickness marries a woman and if either should die, 
there can be no mutual inheritance. 

39.19 GRANDMOTHERS 

The mother's mother is entitled to one-sixth of the net estate; so is the father's 
mother. But if they coexist, then they share the one-sixth. But when the mother's 
mother is nearer in degree then she is given priority, because the share is given 
to her by the text. 

But where the paternal grandmother is nearer in degree, both shall share the 
one-sixth equally. 

According to Malik, more than two grandmothers cannot inherit. He allows only 
the father's mother and the mother's mother, howsoever high. 

However it is reported that Zaid Ibn Thabit allowed three grandmothers to inherit, 
that is, one from the side of the mother and two from the father's side. They were 
the mother's mother, the father's mother and the father's father's mother. But it 
has not been noticed as part of the practice of the rightly guided caliphs to allow 
more than two grandmothers to inherit. 

39.20 PATERNAL GRANDFATHER 

Where the father's father is the sole surviving heir, he takes the whole property. If 
(there is also) a son or the son's son then he takes one-sixth. Further, if there are 
sharers other than brothers and sisters, he is entitled to one-sixth; and if there is 
any residue left he takes it. But if in addition to the sharers there exist siblings, 
then the father's father is given one of three alternatives, and he is free to take 
whichever is more advantageous to him. Either he shares with the siblings, or he 
takes one-sixth of the net estate, or one-third of the residue. But if there are no 



others with him other than siblings, then he shares along with them as a brother 
along with two brothers or four sisters. But if they are more in number then he 
takes one-third where there are siblings, except where it is more advantageous 
to him if he participates as a brother. 

Where there are consanguine brothers the father's father alive in the absence of 
germane brothers, they are all counted as germane. If all are present then the 
consanguine brother is counted in the distribution of the estate, and when shares 
have been apportioned the consanguine brother's share is given to the germane 
brother, so as to reduce the father's father's share, since the germane brothers 
have a better right than the consanguine brothers. But where the father's father 
and a germane sister, a consanguine brother of a consanguine sister or a brother 
and a consanguine sister are alive, in this case the germane sister will take her 
one-half from the combined shares of the brothers and sisters, and the residue is 
shared between the consanguine brothers and sisters. It should be noted here 
that the presence of the father's father cannot raise the shares of the 
consanguines, except in the case of 'al-gharra', which will be explained later on. 

39.21 PATRON (MAWLA) 

The master who has set free a slave is entitled to the whole estate of his freed 
slave, if he is the only surviving heir, whether the patron is male or female. But if 
the patron and also the prescribed sharers are alive, then these sharers take 
their shares and the residue is given to the patron. A patron does not inherit in 
the presence of an agnates residual heir. However, he is preferred to the 
cognates, who are not allotted shares in the Holy Our'an. 

Women patrons cannot inherit their clients, except those they emancipated 
themselves or through the agency of those they emancipated themselves 
through birth or emancipation. 

39.22 ACCOMMODATION BY REDUCTION ('AWL) 

Where there exist a number of those having prescribed shares, and their 
fractional shares add up to more than a unit, their shares are reduced 
proportionately, and the estate is divided by employing the principle of 'awl'. 

The principle of 'awl' does not allow the share of the sister when she and the 
father's father are alive except in the case of 'al-gharra'. 

This is where a woman dies leaving her husband, her mother, her germane or 
consanguine sister and her father's father. In this case the husband is entitled to 
a half, the mother takes one-third and the grandfather takes one-sixth. Now when 
the estate is exhausted, through the principle of 'awl', the sister takes a half 
which is three; this is added to the share of the father's father. The sum total of 
the two shares is then divided between the father's father and the sister, giving 
one-third to the sister and two-thirds to the father's father. Thus, the fractional 
shares add up to twenty-seven shares. 



CHAPTER 40: A Chapter summarising some aspects 

of Prayer etc. 

40.01 WUDU 

The minor ritual ablution (wudu) for prayer is obligatory, and word wudu is 
derived from wada'ah (cleanliness). But rinsing the mouth, sniffing up water and 
rubbing the ears are all part of the tradition (sunnah) of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), 
while brushing the teeth is highly desirable. But rubbing upon the boots (khuffs) is 
a dispensation and a concession. 

40.02 GHUSL 

The taking of a ritual bath (ghusl) on account of janabah (a state of ritual 
impurity), menstruation and parturition are also obligatory, while the ritual bath on 
account of the Friday congregational prayer is part of the prophetic tradition 
(sunnah). However the ritual bath on the occasion of the two Muslim festival 
prayers is desirable. A ritual bath on the occasion of a non-Muslim embracing 
Islam is obligatory, since he was in a state of ritual impurity (janabah). Further the 
washing of a dead Muslim is part of the prophetic tradition. 

40.03 THE FIVE SALATS 

The five daily prayers are obligatory, as is the takbirat al-ihram (the saying of 
Allahu Akbar, accompanied by raising the two hands upon the point of starting a 
prayer). However the other takbirs in a ritual prayer are part of the prophetic 
tradition. Beginning a prayer coupled with intention is obligatory. The recitation of 
the Fatihah (the first chapter of the Our'an) in prayer is obligatory, but any 
addition to that is part of the prophetic tradition and obligatory as well (sunnah 
wajib). Standing erect (qiyam), bowing (ruku) and prostration (sujud) in the 
course of ritual prayer are all obligatory. The first sitting after the first two rak'ahs 
is a prophetic tradition, while the second sitting (at the end of the final rak'ah) is 
obligatory. The utterance of "as-salamu alaikum" (literally peace be on you) to 
bring a prayer to a close is obligatory, but the accompanying act of turning the 
head to the right is a sunnah (prophetic tradition). It is obligatory for a worshipper 
to avoid uttering any word other than that which is part of the prayer. The two 
tashahhuds or tahiyyahs (the formula a worshipper utters before closing the 
prayer) are sunnahs. In the dawn prayer, the Qunut (the formula known as Qunut 
or obedience to God) is meritorious though not a sunnah. Facing the Qiblah (i.e. 
the direction of the Ka'bah in Mecca) is obligatory. 

40.04 OTHER SALATS 

The Friday congregational prayer and hurrying to the mosque for its performance 
are obligatory. The 'witr' prayer (the one rak'ah performed after the Isha prayer) is 
an obligatory sunnah, as are likewise the prayers on the occasions of the Id 
festivals and an eclipse of the moon, as well as prayers for rain. The prayer of 



fear is obligatory (wajib); God IVIost High has enjoined it, for it is a deed through 
which worshippers hope to achieve the virtue which accrues from praying in 
congregation. 

40.05 GHUSL BEFORE ENTERING MECCA 

Taking a bath (ghusl) upon the occasion of entering the city of Mecca is 
desirable. 

40.06 JOINING SALATS 

A concession is granted to worshippers to perform the Isha prayer immediately 
after the Maghrib prayer on rainy nights. the orthodox caliphs indeed did so. 
Such a combination of prayers at Mount Arafat and Muzdalifah is an obligatory 
sunnah. A traveller on a serious journey is also permitted to benefit from this 
concession of linking together two prayers. A sick person who fears loss of 
consciousness can also link two prayers. A sick person can also benefit from this 
concession for some other impelling reason, to lesson the rigours of his 
condition. 

40.07 FAST AND SALAT ON A JOURNEY 

Suspension of the fast is a concession while travelling. But it is obligatory in order 
to benefit from this concession to perform fewer rak'ahs while on a journey. 

40.08 SUPEREROGATORY SALATS 

The two dawn rak'ahs known as rak'ata l-fajr are desirable, but according to 
some authorities they rank as sunnah. But the forenoon prayer (salat ad-Duha) is 
supererogatory, as likewise are special rak'ahs performed during Ramadan, 
which are highly meritorious. Anybody who performs them out of piety and a 
desire to earn reward from God, shall be forgiven his past sins. Rak'ahs 
performed during the nights of Ramadan, as well as other months, are highly 
recommended supererogatories. 

40.09 BURIAL 

Praying over dead Muslims is obligatory, but once performed by certain members 
of the Muslim community, other members are relieved of the duty. Similarly the 
disposing of bodies through burial, and washing them are obligatory sunnahs. 

40.10 KNOWLEDGE 

In the same way, the seeking of knowledge is a communal duty (i.e. once 
attended to by some members, the duty lapses on others), except such 
knowledge as cannot be dispensed with by the individual in his private life. 

40.11 JIHAD AND FORTS 



The duty on the Muslim community to fight a holy war is a general one. But once 
attended to by a section of the community, the rest are relieved of the duty. 
However, when the enemy attack a Muslim settlement, the duty to fight is 
incumbent upon everybody if the enemy are twice the number of Muslims. 

The manning of the frontier posts of the Muslim state in order to block the enemy 
advance, and taking whatever precautions are necessary for the security of the 
state, are obligatory. Those who undertake this relieve the rest of the Muslim 
community of the duty. 

40.12 FASTING 

Fasting during the month of Ramadan is obligatory. I'tikaf, that is, retirement into 
the mosque for the purpose of worship, is a supererogatory duty. Also voluntary 
fasts during i'tikaf are desirable. Other desirable acts of worship include fasting 
on the day of Ashura (the tenth of Muharram), fasting during the months of Rajab 
and Sha'ban, and on the day the pilgrims stand on the Mount Arafat, as well as 
on the day of Tarwiyah (eighth of Dhul-Hijjah). The merit accruing from 
observance of a fast on the day of Arafat by worshippers other than pilgrims is 
greater than the merit pilgrims achieve through the observance of a fast on that 
day. 

40.13 ZAKAT 

The payment of zakat in respect of money, farm produce and livestock is 
obligatory, while zakat payable at the end of Ramadan fasting is a sunnah - it is 
ordained by the Messenger of God (peace and blessing of God be upon him). 

40.14 PILGRIMAGE 

The performance of the pilgrimage is obligatory, while lesser pilgrimage (umrah) 
is an obligatory sunnah. The utterance while on pilgrimage of the talbiyah ("I 
respond to your call O God") is also an obligatory sunnah. Also, making the 
intention (resolve) to perform the pilgrimage when starting it is obligatory. So also 
is the tawaf al-ifadah (the circumambulation of the Ka'bah performed after 
Arafat). The jogging between the hills of Safa and Marwah is also obligatory, and 
the tawaf al-ifadah is more important than the latter. Tawaf al-wada - that is the 
farewell tawaf - is a sunnah. Spending the night at Mina after spending the day at 
Arafah is a sunnah. The linking of the Afternoon and Evening prayers at Arafah is 
obligatory. Staying at Arafah is also obligatory. It is an obligatory sunnah to 
spend the night at Muzdalifah. Staying at the Mash'ar al-Haram is also enjoined. 
The pelting with pebbles the effigies of Satan is an obligatory sunnah. Similarly, 
shaving the head and kissing the Black Stone are obligatory sunnahs. Taking a 
bath upon donning the pilgrim's garb is a sunnah. It is also a sunnah to perform 
two rak'ahs upon the commencement of the various pilgrimage rituals. It is a 
sunnah to take a bath at Arafah, while taking a bath for the purpose of entering 
the city of Mecca is recommended. 



40.15 SALATINCOMMON 

Prayers offered in congregation are twenty-seven times greater in merit tiian 
prayers offered alone. Tiie prayer performed by an individual at the Ka'bah or in 
the Prophet's mosque is of greater merit than prayers performed in any other 
mosque; however there is a divergence of opinion as to which of the two 
mosques is of greater merit and by how many times. Nevertheless, there is no 
disagreement as to the fact that a prayer performed in the Prophet's Mosque is 
one thousand times more meritorious than prayers performed in any other 
mosque apart from the Ka'bah. But the people of Medina hold the opinion that 
prayer in the Prophet's mosque is of greater merit than that performed at the 
Ka'bah by less than one thousand times. But all this refers to obligatory prayers; 
as for the supererogatory prayers it is more meritorious to perform them in one's 
own home. 

As far as the people of Mecca are concerned, it is more meritorious for them to 
perform acts of supererogation through additional rak'ahs rather than through 
circumambulation (tawaf) of the Ka'bah. But for non-residents of Mecca it is a 
preferable to perform acts of supererogation through tawaf rather than through 
additional rak'ahs since the opportunity to perform the tawaf is rare as far as they 
are concerned. 

40.16 LOOKING AT WOMEN 

It is incumbent upon Muslims to avoid looking at women who are strangers to 
them. The first look, however, which is inadvertent, is not an offence. Nor is there 
any offence in looking at a woman, the looking at whom does not excite any 
passions. Nor is there any offence in looking at a young woman through 
necessity, such as testifying against her or for a similar reason. But (as far as 
looking at a woman is concerned) a dispensation is given to those courting them. 

40.17 UNJUSTSPEECH 

It is obligatory that a person should not tell lies, nor commit perjury or lewdness 
and slander. Neither should a person sow the seeds of dissension nor commit 
any other indecent act. The Prophet - peace and blessing of God be upon him - 
said, "Whoever believes in God and the Last Day, let him utter decent words or 
else keep quiet". The Prophet also said, "It is decent for the faithful person to 
keep aloof from that which does not concern him". 

God, glorified be He, has prohibited illegal gain, such as that obtained through 
extortion, misappropriation, cheating, usury, corruption, gambling, transactions 
involving risks, adulteration, deceit and duping. 

40.18 TAKING A MUSLIM'S LIFE OR PROPERTY 

God, Glorified be He, has prohibited the shedding of the blood of Muslims; so 
also has he prohibited assault on their property except for a lawful cause. 



It is not lawful to shed the blood of a Muslim except when he commits apostasy, 
or when he commits adultery, or when he kills a person and this is not in 
retaliation, or when he becomes an outlaw, or when he renounces the faith. 

40.19 SEXUAL AND RELATED RESTRICTIONS 

One must keep away from infringing upon other people's property. person or 
body. Moreover, you must not allow your legs to carry you to a place which it is 
unlawful for you to go to. Do not allow your pudenda or any part of your body to 
come into contact with anything which is unlawful to you. 

Allah Most High said, "And those who guard their chastity; except with their 
wives, and the (captive) whom their right hand possess, for (them) they are not to 
be blamed. But those who trespass beyond this are transgressors". (Our'an 
70:29-31). Again, God, Glorified be He, has prohibited the committing of indecent 
acts whether overtly or covertly. God has also prohibited coming into contact with 
women when they are menstruating or during childbirth. God has also prohibited, 
in marriage, those categories of women already mentioned. 

40.20 DOING LICIT AND AVOIDING DOUBTFUL THINGS 

Further, God has enjoined the eating of lawful foods; it is not lawful to eat 
anything which is indecent. It is not lawful to wear a dress or ride on anything, or 
dwell in a house, unless these are lawfully acquired. Besides, anything you use 
must be lawfully acquired. Apart from these there are acts whose legality is 
uncertain. Whoever avoids them is safe, but whoever does them is like a 
shepherd grazing his flock by the side of a prohibited area, which may likely 
trespass on it. 

40.22 FORBIDDEN MEAT 

God, glorified be He, has forbidden eating the flesh of an animal which died of 
itself, as well as blood and the flesh of swine. He has also prohibited the eating of 
an animal dedicated to a deity other than God. Also prohibited is the eating of the 
flesh of an animal which died due to a fall from a hill, or one which died due to 
beating with a stick or some other weapon. So also, an animal which died due to 
strangulation with a rope or something similar, (all these are forbidden to 
Muslims) except when compelled by necessity. In such cases, a special 
dispensation is given to Muslims to eat the flesh of animals which died due to any 
of the reasons mentioned above, when such animals reached a point beyond 
which there can be no survival, in which case there can be no formal slaughter of 
them. 

For there is no harm for a person moved by necessity to eat the flesh of an 
animal which died of itself until he is satisfied, and he can even take some along 
as provision for future use; when he is no longer in need of such provision he can 
then throw it away. Moreover, there is no harm in using the skins of such animals 
when they are tanned. However, he cannot pray upon them nor can they be 



objects of sale. Further, there is no harm in praying upon the skins of wild beasts 
when they are formally slaughtered. Such skins can also be sold. It is lawful to 
make use of the wool and the hair of an animal which died of itself, and that part 
of it which is removed when alive. But it is preferred that such things be washed. 
However, feathers of dead birds and horns of dead animals, their claws and teeth 
must not be used, and it is detestable to use the tusks of elephants. The use of 
anything coming from a swine is prohibited. However, a dispensation is given in 
using its hair. 

40.23 FORBIDDEN DRINK 

God, Glorified he He, has forbidden the taking of alcoholic beverages whether in 
small or large quantities. Also prohibited was drinking by Arabs of fermented 
dates. Moreover the Prophet (peace be upon him) has explained that if any drink 
is capable of intoxicating when taken in large quantities, then even a small 
amount of it is prohibited. Any drink which depresses the intellect and causes 
intoxication is alcoholic. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said that God who 
forbids the drinking of alcohol, has also prohibited the sale of it. The Prophet 
(peace be upon him) also prohibited two types of mixing of drinks. The first type 
is to mix (dates and grapes) to ferment (and becomes wine). The second mixing 
prohibited is for the drinks themselves to be mixed in a gourd or pitcher upon 
drinking them. 

40.24 OTHER FORBIDDEN MEAT 

Besides the Prophet (peace be upon him) has prohibited eating the flesh of all 
those animals which have upper front teeth, from amongst wild beasts. He has 
also prohibited eating the flesh of domesticated donkeys, and this includes the 
flesh of horses and mules. And this is in respect of what Allah, Blessed and 

Exalted be He, said, " so that you can mount them and they are 

ornaments" (16:8). Moreover, they are not slaughtered, with the exception of wild 
asses. There is no offence in eating the flesh of birds of prey and this includes all 
those having talons. 

40.25 TREATMENT OF PARENTS 

Obedience to parents is part of the obligatory actions. This is so even if they 
happen to be sinners or polytheists. The offspring must address them gently and 
live cordially with them. But an offspring shall not obey his parents if they order 
him to commit acts of disobedience to God, as God - Glorified and Exalted be He 
- said, "It is the duty of a believer to ask God's forgiveness for his believing 
parents and to fraternise with other believers and give them good counsel. 

40.26 TREATMENT OF FELLOW MUSLIMS 

Moreover, nobody achieves the true essence of faith until he loves for his brother 
Muslim what he loves for himself". That was a hadith (a tradition) reported from 
the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing of God be upon him. It is also 



incumbent upon a Muslim to visit iiis relatives. Also it is part of the duty of a 
Muslim to a fellow-Muslim to greet him when he meets him, to visit him when he 
is sick, and to say to him "Yarhamakallah", i.e. "May Allah have Mercy upon you", 
when he sneezes. Further, a Muslim shall attend the funeral of a fellow Muslim 
when the latter dies, and must not backbite him when he is about or absent, 
whether secretly or openly. He must not keep aloof from him for more than three 
nights. The mere act of saying "as-salamu alaikum" puts an end to your 
aloofness towards a fellow Muslim. Besides, it is not proper for a Muslim to 
ignore a fellow Muslim after having said to him "as-salamu alaikum" i.e. peace be 
upon you. 

The only occasion when a person keeping aloof from a fellow Muslim can be 
lawful is when such a Muslim is an innovator in religious affairs or commits mortal 
sins openly, while the former is not in a position to punish the culprit or preach to 
him, or even if the former preached to him the culprit did not accept or utilise the 
admonition. 

In respect of a person who introduces innovations in religious affairs, or a person 
who commits mortal sins openly, mentioning their characters to a third party shall 
not constitute a slander. Further it is also not a slander in respect of a person 
consulted, to reveal their characters to persons who were about to marry them or 
engage in some social dealings with them or some other similar affairs. Also, it is 
not slanderous to mention the bad character of a witness in a court of law, in 
order that the court should refuse to accept the evidence the person gives or for 
some other similar case. 

It is magnanimous for a person to forgive someone who wronged him, and to 
give to those who denied him, and to visit those who neglected him. The sum 
total of ethical conduct is derived from four traditions of the Prophet - P.B.U.H. 

(The first tradition) is when the Prophet P.B.U.H. said, "Whoever believes in God 
and the Last Day, let him either speak decent words or keep quiet". (The second 
tradition) is where the Prophet said, "It is part of the good qualities of a Muslim's 
faith to keep away from that which does not concern him". (The third tradition) is 
when someone asked counsel from the Prophet and the Prophet summarised his 
advice in the following words, "Never lose your temper". (The fourth tradition) is 
when the Prophet said, "A Muslim shall wish for a fellow Muslim what he wishes 
for himself". 

40.27 THINGS NOT TO LISTEN TO 

It is not lawful for a Muslim intentionally to listen to anything not morally sound, 
nor to enjoy the speech of a woman not lawful to him, nor to listen to 
amusements, songs. 

40.28 OUR'AN RECITATION 

Or to read the Holy Our'an in a sing-song manner. It is incumbent upon a Muslim 



to show reverence for the Book of God, i.e. the Holy Our'an, and to recite it in a 
calm and sedate manner, that is, a manner one is sure shall please God and 
bring the reciter closer to Him, while at the same time understanding fully the 
meaning of the Our'anic text one reads. 

40.29 COMMANDING THE ACCEPTABLE 

Further it is obligatory upon a Muslim ruler to command those under him to do 
good and refrain from evil deeds. 

Similarly, it is the duty of everybody who is able to command the doing of good 
and prohibit evil deeds. Those not able to enforce this shall resort to exhortation. 
In the event of a person's inability even to exhort he shall then uphold good 
conduct and abhor evils deed. 

40.30 RIGHT INTENTION 

It is the duty of every Muslim to make his motive for every good word he utters 
and every good deed he does the hope of reward from God himself. When words 
and deeds are not for the sake of God himself, such words and deeds are 
rejected by God. Moreover, hypocrisy is little short of polytheism. 

40.31 REPENTANCE (TAWBA) 

It is also obligatory for a Muslim to repent for all his sins, without going back to 
them. The word 'israr' means persisting in sinning and determining to go back to 
it. It is a part of repentance to return property taken by force to its rightful owners, 
to shun everything which is forbidden, to resolve never to go back to sinful acts, 
and to seek the forgiveness of his Lord, i.e. God. A Muslim shall, besides, hope 
for the mercy of God and dread His punishment. He must also remember His 
bounty upon him and offer thanks for His kindness to him through the 
performance of those deeds He made obligatory and the avoidance of those acts 
He detests. He shall also seek to come closer to his Lord through the 
performance of supererogatory acts of worship. And all the duties he neglected, 
let him perform them immediately, and hope that Allah would accept them. He 
shall also repent for having neglected them. In addition, let him seek refuge in 
God over his difficulties in the course of his life and his attempts to conduct his 
affairs, realising that God alone can grant him success and make him prosper. 
He shall always think along these lines whether in prosperity or adversity. He 
must never despair of the mercy of God. 

40.32 MEDITATION 

Pondering over the power of God is the key to true worship. 

Seek God's help through remembrance of death and what shall come after it. 
Think also over God's bounty upon you. Think also over God's postponement in 
punishing you, and His punishment upon others for their sins. Think also over 



your past misdeeds and your fate. Make haste over this, for it is likely that your 
fate is near. 



CHAPTER 41 : A Chapter on Good Appearance, 
Circumcision, Shaving of IHair, Dressing and such 

things. 

41.01 PERSONAL UPKEEP (FITRA) 

Good appearance consists of five tiiings, namely, tiie clipping of the moustache, 
that is, trimming of hair surrounding the mouth and not cutting it off - God knows 
best; the paring of the nails; the plucking of the armpits; and the shaving off of 
the pubic region. There is no harm, however,in shaving off the hair on other parts 
of the body. Gircumcision for men is a tradition (sunnah) of the Prophet 
(P.B.U.H.), while for ladies it is a mark of honour. 

41.02 BEARDS 

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) commanded that beards should be left to grow thick and 
should not be clipped. According to Malik there is no harm in clipping a little when 
it is too long. 

41.03 DYINGHAIR 

Some other jurists from among the Companions of the Prophet and the 
generation that came after them said it is reprehensible to colour it black, but this 
is not prohibited. However, there is no harm in colouring the beard with henna or 
'katam' (the latter gives the hair a yellow colour while the former gives it a red 
one). 

41.04 USE OF SILK AND GOLD 

The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) prohibited men from wearing silken clothes, and gold or 
iron rings. There is no harm in wearing rings decorated with silver or having 
sword or Our'an cases decorated with silver, but this does not apply to bridles, 
saddles or knives, nor to other things. 

However, women are allowed to have golden rings but not iron ones. In the 
choice of the finger upon which to wear rings, it is narrated that the left hand is 
preferred, since the right hand is employed in most actions. The wearer of the 
ring shall take it by the right hand and put it on the left. Opinions of jurists differ 
as to the lawfulness of the wearing of 'khazz' material (a mixture of silk and 
wool). Some say it is lawful and others consider it reprehensible. Similarly, it is 
reprehensible to make designs on cloth with khazz except where these are thin 
lines. 

41.05 EXCESS AND DEFECT IN CLOTHING 

Women are forbidden to wear thin clothes which reveal their shapes when they 
go out. A man must not wear oversized clothes out of arrogance or some dress 



out of conceit. A man's clothes must be above his ankles. Doing this keeps his 
cloths cleaner, and this is a greater mark of piety. 

It is prohibited for a person to wrap his body in his blanket in such a way that he 
joins its two ends on the left shoulder and the dress coming from beneath the 
right shoulder - this when he has no underwear. Jurists are at variance as to the 
lawfulness of this when the person is wearing underwear. 

41.06 COVERING PRIVATE PARTS 

Besides, a Muslim shall be ordered to always cover his private parts. The 
wrapper of a believing Muslim shall extend to his shins. The thigh, besides, is 
deemed to be a part of the private parts, although strictly speaking it is not part of 
the private parts. A man must not enter a public bath without pants on. A woman 
must not enter a public bath except out of necessity. Two men or two women 
must not wrap themselves in a single blanket. 

41.07 WOMEN GOING OUT, AND MUSIC 

A woman must not come out into the public unless moved by necessity, such as 
attending the funeral ceremonies of her parents or near relatives, or occasions of 
a similar nature, which are lawful to her. She must not attend a funeral ceremony 
at which professional mourners scream. Nor is it lawful for her to attend 
ceremonies where clarinets and lutes or similar musical instruments are played. 
However, she is permitted to attend weddings were tambourines are played. But 
opinions of jurists differ as to whether it is lawful for her to go a wedding 
ceremony where 'kabar' (a kind of drum) it beaten. 

41.08SEEINGWOMEN 

A man must not seclude himself with a woman other than one whom between 
him and her a bar to marriage exists. But there is no harm in him seeing her for a 
lawful cause such as testifying against her, or other such reasons, or when he 
courts her. However he is permitted to see the face of an elderly woman, for any 
reason. 

41.09 FALSE HAIR AND TATTOOS 

Women are forbidden to attach someone else's hair to their own; they are also 
prohibited from tattooing their body. 

41.10 PUTTING ON FOOTWEAR 

When a person comes to wear boots and shoes let him start with the right foot. 
However, there is no harm in putting shoes on in a standing posture. It is 
however reprehensible to walk about with a single shoe on. 

41.11 IMAGES 



It is reprehensible to make designs on beds, domes, walls, and rings. There is no 
harm in drawing numbers on clothes; however it is preferable to leave it. 



CHAPTER 42: 

42.01 PRAYER BEFORE AND AFTER 

When you eat or drink, it is obligatory upon you to say "In the name of God", and 
you shall take the food or drink with the right hand. When you finish you should 
say, "Praise be to God". 

42.02 VARIOUS DETAILS DURING THE MEAL 

It is preferred that you should lick you hands before you rub it off. It is part of 
table manners that you should apportion one third of your stomach for food, one 
third of it for drink and the last third for breathing. When you eat with others you 
should eat what is in front of you. You must not take a morsel until you have 
finished with the previous one. You must not breath in the vessel when you drink. 
When you breathe you should take away the cup from your mouth. Then you 
bring it back if you like. You must not gulp water but sip it. You must, besides, 
chew your food well before swallowing it. Further, you must clean your mouth 
after eating. If you wash your hand after drinking broth or milk, it is proper. You 
should pick your teeth to remove the bits of food which stick in them. The 
Prophet - peace be upon him - has prohibited eating and drinking with the left 
hand. When you drink in turns, you pass the vessel to the person on your right. It 
is prohibited to blow with the mouth upon food, drink or a book. It is also 
prohibited to drink out of a gold or silver vessel. However, there is no harm in 
drinking while standing. It is not proper for a person who has eaten raw leek, 
garlic or onions, to enter a mosque. Moreover it is reprehensible to eat while 
reclining. It is reprehensible to start eating from the top of the 'tharid' (bread 
soaked in soup). It is prohibited while eating dates to eat two at a time. According 
to some views, this rule only applies when you are eating along with others. 
However, there is no harm in doing that when eating with your family or some 
people you are feeding. While eating dates and such like, there is no harm for 
you to pick the fruit you fancy. 

42.03 WASHING AFTER EATING 

Washing hands before eating is not part of the sunnah (tradition of the Prophet), 
except when they happen to be dirty. One must wash one's hands and mouth 
after eating broth, and must rinse ones mouth after drinking milk. 

It is reprehensible to clean the hand with foodstuff or some leguminous plants, or 
with husk. But in respect of cleaning with husk, opinions differ. 

42.04 GOING TO A WEDDING FEAST 

You must honour invitations to wedding feasts, unless there happen to be some 
merriments or something clearly reprehensible. However it is up to you whether 
to eat or not. But Malik gives a dispensation for those wishing to remain behind if 
the crowd is too large. 



CHAPTER 43: A Chapter on greetings, Permission to 

enter houses, Confiding in a friend, reciting the 

Our'an, supplication (du'a), remembrance of Allah, 

and what to do when embarking on a journey 

43.01 GREETING 

It is obligatory to return a greeting, (that is, to acknowledge it and respond). But it 
is a desirable tradition of the Prophet to greet others first. Greetings shall consist 
of the following words "As-salamu alaikum" (peace be upon you). And in return 
one says, "Wa alaikum us-salam" (upon you be peace). 

Alternatively, the man greeted can say "Salamun alaikum" (peace be upon you), 
as was said to him. On most occasions people end their greetings by invoking 
God's blessings. They say in reply, "Peace be upon you as well, and the mercy 
of God and His blessing". Do not say when replying to a greeting "God's peace 
be upon you". Moreover, if one member of a group performs the greeting, that is 
enough and there is no need for the rest of them to say anything. Similarly, if a 
member of a group replies to a greeting, that shall be sufficient. 

When a rider and walker meet, the duty to greet first is upon the rider. When a 
walker comes upon someone sitting down, the duty to greet first is upon the 
walker. The shaking of hands is a good thing, but Malik considers embracing in a 
greeting reprehensible. However, another jurist Ibn Uyainah says that embracing 
in greeting is permissible. Again, Malik considered reprehensible the kissing of 
hands as a mark of respect, besides he disbelieved the hadith narrated in 
respect of it. 

It is not proper for a Muslim to greet a Jew or a Ghristian first. But if a Muslim 
greets a non-Muslim, he does not attempt to retrieve it. And if a Jew or a 
Ghristian should say "Salamun alaikum" to him, all he says in reply is "alaika". 
One can also say "alaika s-silam" (where 'silam', with the vowel "i" after "s", 
means 'stone'). That used to be said by them to Muslims. 

43.02 ASKING PERMISSION TO ENTER; VISITING THE SICK 

It is obligatory to seek permission before you enter people's houses. You do not 
enter a house in which some people live until you ask for permission up to three 
times. If permission is given to you then enter, otherwise you go back. It is 
meritorious to visit and greet sick people. 

43.03 WHISPERING IN ANOTHER'S COMPANY 

In a company of three people, two of them must not exclude the third and speak 
confidentially to one another. Similarly, in a larger group, one man must not be 
isolated. According to some jurists, that can only be proper with his permission. 



that is, the person isolated. Now, as for migration we mentioned why it should 
take place in a previous chapter. 

43.04 DHIKR (RECOLLECTION OF GOD) 

Mu'adh ibn Jabal has narrated that there is nothing any human being can do 
which can ensure for him protection from God's chastisement more than the 
remembrance of Allah. And Umar has stated that it is more virtuous to remember 
God when you comply with His orders and prohibitions than when you mention 
Him with the and tongue. 

43.05 MORNING AND EVENING PRAYER 

One of the supplications (du'a) of the Messenger of Allah - peace and blessing of 
Allah be upon him - every morning and evening was, "O God we pass through 
the morning with your permission, we also pass through the evening with your 
permission. We live with your permission, we also die with your permission". 

The Prophet also said in the morning, "By Your permission do we rise". And in 
the evening he said, "You control our fate". It is also narrated that another 
supplication of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) is as follows, "O God, out of Your servants 
give me the greatest portion and share of every good You distribute on this day. 
And after it, give me the greatest share of light with which You guide, and the 
greatest share of mercy You spread and the greatest share of sustenance You 
give. Give me the greatest protection from harm and the greatest share of 
forgiveness from sin. Moreover, give me the greatest protection from hardship as 
well as the greatest protection from trouble. Give me, again, the greatest share of 
forgiveness which You bestow by Your mercy. Verily, You have power over all 
things". 

43.06 PRAYER BEFORE SLEEP 

Also, when he came to sleep, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) placed his right palm 
beneath his right cheek and his left palm on his left thigh, and then prayed in the 
following words, "O God, it is by Your permission that I place my side (on my 
bed) and it shall be by Your permission that I shall raise it up. O God if You 
should take my life, forgive me. And if You should release my life protect it by 
that with which You protect the lives of Your virtuous servants. O God, verily, I 
submit my life to You. I take refuge in You for my back, and place my affairs into 
Your hands, and turn my face to You, out of fear of You and hope in You. None 
can escape You, and there is no better refuge than in You. I seek Your 
forgiveness and repent for my sins. I believe in Your Book, which You revealed to 
Your Prophet whom You sent. Forgive me for my past and future wrongs and for 
wrongs I committed openly and those I committed secretly. You are my Lord, 
there is no other deity besides You. O Lord, protect me from Your chastisement 
on the day You raise to life Your servants". 

43.07 A PRAYER WHEN GOING OUT 



It is narrated that when one comes out of one's house, he said the following 
prayer, "O God, verily, I take refuge in You lest I mislead or be misled, or lest I 
should debase or be debased, or lest I should oppress or be oppressed. I also 
take refuge in You lest I fail to understand or be misunderstood". 

43.08 A PRAYER AFTER SALAT 

It is also reported that at the end of each of the five daily prayers, one should 
immediately glorify God thirty-three times, exalt him thirty-three times, and praise 
Him thirty-three times, and complete the hundred with the following prayer, 
"There is but only one God, He has no partner; to Him belongs sovereignty and 
praise, and He has power over all things". 

43.09 A PRAYER AFTER GOING TO THE TOILET 

When you go to the toilet you should say, "Praise be to God who bestowed upon 
me His ease and removed from me His discomfort, and left in me His strength". 
Also, you should take refuge in God from everything you fear. 

43.10 PRAYERS AGAINST DANGER 

When you arrive at a place or when you sit down in a place or when you sleep in 
a place, you say the following prayer, "I seek refuge in the complete words of 
God, from the evil of what He has created". Again when taking refuge you say, "I 
take refuge in the noble face of God, and the complete words of God, beyond 
which neither the obedient nor the disobedient servant can go. I also seek refuge 
in the beautiful attributes of God - those of them I know, and those I do not know, 
from the evil of what He created, fashioned and moulded, and from the evil of 
that which descends from the heaven and that which ascends to it. I also take 
refuge from the evil of what God created in the earth and the evil of what comes 
out of it. Again I seek refuge in God from the trial of night and day, and the day 
and night occurrences, except an occurrence that will bring good with it, O 
Merciful God". It is also said in a prayer, "O God protect me from the evil of every 
creature You are in full control of. Verily my Lord is upon a straight path". 

43.11 ON ENTERING A HOUSE 

It is also considered good for a person entering his house to say, "Thanks be to 
God, there is no power save in Him". 

43.12 DISAPPROVED ACTIVITIES IN MOSOUES 

It is considered reprehensible to do any job in the mosque, such as tailoring and 
similar works. None should wash his hands in a mosque or eat in it, except for 
snacks or something similar. A man must not clip his moustache in it nor pare his 
nails. But if he should clip his moustache or pare his nails let him do that over his 
clothes. He must not kill a mouse nor a bedbug. A dispensation is given in 
respect of strangers to sleep in a village mosque. 



43.13 RECITING THE OUR'AN 

It is not fitting for a man to recite tiie Our'an in a public bath, with the exception of 
short verses. Even that should not be overdone. 

A rider and someone lying down or walking from one village to another is 
permitted to recite the Our'an. But it is considered reprehensible for a man on his 
way to a market place to do that. However it is said that a learner is permitted to 
do that. It is considered meritorious for a person to recite the whole of the Our'an 
within seven days, but it is considered better to recite in small portions which 
permits the reader to understand what he recites. 

It is reported that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) never recited the Our'an in a period 
shorter than three days. 

43.14 AT PRAYER AT THE BEGINNING OF A JOURNEY 

It is considered meritorious for a rider to recite, when he is about to mount this 
beast, "In the name of God, O God You are my companion upon his journey and 
at the same time the person I leave behind to look after my family. O God I take 
refuge in You from the fatigue of this journey; I also take refuge in You from any 
possible disappointment, and the witnessing of detestable scenes in my family or 
my property". 

43.15 A PRAYER AFTER MOUNTING AN ANIMAL 

Moreover a rider says this prayer upon mounting his beast securely, "Glory be to 
Him who made this obedient to us, while in the past we were not able to control 
it. And surely we shall be going back to our Lord". 

43.16 FOREIGNTRADE 

It is reprehensible to go on a trading expedition to the land of enemies of Islam; it 
is also reprehensible to go to the land of non-Muslims. The Prophet - peace be 
upon him - is reported to have said that travelling is a portion of chastisement. It 
is not proper for a woman to travel unaccompanied by a male relative so closely 
related that marriage between them is prohibited. The prohibition is when the 
journey can take a day and a night or longer. However, Malik makes an 
exception in the case of obligatory pilgrimage, or when she is in a company of 
people of integrity, even if not in the company of a close male relative. 



CHAPTER 44: A Chapter of Treatment, a mention of 
incantation, the evil eye, astrology, castration, 
tattoo, mention of dogs and leniency to slaves 

44.01 CHARMS AND MEDICAL TREATMENT 

There is no harm in seeking a spell to cure the evil eye and similar things. Also, 
there is nothing wrong in the use of charms, or the use of medicine in the 
treatment of diseases, or the taking of drugs; blood- letting, cauterizing and 
cupping are all good treatments. The application of antimony to the eye for men 
is permissible when done for medical purposes. For women, however, it is part of 
make-up. Nothing alcoholic, or ritually impure, or a dead body or something God 
Most High has prohibited can be used for medicinal purposes. There is no harm 
in cauterization or using the verses of the Our'an or decent speech for cure of 
disease. There is no harm in wearing a charm which contains verses of the Holy 
Our'an. 

If a plague should occur in a land, nobody should come to it, nor should the 
inhabitants flee from it. 

44.02 PORTENTS 

The Prophet - peace be upon him - said, on account of evil omens, "If they exist 
at all, then it must be in the persons of woman, a horse and a house". The 
Prophet - peace be upon him - detested unpleasant names and used to 
encourage optimism. 

44.03 CURING EFFECT OF EVIL EYE 

The cure for a person upon whom a spell has been cast is an follows: the man 
who cast the spell shall wash his face, his hands, his elbows, his knees, the side 
of his feet and the inside of his wrapper in a bowl and this is then poured upon 
the person upon whom the spell has been cast. 

44.04 STARS 

Nobody should look at the stars except for seeking guidance to the 'Oiblah' and 
the hour of the night. Any other purpose than this should be avoided. 

44.05 DOGS 

Dogs are not to be kept in houses, whether in sedentary or in nomadic life, 
except dogs that can guard a farm or accompany flocks of sheep and goats in 
the desert and then bring them home in the evening. A man is also permitted to 
keep a dog to hunt for him if he lives by hunting. He can not keep a dog for mere 
sport. 



44.06 CASTRATION 

There is no harm in castrating he-goats and rams, for this has the advantage of 
producing better mutton. Castration in respect of horses is prohibited. 

44.07 TATTOOING ANIMALS 

It is reprehensible to make tattoos on the face, but there is no harm in making 
them on any other part of the body. 

44.08 KINDNESS TO SLAVES 

A slave is to be treated leniently, and no work shall be imposed upon him which 
he cannot cope with. 



CHAPTER 44: A Chapter of Treatment, a mention of 
incantation, the evil eye, astrology, castration, 
tattoo, mention of dogs and leniency to slaves 

44.01 CHARMS AND MEDICAL TREATMENT 

There is no harm in seeking a spell to cure the evil eye and similar things. Also, 
there is nothing wrong in the use of charms, or the use of medicine in the 
treatment of diseases, or the taking of drugs; blood- letting, cauterizing and 
cupping are all good treatments. The application of antimony to the eye for men 
is permissible when done for medical purposes. For women, however, it is part of 
make-up. Nothing alcoholic, or ritually impure, or a dead body or something God 
Most High has prohibited can be used for medicinal purposes. There is no harm 
in cauterization or using the verses of the Our'an or decent speech for cure of 
disease. There is no harm in wearing a charm which contains verses of the Holy 
Our'an. 

If a plague should occur in a land, nobody should come to it, nor should the 
inhabitants flee from it. 

44.02 PORTENTS 

The Prophet - peace be upon him - said, on account of evil omens, "If they exist 
at all, then it must be in the persons of woman, a horse and a house". The 
Prophet - peace be upon him - detested unpleasant names and used to 
encourage optimism. 

44.03 CURING EFFECT OF EVIL EYE 

The cure for a person upon whom a spell has been cast is an follows: the man 
who cast the spell shall wash his face, his hands, his elbows, his knees, the side 
of his feet and the inside of his wrapper in a bowl and this is then poured upon 
the person upon whom the spell has been cast. 

44.04 STARS 

Nobody should look at the stars except for seeking guidance to the 'Oiblah' and 
the hour of the night. Any other purpose than this should be avoided. 

44.05 DOGS 

Dogs are not to be kept in houses, whether in sedentary or in nomadic life, 
except dogs that can guard a farm or accompany flocks of sheep and goats in 
the desert and then bring them home in the evening. A man is also permitted to 
keep a dog to hunt for him if he lives by hunting. He can not keep a dog for mere 
sport. 



44.06 CASTRATION 

There is no harm in castrating he-goats and rams, for this has the advantage of 
producing better mutton. Castration in respect of horses is prohibited. 

44.07 TATTOOING ANIMALS 

It is reprehensible to make tattoos on the face, but there is no harm in making 
them on any other part of the body. 

44.08 KINDNESS TO SLAVES 

A slave is to be treated leniently, and no work shall be imposed upon him which 
he cannot cope with. 



CHAPTER 45: A Chapter on dreams, yawning, 
sneezing, chess horse-racing, shooting and such 

other things. 

45.01 DREAMS (RU'YA) 

The Prophet - peace and blessing of God be upon him - said, "A good dream 
coming from a pious man is one forty-sixth fraction of Prophethood. If one of you 
should see in his dream what he dislikes, let him spit three times on his left when 
he wakes up and say, "O God, verily, I take refuge in You from the evil of what I 
saw in my dream, lest it should harm me in my religion and my worldly affairs". 

45.02 YAWNING AND SNEEZING 

If one yawns, let him place his hand over his mouth. And if one sneezes, let him 
say, "Praise be to God". And it is the duty of those who hear him praising God to 
say to him, "May Allah have mercy on you". The person who sneezes then says 
in reply, "May Allah forgive us and you". Or he should say, "May Allah guide you 
and increase you in excellence". 

45.03 GAMES AND BETTING 

It is not permissible to play backgammon or chess. But there is no harm in saying 
"Peace be upon you" when you come upon those playing the games. It is 
considered reprehensible to sit and watch those playing these games. 

However there is no harm in horse or camel-racing or in a shooting competition. 
If the participants should fix a prize for the winner, that shall be lawful. The 
person who offered the prize shall take it away if he wins the race, but if 
someone else wins the race then the winner takes the prize. That is the view of 
Ibn al-Musayyib. But Malik was of the view that it is lawful for a competitor to set 
a prize and if someone other than the man who set the prize wins the race he 
takes it. But if the person who set the prize wins, the prize is given to the 
spectators. 

45.04 KILLING SNAKES AND OTHER ANIMALS 

A tradition has been reported in respect of snakes which appeared in Medina, 
that such snakes are requested to leave three times. It is also good if such a 
request is made to snakes elsewhere. However, snakes appearing in the bush 
should be killed immediately and no requests are made to them. It is 
reprehensible to destroy lice and bedbugs by throwing them in fire. But there is 
no harm in killing ants when they are harmful and cannot be tolerated, but 
sparing them is preferable to us. A gecko should be killed, but it is reprehensible 
to kill frogs. 

45.05 AGAINST PRIDE IN ANCESTORS 



The Prophet - peace and blessing of God be upon him - has said, "Verily God 
has expelled from you the folly of pre-lslamic time, and taking pride in ancestors. 
Whether a man happens to be a pious believer or a dissolute scoundrel, you are 
all from Adam and Adam is created of dust". 

The Prophet - peace be upon him - said to a man who learned people's 
genealogy, "That is a knowledge which has no benefit; the ignorance of it does 
no harm". Umar (ibn al-Khattab) said, "Know enough of your genealogy to enable 
you to discharge your duties of your relations". Malik (ibn Anas) said he detested 
going back in genealogy beyond the Islamic period. 

45.06 DREAMS 

A good dream is one forty-sixth fraction of prophethood. And if a person should 
see in his dream something he detests, let him spit three times on his left and 
take refuge from the evil of what he saw. It is not proper for a person who has no 
knowledge of dreams to interpret them. A man must not interpret his dream to 
mean something advantageous to him, while in fact he dislikes it. 

45.07 POETRY 

There is no harm in reciting poetry in a singsong manner, and when a Muslim 
comes to choose poetry let him choose the light-hearted type. But even in this, a 
person is not expected to read too much of it, to the extent that it becomes a 
calling for him. 

45.08 RELIGIOUS LEARNING 

The best of education and the most virtuous and closest to God Most High, is the 
knowledge of His religion and His law, which teaches His commandments and 
His prohibitions; and besides, those rules which He called upon people to accept 
and encouraged obedience to them in His Book, through the tongue of His 
Messenger. Also, the best of knowledge includes a knowledge of His Book, 
understanding it and being alert in preserving it and applying the knowledge thus 
gained. 

Besides, learning is the best act of worship. And the closest to God of learned 
men and most acceptable to Him is one who fears Him most and hopes to get 
that which is in God's possession. Learning is the means through which 
prosperity is attained. It also leads to it. 

Taking refuge in the Book of God - Mighty and Exalted be He - the sunnah of the 
Prophet and following the path of pious men as well as the paths of the best of 
generations created from amongst men, are all paths to success. Security 
consists of taking refuge in that. Again, following the path of early pious Muslims 
leads to success also. They are the models upon whom we should base our 
lives. They are the leaders in interpreting that which they interpreted. They are 
also to be emulated in evolving rules and regulations to govern the lives of 



Muslims. Although they differ, their differences do not carry them away from 
coming to agreement. 

Praise be to god who guided us to produce this. We would not have gone 
straight, but for His guidance. 

Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Zaid said: 

"We have now brought those things which we stipulated to bring in this book of 
ours. They consist of those things which its reader will find useful, especially 
children. Adults who need it will also find it useful. Besides, one can find in it 
those things which will enlighten an ignorant person, with respect to those things 
he is to believe in as a Muslim, and with respect to one's duties as a Muslim. The 
book also enlightens much about sources of Islamic jurisprudence and its 
branches. It also enlightens about the Sunnah of the Prophet - P.B.U.H. - works 
of supererogation and of an ethical nature". 

"I pray God - Mighty and Exalted be He - to enable us and you to benefit by those 
things He taught us, and help us and you to serve Him and perform the duties He 
allotted to us. There is no power and might save in Allah, the Exalted and the 
Mighty. May Allah bless our Leader Muhammad, His Prophet, and bless his 
family, and his companions and give them much peace".